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ed in the persons of Brutus and Col-, be drawn, as they regard the solution latinus.

of the query proposed. Tarquin, restless in his exile, and It will be seen, then, from the forestill grasping at regal supremacy, going brief narrative, that as the proused every means within the powers jects of Brutus were founded upon the of ingenuity and deception, to ingra- most undoubted equity, it was essentiate himself in the affections of his tially necessary that the execution of people; but Brutus, knowing how to them should proceed upon the same appreciate tyranny in disguise, and solid basis. It was impossible to defeeling the value of remaining firmly vise the means, and look at the end, attached to the standard of liberty, of the grand object which was sought, which he bad planted, and the vast without a reciprocal principle of acimportance of the solemn oath which tion to govern both. To have acted he had voluntarily made before the otherwise, would have been to endangods, nobly and determinately refused ger, if not entirely to subvert, that to listen to his entreaties. This rejec- change of circumstances, which Brution of all terms,was but the signal for tus had nobly designed to consummate. fresh device and treachery. The am- He had risked his life and the liberty bassadors of the deposed king, under of Rome, in throwing off the idiot's pretence of taking care of his effects, garb; and it was only by the most incorrupted two of the best families in flexible justice, that these were to be Rome; that of the Aquilii, in which maintained. In the due discharge of were three senators; and the Vitelli, his consular duties, he had equal and among whom were two senators. The indiscriminite justice to administer latter being intimately acquainted unto all parties, regardless of private with Titus and Valerius,* the two worth, domestic affection, or kindred sons of Brutus,t (and who had just alliances ; and without the most rigid arrived at years of maturity) persuad- observance of which, the very pillars ed them to engage in a conspiracy to of his government would have been murder both Brutus and Collatinus, undermined by the same hands which and to re-establish the banished family had reared them. Titus and Valerius of Tarquin; which was ratified by an had been guilty of no small crime, in oath in «

drinking together of the conspiring to take away the life of blood, and tasting the entrails, of a their father and of Collatinus,-to reman sacrificed for that purpose.” call the exiled house of Tarquin,--to The plot was discovered by a slave, wrest from Rome that liberty, which named Vindicius, who communicated their father had proudly won; and to it without delay. They were arraigned plunge it into all its former tyranny in the Forum before the senators ; the and barbarity. Their conspiracy was evidence was adduced ; and Brutus, besides, considerably aggravated by calling upon his two sons by name, sealing it in drinking of human blood, demanded of them to make their de- and tasting of human entrails, sacrifence. The question was repeated ficed for the express occasion, to show three times, and no answer being their utter detestation and abhorrence returned, he pointed to the lictors, against their father and his measures. and said,

"Yours is the part that re- Filial sympathy had no place within mains.The punishment was imme- their bosoms, for nature, with all her diately inflicted, and when the awful generous sentiments, bad resigned ceremony was concluded by their her throne. The tears of repentance being extended on the ground, and never glistened, or Pity might have their heads cut off with the axe, Bru- offered a silent but fervent ejaculation, tus departed, and left the remainder and Mercy have responsed the plainto his colleague, Such are the circum- tive echo. stances attending a most remarkable It cannot possibly be supposed, era in the Roman history; and from that, had even Brutas been but a priwhich the necessary deductions must vate citizen, and the plot laid against

him as an individual, by his two sons, Langhorne says, that the name of the he would be accused of want of husecond son of Brutus was not Valerius, bat manity in delivering them up to the Tiberius.

+ Deoringsus and Livý mention only two, just tribunal, to receive the punishbat Platarch and Cicero say that Brutus bad ment which they deserved. All the

glowing feelings and affections which





are entwined around the heart of the nuine patriotism never equalled, and parent, must, in a great measure, be which never forsook him, sacrificed suspended, when his life is eagerly his private feelings for the public sought by any of his children. The weal. The tender emotions of conanxious eye, -the trickling tear,—the sanguinity, he knew were but tranfond embrace,-the beating heart, sient; while the establishment of the and all the tender emotions of parental commonwealth would, in all probalove, must cease to vibrate, when bility, prove both perpetual and proschild shoots the arrow of malignity at perous. It was Brutus alone that dethe heart-strings of his father. But vised the noble plan, of rescuing Brutus had not only the feelings of a Rome from tyranny and disgrace; and parent to contend against; but the it was Brutus alone, acting upon the high office of Consul demanded of him most inflexible justice, that achieved the most rigorous discharge of his the victory, and removed the galling duty. Upon the disposal of these yoke. conspirators depended the future des

Your's, respectfully, tinies of Rome. Had Titus and Vale

T. W. rius received any punishment short of Blackfriars-Road, Jan. 17, 1822. that which was inflicted, their fellow conspirators must have received the *** An answer, similar in principle, same mitigation ; by which means the has been received from W. S. of very decree which the senate had Hoxton. made, making it capital for any person to seek the return of the Tarquin family to the throne, would have been abrogated; the solemn oath which

CHRISTIANITY, FROM Brutus had made before the gods FIRST PREACHING OF THE GOSPEL, would have been violated; the com- TO THE PRESENT TIME. monwealth would have been destroyed; the Roman decree which had been The universal diffusion of divine enacted, banishing Tarquin. and his truth, is an event which every pious family from Rome for ever, would have mind must ardently desire, and which been cancelled; and the iron grasp of the prophecies of the holy scriptures cruelty and tyranny would have been clearly predict. Prior to the advent spread throughout the land, in more of the Messiah, the knowledge of the than pristine vigour. Rome hung true God was restricted almost entirely suspended as it were between hope to the Jews, to whom were committed and alarm,-between the feelings of the sacred oracles; but when the fulthe parent, and the duties of the con- ness of time was come, and the Sasul. The laws provided no exemption viour of the world had “ appeared, to for partiality, and justice cried aloud, put away sin by the sacrifice of bimand asserted her paramount claim. self,” the Gospel, the glad tidings of A long train of evils in quick succes- redemption, was commanded to be sion must have followed the commu- proclaimed to every nation, and kintation of the sentence of death ; for dred, and people, and tongue : Go, with it was indissolubly conjoined the ye, into all the world,” said Jesus to re-establishment of the house of Tar- his apostles, “and preach the gospel quin.

to every creature.”—This gracious However agonizing the feelings of command, apostolic benevolence enBrutus as a parent might have been deavoured to accomplish, and the exto condemn his own sons to death; le tensive travels, and unparalleled had a more important office to fulfil in labours of these holy men, bespeak providing a safeguard for the future the zeal, and ardour, and power, and happiness and liberty of Rome. He, grace, with which they were endued who could watch over the destinies of from on high. Their successors enteran empire, and permit kindred sensi- ed into their labours, and when they bilities to have a greater claim upon steadily followed their example, were his regard than the official and nation- successful, for the great Head of the al responsibilities with which he was church had promised to be with his invested, would have been but little ministers to the latest period; for calculated to fill so arduous and trying " Lo !” said he, “ I am with you even a situation. But Brutus, with a ge- to the end of the world.”

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But, unhappily, all who have been probable to the understanding of the “called Israel, bave not been of unbiassed reader. Israel," and the Christian church has The difficulty of obtaining complete experienced revolutions and vicissi- evidence on the progress and extent tudes, various in their causes, and of the dissemination of gospel truth, is extensive in their influence. At some great beyond what is generally supperiods, worldly splendour has sur- posed, whilst that very difficulty renrot ed certain parts of the Christian ders every document of more importchurch, and at others the gloom of ance, and of more decisive weight in ignorance and superstition, and per- the scale of inquiry. Most of the secution, has enveloped numbers of ecclesiastical histories, written prior its nominal members. Yet, amid all to the Reformation, are either partial the changes which have occurred, or defective, or both. Nearly the pare Christianity has continued, either whole of those with which we secretly or publicly, to diffuse its be- acquainted, were written by members nign influence in the world, and, like of the Romish or Greek churches, who the leaven in the gospel, to leaven consequently extol and defend their some portion or other of the general own respective communions, and en

deavour to sink into disrepute and It is not, however, easy to ascertain contempt, all who differ from them ; whether true Christianity has been in many instances this is remarkably gradually extending its blessings ever the case ; and no pains are spared to since its first promulgation; or, whe- vilify and misrepresent those who opther it has not sometimes been so con- pose them, or do not submit to their trolled by corruption and persecution, authority. Few, if any, of these his. as to have greatly fluctuated, so that tories detail the spread of vital godliat one period the progress of Christi- ness among mankind.

Hence they anity has been vigorous, and at an- are rather records of disputes, and other feeble ; at one time the number speculations, and worldly occurrenof its members great, and at a subse- ces, than histories of the progress of quent period comparatively few. The true religion, and its influence upon latter is the opinion most generally the heart and conduct; they must, maintained ; but an investigation of therefore, be necessarily defective in the subject may probably lead us, if enabling us to estimate how far the not absolutely to adopt, at least to word of God ran and was gloriconsider the former as not without ar-fied. gument in its favour.

The paucity of any thing like histoIn attempting a vindication of the rical record,derived from the churches progressive influence of Christianity, which differed from those of Rome the writer must solicit the candour of and Constantinople ; forms a serious his readers on a subject seldom, if obstacle to the full discussion of a ever, previously before the public; subject like the present. This defiand he deems it necessary to premise, ciency has arisen from various causes. that vital Christianity, and not any -Persecuted by those possessed of particular mode of it, is the object of secular authority, many societies rehis inquiry; be will, therefore, consi- tired from public observation, and sider himself at liberty to regard its were too disadvantageously circumexistence as important, whether dis- stanced to collect, arrange, trancovered among societies or churches scribe, and defend, authentic docusupported by the state, or unprotected ments, relative to their origin, proby political aathority; whether among gress, and history; for worldly gransocieties pronounced orthodox, or ca- deur, and extensive power, form no lumniated as heretical. Pure experi- proof of an equal influence of piety mental and practical religion, wher- and grace. ever found, will be designated as the This want of historical proof has Christianity he seeks. He is not, been greatly increased also by the however, so sanguine as to suppose nefarious policy of the Romish, if not that bis hypothesis can be established the Greek church, in destroying or beyond contradiction; he is too well altering the records of other churches, aware of the difficulty of obtaining as in the case of the church of Maladirect evidence on the subject, to bar, by Archbishop Alexis ; and proexpect to do more than render it hibiting the reading or use of such No. 38.-VOL, IV.



works as were supposed to be favour- / who were at different periods conable to any party deemed heterodox demned by the Church of Rome, were or inimical, even if written by Roman far from being the characters depicted Catholic writers, of which the decrees by their adversaries. of the Inquisition and the Indices Li- From this view, we venture to asbrorum Prohibitorum, &c. are suffi- sume the position, that if we possesscient proofs.

ed true and complete histories of the These facts render it probable, that, societies of Christians, deemed hetehad we compiete histories of the rodox by churches possessing greater churches differing from the views of splendour and secular power, the Romish and Greek hierarchies, we should probably find, that when relishould find the most interesting de- gion was at a low ebb among those tails of the progress of the gospel, and who had formerly been zealous in its its blessed effects in the world; espe- cause, it was extending its gracious cially, as even from the representa- influence among churches of less note tions of their enemies, we may occa- and worldly pomp. And it is worthy sionally glean facts highly creditable of recollection, that, although La to their practice and piety.

Croze and Geddes had written on the Reinerius, an Inquisitor in the 13th Syrian Churches in India, comparacentury, acknowledges that be heard tively little was known of their ima Waldensian peasant recite the book mense numbers, though existing from of Job by heart, and that there were the ad century, until the time of the others among them who could perfect- late Dr. Buchanan's publication of his ly repeat the whole New Testament: “ Christian Researches ;” and that and the celebrated Thuanus, a Roman almost the only account we have of Catholic, in the 17th century, de- the origin and rapid spread of the scribes the Waldenses inhabiting one Paulicians, is from the relation of of the Valleys in Dauphiny, as poor, Petrus Siculus, a bigoted enemy, but content; and adds, “ One thing is and that only from a bald Latin transastonishing, that persons externally lation, no copy existing of the Greek so savage and rude, should have so original. much moral cultivation. They can all The principal objections urged read and write. They understand against the writer's view of the proFrench so far as is needful for the un- gress of the gospel, are: derstanding of the Bible, and the 1. The number of Christian consinging of psalms. You can scarcely verts during the early ages of Christifind a boy among them who cannot anity. give you an intelligible account of the 2. The supposed extermination of faith which they profess.” Egbert, a the Christian Religion, by Dioclemonk, says of the Cathari or Puritans sian. of the 13th century, that he had often 3. The depressed and corrupted disputed with them. “ They are arm- state of Christianity during the middle ed,” says he, “with all those passa- ages. ges of scripture, which in any degree To the first of these objections, it is favour their views.” And Æneas Syl- replied, that great allowances must vius, afterwards Pope Pius II. speak- be made for the hyperbolical and deing of the Bohemians or Taborites, in clamatory styles adopted by most of the 15th century, observes, “ That it the early Christian writers, and for was a shame to the Italian priests, the association of modern ideas with that many of them had never read the ancient terms: thus the countries whole of the New Testament, whilst composing the dominions of the Emscarcely a woman could be found perors of Rome were designated as among the Bohemians who could not " the world,” notwithstanding there answer any questions respecting either were other governments of vast extent the Old or New Testament. And and immense population. Societies let any unprejudiced person only read of Christians

denominated Milner's History of the Church of “Churches,” though so inconsiderable Christ; Crantz' History of the Bre- as to assemble in the houses of private thren; and Hughes' Hore Britannica, individuals ; and every pastor, howVol. 2, and he will meet with suffi- ever small his flock, was dignified with cient evidence to convince him, that the title of “ Bishop.” many of those societies of Christians On the second objection, it may be “ shining


sufficient to remark, that the monu- were endeavouring quietly to serve ment discovered in Spain, bearing an God in simplicity and godly sincerity, inscription, which testified that it had prized and loved by him alone.' been erected in memory of the extir- On a subject so interesting as that pation of Christianity by Dioclesian, of the diffusion of evangelical truth, rather marked the hope of the perse- full and indubitable evidence would cators of the Christians, than express- be cheering ; but from some of the ed a well-established fact; for al- preceding remarks it may be seen, though it is probable that many who that almost insuperable obstacles have were Christians only in profession been thrown in the way of complete would apostatize during the storm historical demonstration. Still, if the raised by Pagan cruelty ; and that evidence discovered be sufficient to others would retire as much as possi- preponderate the mind, it will be ble from public observation, still it is pleasing to contemplate the gospel certain that the defalcation, even in like the path of the just the Roman empire, could not have more and more unto the perfect been what some have supposed, other day.” wise the circumstances under which The sketch offered in the present Constantine assumed the purple, and instance, is intended to invite others the support which is said to have been to a patient investigation of the subafforded him by the Christians, must ject; and if the hints which have been be destitute of all probability. suggested, induce any of the readers of

The third objection, is allowed to the Imperial Magazine to favour the have considerable weight as it regards public with a more elaborate essay particular churches or denominations on the extending influences of the of Christians; but certainly it does not gospel, your present correspondent apply to Christianity in general, since will be highly gratified, and he conit will be found that whilst religion ceives an essential service will be decayed in some places and among rendered to the cause of Sacred some societies, it flourished and in- Truth. creased in others. It is also certain,

J. T. that many of the churches deemed heretical, and vilified and misrepresented, by the writers of the Greek MEMOIR OF THE LIFE OF THE RET. and Romish communions, possessed CLAUDIUS BUCHANAN, D. D. a spirit of true piety and devotion; and that some of them, at least, were

(Continued from col. 163.) of great extent, and embraced within their respective pales, vast numbers Mr. Buchanan, on his arrival at of Christian converts, as the Syrian Bengal, was hospitably received by church in India, the Paulicians, who the Řev. Mr. Brown, to whom he had flourished in the 9th, and several suc- brought a letter of recommendation. ceeding centuries; the early British In the family of this gentleman he reehurches, prior to the mission of sided for a short time. He then took Augustine; the Waldenses of the 13th a house in Durrumlollah, where he and succeeding centuries ; the Lol- continued about two months, at the lards of England ; the Hugonots of termination of which, he was appointFrance; the Hussites of Bohemia, ed chaplain at Barrackpore, a mili&c. &c.

tary station, about sixteen miles from • It is likewise deserving of remark, Calcutta. that at the worst periods of corruption On reaching this place, he by no in the church of Rome, there were means found it such as he had anticithose who nobly endeavoured to stem pated. It possessed no place for pubthe torrent, and who boldly inveighed lic worship, and by the military staff against the manners of the age, among to which he was attached, public worwhom may be enumerated, Venerable ship was never required. This unexBede in the 8th, Claude of Turin in pected privation, accompanied with a the 9th, Bernard in the 12th, Gros- seclusion from society congenial with seteste in the 13th, and Wickliff in the his taste and mental feelings, and com14th centuries; to whom may doubtless bining with the enervating influence be added a cloud of witnesses, who, of the climate, brought on him a conscattered, unobtrusive, and obscure, siderable depression of spirits. Un

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