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On Balloons.



tion, by furnishing a supply of heated

air, in the room of that which is graMr. EDITOR.

dually condensed by cooling. It is SIR,-If you think the following plain ascertained from experiment, that the and easy observations on Air Balloons rarity of the air in these machines deworthy a place in your excellent Ma- pends solely on its heat, and its progazine, they are at your service. perty of cooling slowly. This Balloon I remain, your's, &c. is raised or lowered, while in the J.K -M. atmosphere, by increasing or diminish

ing the fire. The Air Balloon is of two kinds; the Small Balloons, of thin paper, raisone intended to contain heated air, ed on this principle by the flame of a the other inflammable. Hot air oc- sponge, or ball of cotton, dipped in cupies more space when colder; and spirits of wine, have been exhibited inflammable is much lighter at a given in every part of Europe. temperature, than the common air of The Hydrogen Gas Balloon is prethe atmosphere. From this, it follows ferable to the other, in the present that any mass of either heated or in- early state of our knowledge. It is flammable air, if at liberty, will ascend usually formed of thin silk varnished in the atmosphere with a force of over. When filled with gas, its tube buoyancy equal to the difference be- of communication is usually closed, tween its own weight, and the weight so that the air cannot escape. The of an equal bulk of common air. If adventurers are placed in a car, or the heated or inflammable air be in small vessel, attached to the Balloon cluded in a bag, and the weight of the by strings, proceeding from a net bag be less than the difference just which covers its upper part. They mentioned, the bag will be carried carry bags of sand with them to serve upwards, though with a less degree as ballast, and the end of the tube of of force, namely, with a force equal to communication, as well as a string, the difference lessened to the weight that by pulling, may open a valve in of the bag. This is commonly called the top of the Balloon, are continued an Air Balloon; which, though its down into the car ; by these means figure is not essential to its property they have, for a limited time, the of ascending, we will suppose to be a power of ascending or descending at globe. If the magnitude of a Balloon pleasure: for the power of ascension be increased, its power of ascension, is increased by emptying one or more or the difference between the weight sand bags, or diminished by suffering of the included air, and an equal bulk the gas to escape, either by the tube .of common air, will be augmented in or through the valve. It may be obthe same proportion. For its thick- served, that the Hydrogen Gas, on ness being supposed the same, it is account of its great lightness, will not as the surface it covers, or only as the descend through the tube of commusquare of the diameters. This is the nication, unless, either by its own reason why Balloons cannot be made expansion from heat, or by the dimito ascend, if under a given magnitude, nished pressure of the atmosphere at with cloth or materials of the same great heights, it is made to escape thickness.

while the balloon is fully inflated; but The first Balloon which was invent- it will issue from the upper valve ed, was as follows,-it consisted of an when open. immense bag of canvass, painted with The Hydrogen Gas produced in the a composition that might lessen its sus- large way, by the effusion of diluted ceptibility to take fire. A net covers sulphuric acid on iron shavings, is the upper part of its surface, from rather less than one-fifth of the weight which proceed ropes, that sustain a of an equal bulk of atmospherical gallery, to carry the adventurers and air. fuel. The lower part affixed to the It is es mated that a cubic inch of gallery, and open to receive the iron, gives a cubic foot of Hydrogen streams of heated and rarefied air, Gas; and the strong sulphuric acid, produced by means of fire, made in a sold in London, requires to be diluted proper apparatus in the ground; and by five times its bulk of water for this the attached grate serves only to main-experiment. tain the requisite degree of rarefac

(To be continucd.)



no more.

they produce ? Miniature or portrait painting can only be considered of

real domestic valuo; landscape paintMR. EDITOR.

ing is only pleasing and captivating SIR,-It has long been a question with to the eye, for a moment; and histome, whether the Painter or the Poet rical painting, I apprehend, is the contributes more to mental improve-only species of this fine art which is ment; or, in other words, to civiliza- calculated to be of solid and essential tion; and it is, therefore, the object service to the mind. What general of the present Essay, to endeavour, advantage, I ask, can arise from the briefly, to solve it. It is not my in- most correct likeness of an individual tention to enter into an elaborate com- whom we never saw, however well parison of these two branches, but executed upon the canvass, and howsimply to glance at their separate me- ever highly prized in the domestic cirrits, trusting that I may be the means cle in which the individual is known? of stimulating others, who are better -As it regards landscape painting, calculated for the task, to take a more

what intellectual benefit can possibly comprehensive view.

accrue from the most acourate delineThe roads which lead to immortal- ation of any given spot? Let the ize the name of the Poet and the mountain and the valley, the trees, Painter, are steep and rugged; and the shrubs, the water, the meadows, none can reach the summit, upon and the cottages, be ever so precisely which the temple of fame is erected, drawn, and where is the augmentation without possessing a mind of more of mental good? And yet these are than ordinary perseverance, and sus- the two departments in which most ceptible of removing almost insur- painters are engaged. They charm mountable difficulties. These roads, and please the eye, they show the exalas! are forbidden ground to me. Iquisite workmanship of the Painters, never dared either to tread their slip- which call forth most deservedly our pery paths, or to enter upon their esteem and admiration; but they do trackless fields. I never dared to

We look,

-We gaze, -We plant in those soils, where so many applaud ;--no solid impression is choice and valuable flowers have made ; and it vanishes away from our bloomed in all the verdure and spring recollections, like the twinkling starry of youthful and vigorous genius, but firmament before the morning sun. which, as they were ripening to ma- Historical and scriptural painting, turity, and at no distant day destined which I consider as the best of the to impart their fragrant odours to all three that I have named, is, I lament around, bave been nipped in the bud, to say, but little cultivated. A knowand blasted in the stem, by the cold ledge of history and scripture are indisand cruel hand of inhuman criticism. pensable branches of modern educa. Instead of cherishing the young and tion, and cannot be too deeply imtender plants, and rearing them to pressed on the mind; and where the beauty and to usefulness, the critics plain perusal of the facts themselves of the day, (in whose hands the sove- does not produce a sufficient comprereign sceptre sways,)are too apt to dip hension, or strike the mind with suittheir pens in gall, and destroy them, able effect, the aid of the Painter may as in a fiend-like rage, I dare, only, frequently be called in to accomplish thus attempt to glean a little from the these two desirable ends. Wherever borders of these magnificent and en- we see historical or scriptural facts chanting gardens, and leave the fruits faithfully pourtrayed upon the canof the interior to be plucked by vass; there we read its language in those who are privileged to enter living colours. Every circumstance there.

connected with these facts immediThe Painter has the whole expanse ately and spontaneously occurs to our of nature's creation for the display of remembrance; and serves all the purhis pencil, in all her varied features. poses of re-perusing these books, in Miniature or portrait painting, land- which those facts are recorded. Too scape painting, and historical paint much labour, too much study, too ing, are so many fields for the versa- much time, and too much expense, tility of his genius. But the question are absorbed here, ever to call forth is, What improvement to the mind do many labourers into this most inte


The Painter and the Poet contrasted.


resting and important service. A where sun, and moon, and stars, and whole life must be spent in the most worlds unnumbered, revolve in all sedentary application, before any art their separate orbits in one grand and ist, who employs himself in this most harmonious perfect unity of concord. useful department, can expect to reach Nor is the line of demarcation here ! an eminency, or to mature his produc- No, he shoots still higher, and, darttions to perfection. He must correct- ing athwart the azure sky, dares prely comprehend the anatomical struc-sume to draw aside the veil which ture of the human body, as well as of obscures immortality, and enters upon the brute creation, and which, of the boundless world of the unconitself, is not the study of a day. Every trolled and uncircumscribed limits of muscle and every nerve must be accu- vast infinity; where the First Great rately delineated; and every figure on Moving Cause, the Parent of the Unithe canvass must bear an exact pro- verse, and angels, and archangels, portion, or harmony of parts, so as to and seraphs, dwell. The materials form the symmetry of the whole. It which he uses are solid and substanis not every day that we can expect to tial, not calculated, like the Painters, see a West's “ Christ rejected,”-a to please the eye only, but to expand West's “Death on a Pale Horse,' the mind, and moralize the life. The a West's “Stephen stoned to Death,” advantages which are de ved from -or a Haydon's "Christ's Agony in the Poet's labours are not confined to the Garden."

.” No! These are the pro- the time, or to the generation, in ductions of time, these are the fruits which the Poet lives; but, while the of perfcction.

glass of time shall run, succeeding The variegated rainbows, the show- ages will partake of their salutary iners, and mists, and halos, and large fluence. beams shooting through rifted clouds, The immortal treasures of the sages and storms, and lightning, and star- of antiquity are laid up in store by the light, all the most valued materials of real Poet, and are judiciously scatthe real painter, are all brought in tered over his compositions, for the turn upon the canvass, in historical improvement of the minds of others. and scriptural painting; and though, I have stated that the Painter must as I have already stated, it is the comprehend the anatomical structure most refined and the most important of the human body; and so must the species of painting ; so, unfortunately, Poet; and not only so, but likewise it is the most neglected. But after equally well understand the organizaall that may be said, after all the ob- tion of the mind. Nature leads the stacles which the Painter has to en- Painter by the hand all along his jourcounter, he still has nature's model ney; but she goes with the Poet a for his guide; and has, as it were, comparatively little way.

His own only to travel in the steps which are acquired abilities must lead him on pointed out for him. It will not then, to the path of Fame; and if his judgI think, be very difficult to demon- ment misleads him in any prominent strate, that the Poet confers greater degree, he stumbles on the road (no benefits on mankind than the Painter; beacon being there to guide him on inasmuch as the productions of his his dreary journey) and seldom reaches pen are, by far, of the more intrinsic the goal of his ambition. value.

But after all that I have said in this I stated that the Painter has the imperfect view of the effects of Poetry, whole expanse of nature's creation for the question will naturally recur, the displays of his pencil; but has “ What is Poetry ?” I answer for mynot the Poet the same latitude allowed self generally, that it does not consist to him? Yes! He roams not only exclusively in the jingling of the through the world of nature, but also rhyme, or the precise number of feet through the world of intellect. He is in the line ; but it is the smooth, and not bounded by facts as they appear gliding, and harmonious arrangement to the artist, but ranges through the of thought and language, calculated wide extent of reason and imagination. to impress our noblest faculties with He is not even confined by the bar- pleasure and with instruction. I know riers of this narrow and terrostrial of no definite and invariable standard globe ; but his muse impels him to for poetry; for what is considered dart upwards, and soar' to regions poetry with one, is not with another.


All depends upon our diversified opi- see imbedded in hills of chalk, and in nions ; for

masses of freestone, limestone, and Tis with our judgments as our watches, none

marble, the remains of almost all deGo just alike, yet each believes his own.” scriptions of bodies; and full as freIf we look into the sacred Book of ture and texture are most liable to de

quently those, which, from their nainspiration, we shall find a model of poetry in all its richness, beauty, rable fabric.

cay, as those which were of more dusimplicity, and harmony of perfection. I might point out many other prose stance, and one which philosophers

But a most extraordinary circumbooks, so called, for the excellencies have least been able to account for, is, of poetry ;-suffice it only to add, that all the organic remains which Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, Her- have been discovered, with very few vey's Meditations on the Tombs and in the Flower Garden, and Fontenelle exceptions, are found to possess such on the Plurality of Worlds, where from the species now known to exist

generic characters, as distinguish them poetry strikes the car with pleasure in nature. No circumstance of the and edification ;-in short, where one deluge, with which we are acquainted, continued strain of music pervades will enable us to account for this, any the whole compositions; and in which we are led in all the sublimity and have not been found among those of

more than it will, why human remains grandeur of lofty but pious concep- other animals. But a circumstance, tion, to

most decisive of the fact, that the “ Look from nature up to nature's God.” deluge was not the cause of most of I am, Sir, your's truly,

these great geological changes, nor T. W

even connected with them, is the disBlackfriars-Road, Oct. 10, 1821.

covery of the Mammoth, or Animal Incognitum, on the banks of the river

Lena, in Siberia. The circumstances Suggestions for the purpose of fixing the of this discovery are interesting, and

Epoch of the principal Geological throw considerable light on several Changes which have happened in the things usually considered as connected Earth.

with Geology: a consideration of thenı

will enable me to bring forward my From the numerous extraordinary ap- opinions on the subject, opinions pearances in the structure of the Earth, which have this to recommend them, the disruption of strata, and the min that while they explain all the circumgled remains of the different organized stances, and reconcile them with the kingdoms of natuse, in beds of mine- sacred scriptures, they have a partirals, it is plain that considerable cular bearing on that which has not changes have taken place in the frame hitherto been attempted, an explanaof the globe since its first formation ; tion why organic remains should so uniand as the divine oracles speak of a versally consist of animals or vegetables un rsal inundation, which lasted for not known to exist in nature as at present a considerable time, and which, by constituted. its continuance, and the breaking up The term Mammoth, or Fossil Eleof the fountains of the great deep, phant, says the Quarterly Journal of must have left permanent effects, - Arts, No. 15, has been made use of the earlier philosophers, and many with a view to correct a common misalso in our day, were very naturally take in the application of the word induced to refer these extraordinary Mammoth, which is in England freappearances to this great event, as quently given to the Mastodon of their cause. But on more attentive Cuvier, the animal, of which the reexamination many circumstances ap- mains are chiefly found on the banks peared which excited doubts, whether of the Ohio, and in other parts of the deluge described by Moses could America. The Siberians have long possibly have effected the changes applied the name of Mammoth to the which we witness; or whether certain Elephant, whose bones are very abunphenomena might not be adduced as dant in that country, and in many arguments, to render it probable that other parts of the world; and it is so they could not have happened at the used by the writers on the Continent, same time with that great event. We These remains, wherever found, be

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37 Suggestions for firing the Epoch of Geological Changes. 38

mener long to a species of Elephant, differing regions. The preservation of the flesh from the two now living on the globe; of the Mammoth through a long series and which is called by Cuvier, the of ages, is not to be wondered at, Fossil Elephant; but the propriety of when we recollect the constant cold applying the term Fossil to the subject and frost of the climate in which it is of the following memoir, may perhaps found; where, at midsummer, the be doubted; for although it is of the ground is scarcely thawed four feet same species, it was not found beneath deep. the surface of the earth, but in ice, This Mammoth was discovered, or and retained its flesh and all its softer at least the discovery was announced parts, in a state of perfect freshness. by the merchant Popoff, and a rude These bones tusks are found drawing and description of it were throughout Russia, and more parti- taken, which are described as being cularly in eastern Siberia, and the very bad; it represents a pig rather Arctic Marshes. The tusks are found than an Elephant. It was first seen, in great quantities, and the ivory of | imbedded in ice, in 1799; when it them is equal to that of the living was mentioned by the fishermen who Elephants of Asia and Africa. Al-saw it. The old men who were present though for a long series of years very related, that they had leard their many thousands

ave been annually fathers say, that a similar monster had obtained, yet they are still collected been seen formerly in the same Peninevery year in great numbers on the sula. When Mr. Adams saw it, one banks of the larger rivers of the Rus- of the cars, well preserved, was fursian empire, and more particularly nished with a tuft of hairs. The point those of further Siberia. They abound of the lower lip had been gnawed, and most of all in the Saichovian Isles, the upper one having been destroyed, and on the shores of the Frozen Sea. the teeth could be perceived. AccordIn digging wells, or foundations for ing to the assertion of the Tungasian buildings, there are every where dis- chief, the animal was so fat and well covered the entire skeletons of Ele- fed, that its belly hung down below the phants. It may be fairly contended, joints of the knees. This Mammoth that the number of Elephants now was a male, with a long mane on the living on the globe, is greatly inferior neck, but without tail or proboscis. to the number of those, whose bones The skin is of a dark grey colour, are remaining in Siberia.

covered with a reddish wool and black The author recommends those of his hair. The entire carcase is nine feet readers who wish for more detailed four inches high, and sixteen feet four accounts of the skeletons of Elephants inches long from the point of the nose and other large animals, such as the to the extremity, without including gigantic Buffalo and Rhinoceros, the tusks, 'which are nine feet six found in different parts of Siberia, inches, measuring along the curve. and particularly of the immense quan- The distance from the base of the root tity of their bones, to consult the Dis- of the tusk to the point, is three feet sertations of Pallas in the Nova Com- seven inches; the two together weighmentaria Petropolitana.

ed 360 pounds avoirdupois; the head In the year 1805, Patapoff, a Rus- alone, without the tusks, weighs 414 sian master of a vessel, related, that pounds. The escarpment of ice was he had lately seen a Mammoth Ele- 35 or 40 toises high; and, according phant dug up on the shores of the to the report of the Tungusians, the Frozen Ocean, clothed with a hairy animal was, when they first saw it, skin; and shewed some hair three or seven toises below the surface of the four inches long, and of a reddish ice. black colour, which he had taken from From this account, in which, for the skin of the animal. No more is the satisfaction of your readers, I known of this curious fact; nor should have been more full than my argument we now possess any information re- needed, the following observations specting the carcase of the Mammoth, necessarily arise : At the time when which forms more particularly the this animal, with thousands of others subject of the present memoir, if the of its own kind, and other large anirumour of its discovery had not reach- mals of different kinds, as is clear ed Mr. Adams, who undertook the from their well preserved remains, labour of a journey to those frozen lived in Siberia, the climate and pro

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