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Review: The Orphan SistersMemoirs, 8c.

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expense, but by the contents, of those the class of persons for which it is books which come before us for analy- designed. It requires only to be read sis.

to be admired. The language, which Sunday-school tuition is an interest- is far from grovelling or vulgar, is peing as well as a momentous occupation culiarly fitted to the narrow capacities to those who are more immediately of children. Simplicity of style, which devoted to its interests, while it is is Nature's undeviating rule, pervades rendered still more important to those the whole composition. The genuine poor destitute children who reap its piety, and holy zeal, which shine conadvantages. . Education is a moral spicuously through its pages, give it mean of training the young to virtue powerful claims upon the notice and and to piety; and it is at the same regard of every person connected with time a powerful incentive to the coun- the education of the poorer part of teraction of vice and immorality. We mankind. should be doing injustice to our own We cannot press too frequently feelings, and violence to the precepts upon the attention of the children in of the Gospel, which we profess to Sunday Schools, the indispensable espouse, if we did not subscribe most necessity of duly observing the Sabheartily to the inculcation of such bath-the avoidance of bad company, Christian sentiments.

--rectitude of moral principle-gratiThe tale of the “Orphan Sisters” is tude to their teachers and benefacsimply this : Sarah and Eliza Marshal tors,--and a variety of other important were the orphans of an affectionate truths and duties with which this litand widowed mother, who, with an tle work abounds. For the accomplisheye of maternal tenderness, anxious ment of these desirable objects, we not only for their temporal but eternal recommend it strenuously and earinterests, procured their admittance nestly to the candid perusal of every into a neighbouring Sunday School. person favourable to Sabbath-school Eliza received the lessons with atten- instruction. tion and profit, while her sister Sarah We must not close our Review withdespised the generous boon, and as-out stating, that there are one or two „sociated only with the most vicious grammatical inaccuracies,(principally and depraved. Eliza, feeling acutely in the substitution of adjectives for the dreadful course which her sister adverbs) which are evidently not the was pursuing, (which would not only effect of want of knowledge on this produce disappointment and misery in point, from the general correctness this world, but ensure eternal ruin in with which the whole is written, but the next,) urged her by the command- from the habit of imperceptibly imments of God-by the gratitude she bibing those false modes of expression owed to her teachers,-by the love of used by the uneducated, and which her own present happiness, and future unfortunately too frequently appear glory,-to turn aside from the path of in the writings of those who so beneiniquity unto the ways of righteous- volently devote their time and talents ness, " for her ways are ways of plea- to the improvement of the young. It santness, and all her paths are peace.' would be an insult to our author's Sarah, gay and thoughtless, heeded judgment specifically to point them not ber sister's salutary advice, say-out: at the same time, we are sure ing, that while she was young she the hint will be taken as it is intendought to enjoy pleasure, and when she ed; professing to keep in view nogrew older she would then attend to thing but the general good. the observance of the Sabbath, and religious duties. She thus continued Review.-Memoirs of a Life, chiefly on the downward course, and the day passed in Pennsylvania, within the last of reformation never came; while Sixty Years. Cadell, London, 1822. Eliza, on the contrary, cultivated all the virtues and the graces of practical BIOGRAPHY is a science, wbich, of late piety with which Providence had en- years, has become very important; if dowed her; till, ripe for immortality, we regard it either as a mean of pecuHeaven marked ber for its own. niary profit to the bookseller, or of

Such is a summary of this engaging instruction to those who aim to avail little history, which cannot fail in themselves of the experience of their being productive of much good among predecessors. By it we are enabled to shun those allurements and tempta- nerally admitted, with certain exceptions, and to emulate those honourable tions. And when an author enters traits of character and virtuous ex- upon his task with a determination to ample, which we see delineated in do justice to the public, and executes others: we bring before us different his work with fidelity, then we must situations of vice, as it were into ac- ever prefer auto-biography for the tual being. We grasp in one view, the model of our study; because he has it beginning, the progress, and the end, in his power to inform us of what no of all that is lovely and of good report; other author can communicate-the and trace the varied links which form motive that induced the action. the concatenated chain of human exist- In this light, our anonymous author ence, in all its diversified, ennobling, arrests our notice. The principal obor debasing forms. In short, biogra- ject that he has had in view, is to offer phy is the ne plus ultra of book-making; to the public the most interesting debecause by this we learn how to live tails cognisant to his own view, of the -how to die. He who does not make war in which the Americans were enthis the principal object of his reading, gaged, when endeavouring to procure fails in that which is of the last conse- from Great Britain a recognition of quence both as to his well-being in their independence: and a more intethe present world, and his everlasting resting account of the causes which welfare in that which is not fleeting gave rise to the American war, and of and evanescent.

its progress, when it had commenced, “He builds too low who builds beneath the has seldom issued from the press. It skies.”

was originally printed in America, Memoirs have poured in upon us about eleven years since; but it has from all quarters; but in the greater lately been reprinted in London. portion we cannot recognize those in- Our author, after some very excellent nate motives, those bidden springs of observations, by way of introduction, action, which it is the highest interest on the different motives which actuate of mankind to detect. We have bio-self-biographers in obtruding themgraphies of all kinds and descriptions selves upon public attention, states, --of the statesman, the orator, the that he was born on the 10th of April, theologian, the warrior, the patriot; | 1752, in the village of Bristol, Pennsyland from each we are enabled to cull vania. His grandfather and grandsome flower to bedeck our brows- mother shine conspicuously for their some truths to enlighten our minds tolerance, and it would be well if the -some picture to please our fancy, picture were more strikingly delisome portrait to warm and animate neated and exemplified. our minds—some action to admire or “ While the tongue of my grandfadeplore-some talent to astonish- ther faithfully retained the character of some light to guide our benighted step. its original dialect, that of his spouse, -But they are all, nearly without ex- though in a less degree, bore testiception, too frigid and cold ; they have mony also to the country of her exall too much of the improbable, too traction; and while he, a determined little of the profitable, too much chaff, Episcopalian, had his pew in Christ and too little wheat, to render them so Church, she, a strict Presbyterian, pleasing, useful, and instructive, as was a constant attendant at Buttonthey might have been. Many things wood meeting-house. No feuds, howare stated without a due regard to ever, were engendered by this want of minute particulars; and much without religious conformity; and if my grandthe semblance of truth, and for no father sometimes consented to hear a other purpose than what in too many sermon at the meeting-house, it might instances appears to be the primary be considered as a concession on his intent of the author, that of making part, for a sermon of Archbishop Tillota book. For no sooner does the pulse son, which was regularly read aloud of a man of any note or estimation by one of the family on Sunday evencease to beat, than the whole host of ing.” (p. 9.) writers continually hanging about the There being no traces in our author's suburbs of Paternoster-Row, are put memory of any incidents worthy of in requisition.

remark during the period of his infan“The proper study of mankind is man,” cy, he passes on to the era of his reis a sentiment that cannot be too ge- moral to Philadelphia, for the sake of

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education, when he was about the age spelled still worse than ho wrote ; and
of seven. Here he was placed under knew little or nothing of arithmetic.
the tuition of David James Dove, an At p. 48, the author takes notice of
Englishman, who was much celebrated a subject which has often occurred to
in his day as a teacher, and no less as ourselves, to the truth of which we
a dealer, in the minor kind of satirical cannot withhold our assent.
poetry. He seldom used corporal “My attention to my school exer-
punishment, butin its stead substituted cises was not at this time to be com-
disgrace. Unlike Dr. Johnson's Latin plained of; and a part of my evenings
master, “his birch was rarely used in was either employed in writing them,or
canonical method, but was generally committing to memory. In relation to
stuck into the back part of the collar the latter, I will mention a circumstance
of the unfortunate culprit, who with which to me appeared remarkable,
this badge of disgrace towering from though perhaps it was not peculiar:
his nape like a broom at the mast head After labouring in vain to master my
of a vessel for sale, was compelled to task, I have gone to bed, scarcely able
take his stand upon the top of a form to repeat a line of it, but in the morning
for such a period of time as his offence when I awoke, it has been perfect in
was thought to deserve.” When his my memory. The same thing has of-
boys were late in their morning attend- ten occurred in respect to tunes I have
ance, five or six scholars were dis- been desirous of acquiring; and, in-
patched after them, with a bell tingling deed, I have ever found, that the morn-
and lighted lantern, in order to escort ing was the propitious season for the
them to school. But as he professed exertion of my mental faculties.”
himself a great lover of justice, and On the subject of bathing the au-
always professed a willingness to have thor makes the following observa-
an equal measure of it meted out to tions :-
himself, in case of his transgressing, “ When in practice, I never felt
the boys took him at his word; and one myself spent with it; and it appeared
morning, when he had overstaid his to me that I could have continued the
time, he found himself waited on in exercise for hours, and consequently
the usual form ; when, putting himself have swam some miles. To recover
behind the lantern and bell, he marched breath, I only found it necessary to
with great solemnity to school, to the turn upon my back, in which position,
no small gratification of the boys, and with my arms across my body, or
the entertainment of the spectators. pressed to my side (since moving them,

When our author was about eight as many đo, answers no other purpose
years old, he was removed to what was than to retard and fatigue the swim-
considered the principal seminary, mer,) my lungs had free play, and I
kept by Mr. Kinnersly, teacher of Eng- felt myself as perfectly at ease, as if
lish, and professor of oratory, where he reclined on a sofa. In short, no man
learned to read and write his mother can be an able swimmer, who only
tongue grammatically. One day in swims with his face downward; the
the week was set apart for the recita- pressure of the water on the breast, is
tion of select passages in poetry and an impediment to respiration in that
prose: His declaiming powers were attitude, which, for that reason, can-
put into a state of such constant re- not be long continued; whereas, the
quisition, that his orations, like worn- only inconvenience in the supine pos-
out ditties, became vapid and fatigue ture is, that the head sinks so low,
ing, and consequently impaired his that the ears are liable to receive
relish for that kind of acquirement. water, a consequence which might be
Afterwards he returned to Philadel- prevented by stopping them with wool
phia, where he entered the Latin or cotton, or covering them with a
school of Mr.John Beveridge,a Scotch- bathing-cap.” (p. 54.).
man, whose acquaintance with the We cannot resist the temptation to
language which he taught was deemed quote another extract from this inte-
to be both accurate and profound. A resting work, our apology for which
little Latin, and but a little, was the may easily be found in the instruc-
fruit of our author's education. He tion the paragraph is calculated to
was tolerably instructed in the rudi- convey :
ments of Grammar, but in nothing The author's mother having men-
else. He wrote an indifferent hand, tioned to some gentlemen whom she

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had invited to supper, of whom Capt. | army, where, after some time spent in Wallace was one, that there was in active service, he was taken prisoner; her house, a very honest, plain man, but ultimately released ; after wbich of the Society of Friends, it was agreed we find him married, and enjoying the among the company that Mr. Church luxuries of the connubial state. the Quaker, should also be invited ; We recommend this volume to the which was accordingly done. Mr. perusal of all whomay wish foran accuChurch having sat down, the Captain rate account of the celebrated Ameridirected his chief discourse to him, can war; in the course of which they interlarded with a deal of very coarse will find delineated some pleasing litand insolent raillery, on what was de- tle sketches of all the principal pernominated his broad brim. “ Church sonages who figured in that eventful bore it all very patiently till after sup- period. per, when he at length ventured to say, 'Captain, thou hast made very free with me, and asked me a great GLEANINGS FROM LITERATURE, many questions, which I have endea

science, &c. voured to answer to thy satisfaction: Wilt thou now permit me to ask thee

Improvements in Brewing.--A most important one in my turn?' Ob, by all means,' improvement has lately taken place in the exclaimed the Captain, any thing mode of brewing and distilling, which is now that you please, friend-what is it?' practised at the Patent Steam Distillery, at • Why then I wish to be informed, sists in the application of steam to the bottom

ihe Greenhead, Glasgow. The invention conwhat makes thee drink so often; art

of the boilers, which are indented with conthou really dry every time thouscar- centric circles, varying in depth aocording to riest the liquor to thy mouth? This the progress and quantity of heat wanted. А was a home thrust at the seaman, pipe from the steam engine boiler, situated whose frequent potations had already outside of the building, is conveyed to three

The produced a degree of intoxication ; boiler is not larger than that required for an and who, forgetting the liberties he engine of eight-horse power, and not more had taken, broke out into a violent than the asual pressure is employed. In addirage, and vociferated, with an un- tion to the saving of fuel, the improvement lucky logic which recoiled upon him-consists in the great disparity of temperature

betwixt this mode and the common way of self, What do you think I am like a

distilling by a coal or peat fire. The difference hog, only to drink when I am dry?'

is as 214 to 21,877 degrees of heat. The con(p. 70.)

sequence is obvious. We have a striking instance dis- Another improvement at the Greenhead, is played in p. 74, of the effect of idle- a machine, styled by the inventor A Separator, ness, from which cause so much mis- that completely prevents the mixture of the chief has arisen, and which may cer- ducts of distillation on the old plan, and which

coarse essential oil, which is one of the protainly, with a little modification, be has been so greatly injurious to all malt said to be the root of all evil. Be- spirits. tween the ages of sixteen and eigh

Preservation of Fresco Painting. A new teen he lived in one continued scene process for removing frescoes from one wall of idleness. Here he became ac

to another, without injury to the painting, has

been devised by Signor Steffano Barezzi, of quainted with a young man, whose Milan. The picture is covered with a predegagée air, and rakish appearance, pared canvass, to which it adheres, and is thus he willingly yielded himself up to detached from the wall. The canvass is afteremulate. He it was who first intro- wards applied to another wall, to which the duced him to the fascination of a bil-trait being destroyed. The practicability of

painting again attaches itself, without the least liard table, and initiated him into the this method has been successfully proved, and other seductive arcana of city dissipa- the inventor is now employed in transferring a tion. He it was who taught him to large fresco from the church Della Pace, at

Rome. drink that execrable potion called wine. He it was who led him to a bottles, which must be perfectly clean, sweet,

Preservation of Milk.-Provide pint or quart miserable hovel where they poured and dry; draw the milk from the cow into the down the fiery beverage ; whence, vaii-bottles, and as they are filled, immediately ant in the feeling of intoxication, they cork them well ap, and fasten the corks with sallied forth in quest of adventures. pack-thread or wire. Then spread a little In a word, they aspired to be rakes, place the bottles, with straw between them,

straw on the bottom of a boiler, on which and were gratified. At a subsequent until the boiler contains a sufficient quantity period our author entered into the Fill it up with cold water; heat the water,

389 Literary Notices.

390 and as soon as it begins to boil, draw the fire, eye, they can be trained in any direction withand let the whole gradually cool. When quite out damaging the wall. cold, take out the bottles, and pack them with Copper Ships. A nautical mechanic has instraw or saw-dast in hampers, and stow thein veated and completed the model of an 80 gun in the coolest part of the ship, or in a cool ship of war, of which the keel, floor timbers, place. By pursuing this method, milk has lower futtocks, and bottom planks, are made been carried to the West Indies; and, after a of copper! A patent, it is said, is taking out period of eighteen months, has been as sweet for this new mode of ship-building, which, it as when first milked from the cow.

seems, is thought well of by some naval men. Lithography.-- An experiment has lately been Arithmometer.-A French artist, M. Thomade to take off impressions from plants by mas, of Colinar, honorary director of the lithographic printing. A specimen of Sibthor Phænix Company, has obtained a brevet of pia Europea, which was gathered several invention (patent) for a machine of calculation, years ago in Cornwall, was covered with litho. to be called the Arithmometer. It has been graphic ink, and impressed on a stone, from presented to the Society for the Encouragewhich stone several impressions were after- ment of National Industry; and by it a person wards taken.

unacquainted with figures may be made to perPerpetual Motion.-Among various curious form, with wonderful promptitude, all the exhibitions at a Mr. Vogel's, in New York, is rules of Arithmetic. The most complicated one called a perpetual motion. It consists of a calculations are done as readily and exactly as large wheel, around the edge of which are the most simple; soms in multiplication and placed, at equal distances, a certain number division, of seven or eight figures, require no of moveable hollow cylinders, each containing more than those of two or three. an equal proportion of quicksilver. The Lining for Ships.-Mr. W. Ward, of Bow, weight of the quicksilver, which moves from Middlesex, having discovered that a light felt one side to the other as the wheel turns, deter- of hide or hair, or mixture of hide, hair, and mines the horizontal or perpendicular position wool, when saturated with tar, is highly elasof the cylinders. By this horizontal position tic and water proof, conceives that it may be in falling, the circumference of the wheel is usefully applied as a lining for the sheathing of continually enlarged on one side, and dimi. ships, being attached to the external sides and nished on the other, by the perpendicular op bottom of the ship, by simply nailing with sition in rising : this creates two unequal semi- copper nails. This substance he terms Adhecircles, the one more eccentric than the other, sive Felt; it possesses the property of elastiand thus causes a perpetual motion.

city in so considerable a degree, as to stretch Gas from Peat Moss.-A gentleman has re- uniformly, without fracture or injury either to cently found, and proved by a series of suc- its texture or its complete impermeability to cessful experiments, that the dark peat moss water, whenever the ship's seams are opened of Scotland, produces gas not inferior in quan- by straining in bard weather, or in more dantity and quality to that extracted from coal, gerous cases of the starting of planks, or the possessing the additional and valuable advan breaking of timbers as in stranding. tage of being in a great measure free from that offensive and noxious effluvia emitted by gas prodaced from the latter material.

Ice-breaking Machine.- A Mr. Green, of Alexandria (America) has discovered a ma

Literary Notices. chine for breaking ice of the thickness of six inches, at the rate of three or four miles an hour. The machine promises to be of advan

Lord Dillon has, during his residence at tage in opening a passage for ships frozen, Florence, composed a work under the title of clearing canals, &c.

“ The Life and Opinions of Sir Richard MalProduction of Magnetism.-M. Poenitz, of travers, an English Gentleman of the SevenDresden, has lately experimented on the pro- teenth Century,” which is now in the press. duction of magnetism by hammering, friction, Religious Declension, considered in its &c. and has come to the conclusion, that it is Nature, Causes, and Effects; with the Scripnot produced in the iron, but given to it by tural Means of Recovery and Prevention. By the external magnetism of the earth. Motion, Thomas Wood, 12mo. boards. only, renders iron more susceptible of receiv- Arcita and Palamon, from Chaucer, by Eding magnetism. One of his modes of giving ward Hovel Thurlow, Lord Thurlow, a poem, this motion to the particles, is, to fix one end has just been published. of a rod of iron or steel steadily, placing the

A new edition of the Porteusian Bible has rod in any position required, and then to make just made its appearance. it vibrate by drawing the free end from the Jast published, " A few days in Athens,” axis of the rod, and suddenly letting it loose. being the translation of a Greek MS. discoIf in a favourable position, the iron soon ac- vered in Herculaneum, by Francis Wright, quires magnetism.

1 vol. 12mo. Nails for Wall Fruit.-Specimens of Nails A Selection from the Correspondence of for Wall Frait have been presented to the hor- Linnæus, and other Naturalists, from original ticultural society. They are made of cast-MSS. by Sir James Smith, M. D. F. R. S. iron, with round heads, having a hole in the and President of the Linnæan Society, 2 vols. centre, and are intended to be permanently 8vo. fixed in the wall when building, between the Elements of Medical Logic. Second edition, courses of brick work; by leading the branches by Sir Gilbert Blanc, Bart. of the trees close to them, and tying them by The Investigator, Part VIII. for April, pubpieces of matting or string run through the I lished quarterly.

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