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Chemical Essays.


his living, (there are few who do not,)

“ Strongest minds is almost compelled to misapply his

Are often those of whom the noisy world

Hears least.” powers.

In conclusion, it may be remarked, And perhaps the remark is correct. that it is a proof of a little mind, to be The "noisy world” cannot understand over anxious after gaining a popular the compositions of great men; it is name, in any other way than by the mere only a scattered few who are able to worth of a man's own talent. To be- do so. To write well then is no easy, come the butterfly of the multitude, every day task; much time, much however, is but a fickle state of exist- study, added to an unusual portion of ence,

and therefore not an enviable natural talent, can alone perform it. one. It is the mere turn of a feather

G. M. whether it lives or dies. A man of genius may be known to be so from bis conduct, and chiefly, in the first CHEMICAL ESSAYS,-BY STUDIOSUS. place, because he pursues a steady persevering method, conscious of the Essay 3d.-Carbonic Acid Gas. truth and merit of what he says; and

( Continued from col. 230.) secondly, because he is wholly un- When I submitted my Essay on Oxyswayed by either the good or bad opi- gen to the readers of the Imperial nion which the public may have of Magazine, I informed them that my him. He sees fame at a distance, third essay should treat of Atmospheand feels assured that though in this ric Air ; but finding that a knowledge life he may be comparatively unknown, of Carbonic Acid Gas is absolutely she will one day rise upon his ashes. necessary, and that it would be imHe esteems what the wise and good possible to take a sufficiently extendsay, and it is only to such that he ap- ed survey of it in that essay, without peals. He will not descend to notice swelling it to an extremely great the rudeness of the vulgar, nor the length, I have preferred giving it in a cavils of the vain. It is sufficient for separate form, reserving the composihim if he obtains the good word of tion of the Atmosphere and the Chethose whom he respects. He will mical and Physical properties of Air not, however, boast of the praises of for the subject of a fourth essay. such men, nor submit to shine as the Carbon has never been found to hero of a newspaper puff. He will exist in a state of absolute purity, exnever barter his good opinion of him-cept in the diamond ; a precious stone self. He is satisfied, and takes plea- known from the remotest ages. Great sure in his own works ; and it is in quantities of diamonds are found in reality immaterial to him whether the East Indies ; principally in the others do or not. He writes because kingdoms of Golconda, Visiapour, and he loves the imperishable forms of Bengal; and in the island of Borneo. beauty and of truth, and because he Carbon may be obtained in a state of knows that such have been and must sufficient purity for the exhibition of be valued. In fine, he looks only at its properties, by charring small pieces the testimony of those whom he con- of wood in a crucible well covered siders as his superiors, and will con- with sand. It is of little consequence tinue to write on, let the rest say what what kind of wood is used, if it be they may. When we see persons then previously deprived of its bark, and particularly anxious about gaining then exposed to a red heat for a suffiapplause, we may take it for granted, cient length of time in a closed vessel. that they are not what they would If we introduce a piece of red-hot seem to be. Although fame is the charcoal into a vessel filled with Oxy“passion of great souls,” it is only gen Gas, we shall find the charcoal to such fame as must be lasting, and burn with much greater brilliancy than which comes from pure and unsullied it does in Atmospheric Air, and to springs. No truly great man ever throw out the most lively scintillacared a straw either for the praise or tions. If we examine the contents of dispraise of those of whom he could the vessel after the charcoal has ceased not help thinking meanly-he only to burn, we shall find it filled with a viewed their opinions as the necessary peculiar gas, considerably heavier consequence of the inequality of natu- than the Oxygen Gas, which it conral ability. It has been said that tained at the commencement of the No. 39.--Vol. IV.


sent essay

experiment. We shall also find that sary to vegetables ; and their growth this gas is absorbable by water; that is increased or diminished, according it is incapable of supporting combus- to the mode of its application. This tion and animal life ; and that it pre- gas, as was first demonstrated by cipitates lime water. This is the Saussure, jun. proves beneficial to Carbonic Acid Gas, of the properties vegetation, so long as it does not exof which I profess to treat in the pre- ceed one-eighth of the constitution of

the atmosphere. The compound is The Carbonic Acid Gas, thus ob- absorbed and decomposed by the vetained, is not in a state of sufficient getating organs, its carbon forming a purity for the exhibition of some of its constituent part of the vegetable, properties; the following process will while the greater part of the Oxygen therefore be preferable. Put into a thus liberated, is emitted in the state common glass or earthenware retort, of gas by the organs of respiration a quantity of carbonate of lime, lime situated upon the upper surface of the stone, or marble, reduced to a rough leaves: the remainder of the Oxygen powder ; and pour upon it a quantity is retained by the vegetable as indisof the strongest sulphuric acid of the pensably necessary to the formation of shops, previously diluted with about acids and sugar. It is incapable of six times its weight of water. Upon supporting combustion. It is greethe addition of the sulphurous acid, dily absorbed by all the alkalies. an immediate effervescence will ensue, Carbonic Acid Gas exists in abunand Carbonic Acid Gas be evolved in dance ready formed in nature. It abundance. When this gas is intend- exists in a state of combination in a ed to be used immediately, it may be great variety of bodies. It is comcollected over water, in common with bined in the greatest quantity in lime the other gases; but as this gas is ab- stone, chalk, and marble ; is also sorbable by water, it will be necessary found in this state in the alkalies, to collect it over mercury, if we wish earths, some of the metallic oxydes, it to remain for a considerable length and in stones. It may be separated of time previous to the investigation from its combination with these subof its properties.

stances by the effusion of acids, or by The ancients had some knowledge distillation with a strong heat. In the of this gas, which is the first clastic state of gas it is generated in exfluid with which they were in any de- tremely great quantities in the Grotto gree acquainted after common air. Del Cane, near Naples so called Van Helmont called it Gas Sylvestre. because great numbers of dogs have It is to the celebrated Dr. Black, that died in it, which have been driven into chemists were indebted for some of it for the entertainment of passengers. the first discoveries relative to this It is also evolved in great abunfluid. In 1755, he discovered the dance from the Lake of Averno, which affinity between Carbonic Acid and Virgil supposed to be the entrance to Alkalies. He called it fixed air. In the infernal regions. It is also found 1772, Bergman proved that it was an in this state at the well of Negræ, in acid, and gave it the name of Aërial Vivarais; at the well of Perols, near Acid. Mr. Bewdley called it Mephi- Montpellier ; and in cellars, tombs, tic Acid ; soon after which Mr. Kerr necessaries, wells, mines, coal pits, called it Calcareous Acid. It first and other subterraneous places. Great obtained its present name from the quantities of this gas are daily formed immortal Lavoisier, who first proved by the processes of combustion, rethat it was a compound, consisting of spiration, fermentation of beer and Oxygen and Carbon.

wine, putrefaction of animal bodies, Carhonic Acid Gas is invisible, &c. colourless, elastic, and destitute of From what has been already adsmell. Its specific gravity, as esta- vanced, it must appear evident, that blished by experience, is to atmosphe- had not some effectual means been ric air as 1500 to 1000. It is fatal to provided for its decomposition, it animal life. Frogs live in it for a con- must have accumulated very rapidly, siderable length of time, by the power and have proved destructive to every which they so eminently possess in thing within its reach ; consequently, suspending their respiration. Carbo- all animated nature must have inevinic Acid Gas is indispensably neces- 1 tably perished. What are the means

Memoir of the Rev. Claudius Buchanan.

350 employed by nature for its decom- , which it contains, that it is able to position, have been already men- effect the formentive process when tioned.

mixed with other substances. All To show the production of Carbonic fermented liquors, as beer, porter, Acid by the processes of combustion cider, perry, &c. derive their sparkling and respiration, the following simple appearance and brisk acidulous taste experiments will suffice. Fill a com- from being impregnated with this mon glass tumbler with lime water, gas. and blow into it from the lungs,

(To be continued.) through a silver or ivory blow-pipe, or a goose quill. In a short time the lime water will be found to exhibit a MEMOIR OF THE LIFE OF THE REV. milky appearance. This experiment CLAUDIUS BUCHANAN, D. D. will serve to illustrate another property of this gas, mentioned above ;

(Concluded from col. 264.) namely, that it precipitates lime water. Fill the pneumato - chemical In the month of March, 1806, Dr. trough with pure lime water, over Buchanan was again looking forward which invert a large bell glass, or jar, to his long projected journey to the filled with either Oxygen Gas, or At- coast of Malabar, but another indismospheric Air ; introduce a lighted position retarded his designs for 'a candle under the bell glass, and let it short season, so that it was not until remain in this state till so much of the the third of May that he left Calcutta Oxygen is consumed that the remain

on his way to the south. It was during air will no longer support the ing this journey, that he visited Jugcombustion; when the flame will be gernaut, and witnessed those horrid extinguished. The bell glass is now rites and unparalleled abominations, to be shaken pretty strongly for a the account of which, when his Chrisshort time; and the lime water will tian Researches in India were first be found to exhibit the appearances published in England, created sensamentioned in the last experiment. tions that have not yet subsided. In

By means of strong pressure, some these regions of bloody superstition, chemists have succeeded in making nothing seems wanting to complete the water absorb and condense more than catalogue of human woes. Tigers three times its own bulk of this gaseous hunting for prey; famished pilgrims fluid ; and water thus saturated with thronging the roads strewed with this aërial acid, possesses very valuable bones of devotees who had fallen vicand powerful medicinal properties. tims to idolatry; jackals and vultures The acidulous mineral waters natu- fattening on human flesh; the grim rally formed, differ from water thus idol of Juggernaut, with lips besmearfully saturated, partly in not contained with blood ; and human skulls ing so large a quantity of this acid, scattered over the sand; all bear and partly in holding other substances their parts in this horrid picture. in solution. The whole of the gas Very different, however, was the may be again liberated by boiling the scene, when he went to visit the anwater, by exhaustion under the re- cient Syrian Christians, who, secluded ceiver of an air-pump, by the act of | from the world, retain, inbosomed in freezing, or by simply exposing the the woods of Malyala, that patriarchal acidulous water to the influence of simplicity which distinguished the the open air; owing to the affinity of days of primitive Christianity. He Carbonic Acid for air, it will escape was received at first with much susin the form of gas, leaving the water picion, lest, as an emissary of some in a state of purity. Water saturated ambitious church or potentate, he with Carbonic Acid reddens the tinc- should have penetrated those recesses ture of litmus, possesses an agreeable into which no European had ever besubacid taste, and sparkles upon agi- fore entered, to disturb their tranquiltation. Owing to its great specific lity, destroy their venerable manu. gravity, it may be poured from one scripts, and annihilate their sacred vessel to another. Yeast, it is well | institutions. His assurances to the known, is the skum whichi collects on contrary, and tokens of friendship, beer during fermentation, and it is however, soon dissipated their fears, owing to the Carbonic Acid Gas and gained their confidence; and it was only through the communications time in India after this event, devotof Dr. Buchanan, that many among ing his time and talents to the great them were induced to believe that object which lay so near his heart, there were any Christians in the world communicating with his friends, repelbesides themselves.

ling objections, dissipating groundless From these interesting tours, Dr. B. fears, and placing the expected influreturned to Calcutta, after an absence ence of Christianity over the vast of about ten months, during which population of India, in an amiable time he had travelled upwards of five light. thousand miles, drawn aside the veil Among other means to accomplish from the obscene mysteries of Jugger- his design, Dr. B. shortly after his naut, and brought to light two hun- return from the coast of Malabar, dedred thousand Christians, who, though livered a series of discourses in the surrounded by the darkness of Pagan Presidency Church, on the subject of idolatry, had retained their integrity, the prophecies, the leading features and had not bowed the knee to of which were, to point out in various Baal.

forms, the divine predictions respectArriving at Calcutta, he found that ing the universal establishment of the the college, in the welfare of which he gospel. This was done with that had been so deeply interested, al- soundness of judgment, that strength though it had been productive of the of argument, soberness of investigamost important benefits, both to the tion, and commanding eloquence, East India Company, and to Oriental for which he was so remarkable. His learning and religion, had been re- hearers consisted of persons of diffeduced within very narrow limits. The rent views. To some of these, his offices of Provost and Vice Provost discourses gave much offence ; but had been abolished; and the Profes- others were so highly delighted with sorships had been restricted to three ; what they heard, that he was impornamely, the Hindostanee, Bengalee, tuned to circulate them from the and Perso-Arabic. Through this al- press. Scarcely, however, had he teration Dr. Buchanan's income was formed the resolution of complying considerably diminished, But this with their request, before he received rather contracted his sphere of useful- an additional mortification, in finding ness than brought him into any pecu- that his advertisement, announcing niary embarrassments. His grand the publication, could not be admitted object was the promotion of Christia- into the Government Gazette, and nity in India ; to this he had made all this was aggravated by an order that his other pursuits subservient; for had been privately issued, forbidding this he had undertaken his late jour- the printers of the other newspapers ney; and with an eye to this, he had to publish the obnoxious notice. These increasingly rejoiced, on visiting the interdictions were followed by a letter Syrian Christians in their secluded from the Chief Secretary, desiring retreats.

him to transmit the manuscript of his Dr. Buchanan, not having antici- sermons on the prophecies, for the pated the change, which, on his return inspection of Government. To this to Calcutta he was called to witness, request Dr. B. for some time gave no had, during his journey, drawn up a reply, being well aware, from the paper, under the title of “ Literary complexion of those into whose hands Intelligence,” containing a sketch of it would fall, that the result would his proceedings on the coast of Mala- not coincide with his wishes. But bar; but so great were the apprehen- shortly after Lord Minto had assumed sions of those in power, lest an at- the government, Dr. B. presented to tempt to christianize the natives him a memorial on the importance of should be attended with some serious establishing Christianity in India, consequences, that to his great sur- accompanied with a letter which exprise and mortification, it was not plained his motives, and his intenpermitted to appear in the Govern- tions. ment Gazette,

It was, however, To this memorial, and this letter, printed in another form, and in that Lord Minto made no reply; but on shape it found its way to his friends, the contrary, instead of receiving the and those of Christianity, in England. communication as conveying informaDr. B. remained some considerable i tion on an important subject, with


Memoir of the Rev. Claudius Buchanan.

354 which he could be but imperfectly Viceroy, who affects great pomp, rails at the acquainted, he viewed it as disre- French, and is a true Frenchman at heart. spectful to his Government, and trans- old Goa. The Archbishop received me cordi

Next day Major Pareira went up with me to mitted it to the Court of Directors, in ally. I professed a purpose of remaining some England, accompanied with a com- days there. This, it seems, was unusual, and mentary, in that very fleet in which it occasioned some discussion and difficulty. Dr. Buchanan shortly afterwards sail- At last I was received by one of the Inquisied for his native land. Of these cir- | tors; not your friend, (who lives at a distance

from the place,) but by the second Inquisitor, cumstances, however, Dr. B. was at Josephus à Doloribus, the chief agent of the this time utterly ignorant; and it was Inquisition, and the most learned man of the not until several years had elapsed, place. By this malleus hereticorum was I rewhen the question relative to Christi- ceived in his convent of the Augustinians, in a anity in India was agitated in the suite of chainbers next his own. He was ex

tremely communicative. All the libraries House of Commons, when these docu

were opened ; and were extensive and valuaments were laid on the table, that he ble beyond my expectation. That of the Aubecame acquainted with the fact. gustinians alone appeared to be larger than Happily Dr. B. had also transmitted the library of the college of Fort Wil

liam. a copy to the Court of Directors prior to his leaving Calcutta, accompanied tion; and I gleaned much information imper

“My object all this time was the Inquisiby a letter, in which he called to their ceptibly. I disguised my purpose for the first recollection the solemn charge which three days, and the Inquisitor referred me to about eleven years before, he had re- various books and documents elucidating the ceived from their chairman, Sir Ste- very subject I wanted to investigate ; so that, phen Lushington. The whole con

on the fourth day, I attacked him directly on

the present state of the Inquisition. cluded with a serious hope that the

** I had already discovered that it was abomoral condition of India would be lished in 1775, by the court of Portugal, on taken into serious consideration, and account of its inhuman rigour; that in 1779 it that liberal means might be adopted was restored on the accession of the present for giving free circulation to the sa

Queen; and that it has been in operation ever

On its restoration, its rigour was quacred scriptures, and the doctrines of lified in soine points. It was not to have a the gospel.

public Auto da Fé; but it was permitted to Dr. Buchanan, having made prepa- have a private one annually. The dungeons rations for his return to England, fully incarcerate for life ; and there are now victims

It has power to intended at first to accomplish his in its cells. The tribunal is supported in its journey overland, thinking this better ancient pomp; and its establishment is full

. In calculated than a sea voyage, for pro- tact, it is the only department which is alive in secuting his inquiries into the state of ancient Goa. Christianity in the East; his health Josephus à Doloribus was alarmed when also rendering a sea voyage somewhat he discovered the real drift of my inquiries.

I told him, that he had now said so much, he doubtful as to its issue. But this de- might as well tell me all; and that I should sign he was compelled to abandon, not leave Goa till I had seen the Inquisition. from the many military and political He at last consented to shew me the great obstacles that seemed to blockade his hall. I accompanied him, clothed in the soway. Having taken leave of his con

lemn robes of his office. When I had survey

ed the place awhile in silence, I desired that gregations, he left Calcutta on the he would now let me go below and visit the 27th of November, 1807, and reached dangeons. He refused; and here our first Fulta on the ensuing day, where the contest began. I told him, that if he did not ship waited several days for her de-open the dungeons, and let me count the capspatches. Departing from Fulta on tives, and inquire into the periods of their

imprisonnent, and learn the number of deaths board the Baretto, Dr. B. after seve

within the last year, I should naturally believe ral interruptions, reached Goa early that he had a good reason for the concealment; in January, 1808, at which place he and that the ancient horrors of the Inquisition was permitted to enter the great hall still subsisted. Whereas, if he would now unof the Inquisition. Of this visit an

bar his locks, I could only declare to the pubinteresting account has been published left to imagination. He felt the force of this ;

lic the truth as it was; and nothing would be in his Christian Researches, the sub- but answered, that he could not oblige me, stance of which he thus gives in a consistently with his oath or duty as an Inquiletter to his friend Colonel Macau-sitor. I observed, that he had broken that ley

oath frequently, during the four last days; and

that he had himself noticed in his own justifi“«On my arrival at Goa, I was hospitably cation, that the ancient regulations of the entertained by Captain Schuyler. He and Church were in many instances obsolete. I Colonel Adams introduced me next day to the then put the following question solemnly;

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