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ductions of that country must have Presently after the flood, we find been widely different from wbat they that instead of about a hundred years, are at this time; particularly there an age between 30 and 40 was that must have been much wood; for all whereat men became capable of prothe fossil animals that have been dis- creation; and the duration of human covered there are herbivorous; and life extended only to about 450 years, this one in particular was in good con- or half of what it was before. At this dition. Accordingly we find that period also, the diet was changed, much fossil wood is found in that and perhaps other particolars of living. country. We observe also, that the The flesh of animals was allowed for death of the Siberian race of the human food after the flood. Mammoth must have been sudden; In the time of Peleg, men began to this appears from the situation of this procreate at 30, and to live about 250 animal when found; it was on an ele- years ; and the earth was divided, an vated situation, near the bank of the expression which shews an alteration river ; and it appears to have been in the frame of the globe, as well as in standing when it became enclosed in man its inhabitant. Finally, in the the ice, or but a very short time be- time of Moses, the age of man was fore; for when the ice melted and left reduced to about 70 years: and so it it, it fell from its position to a consi- has continued to the present time. derable distance below. That at the And it is to be particularly noticed, least, it was but recently dead, ap- that these important changes took pears from the state of preservation in place at precise periods, and were not which it was found ; even the iris of the result of the gradual decay of huthe eye was visible, though afier a nian strength ; as we find both from time it dried and became confounded the narrative of the book of Genesis, with the other parts. To the ice we and from the words of the Almighty. are indebted for this complete preser- If, as unavoidably follows, the genevation; which we shall presently see, ral constitution of nature was altered enables us to give some precision to to suit the new constitution of man, it our conclusions, in regard to the is clear that the nature of other aniEpoch of some of the grand changes mals must be proportionally changed which have taken place in the earth, also, if they were to be continued in which we could not have obtained existence; but if any of them were from the same remains in warm cli- incapable of undergoing so great a mates, where nothing opposes their change without a complete alteration decay.

of their essential characters and na. In the 5th chapter of the book of ture, and if the Allwise did not see fit Genesis, we have an historical sketch to convert them into, in fact, new of the genealogy of the first race of animals, which would have been nomen, which lived from the creation to thing short of a new creation, the race the great æra of the flood. Of these must necessarily be blotted out: Hence we are told, that they did not attain to we perceive that it is perfectly consisa due age for the procreation of chil- tent with what we know of the wisdom dren until they were from 100 to 120 and providence of the Deity, that years old ; Lamech was 182 years old creatures which he had made should when he begat his first-born. The du- become extinct. ration of their lives was proportionally That man should be preserved in extended; so that they existed in the such mighty alterations of nature, will world for little less than a thousand not excite surprise, when we consider years. Of such men, whatever their that he is capable of living in all exstature and strength might be, (and trenies, from the equator to the pole ; universal tradition reports that the and, moreover, the change in inaniearth whs once tenanted by men of mate nature was niade on his account. greater stature and strength than are Animals are in general confined to to be found in modern times,) it is particular regions of the earth; and very clear that the constitution of their they are therefore more likely to sufnature must have differed very consi- fer from such mutations as we have derably from that which we now pos- contemplated ; and that many species sess; and if so, there must have been might be unable to survive them, apa general fitness of nature, air, tempe- pears extremely probable. A review rature, &c. answering to it.

of the nature and affinitics of such

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41 Suggestions for fixing the Epoch of Geological Changes. 42 animals as now continue to exist, will taken place at other periods, though even enable us to point out such of not perhaps in so remarkable a mantheir congencrs as are likely to be lost. ner, or degree. We may, therefore, We know that in by far the greater consider the history of the changes part of the animals now existing, in the globe to be divided into four there is such an analogy, as will en-grand Epochs, separated from each able us to arrange them into orders and other by the lapse of ages, but similar genera, each one, in regard to figure in kind; each being marked with an and properties, taking its place by alteration in the inanimate creation, the side of another with great regula- | the consolidation of some parts, the rity ; but we know also, that in par- elevation of others above the sea, and ticular instances, this succession of the submersion of others; changes in kindred nature falls short, and indivi- the mode of existence of those whose dual species seem to stand alone, natures could bear the change, and at without being linked to other genera each time the extinction of those by any intermediate kinds. This is which could not. Those which before the case with the Elephant, the Hip- lived in one region, would find thenipopotamus, Giraffe, and in some mea- selves capable of existing only in ansure with the Hog, among beasts; other, perhaps at the other extremity and with the Ostrich, and perhaps a of the globe. few others, among birds. And it is a It is to the consolidation of calcarestrong circumstance in favour of the ous and other matter, that we are to view of the subject which I have ascribe the preservation of the greattaken, that the creatures which have est proportion of animal remains; and been found in a fossil state, in such a to the circumstance of this consolidastate of preservation as will enable tion, and the extinction of what are us to form any idea of their figure or denominated fossil animals, happenaffinities, belong principally to those ing at the same period, and from the insulated genera which now exist. same cause, are we to ascribe their The Siberian Mammoth partakes as almost exclusive preservation; for much of the nature of the Hog, as of such individuals only of present exthe Elephant; but was probably more isting races should die at the same nearly allied to the extinct Elephant time, could be preserved in the same of temperate climates, the bones of manner. Were we able to point out which have been found fossil, than to existing monuments of each of these that with which we are acquainted. grand geological changes, we might The Mastodon, whose bones lie on expect to find preserved in them very the surface, and therefore cannot different kinds of animal substances. have lain from immense antiquity, on At the time of the deluge, men and the banks of the Ohio and Mississippi, animals were indiscriminately destroyseems to have been allied to the Hip- ed; but as they must have lain in a popotamus, or the Hog, animals macerated state for at least a year, which seem to stand in need of this, we should not expect to meet with and perhaps a few other connecting fossil remains of this remote date. links.

The other changes are more likely to But though we are thus enabled to afford them in good preservation, but account for the loss of these races of it does not appear possible to point beings, we are to seek further, in or- out any criterion, whereby the era of der to account for the preservation of these phenomena is to be distinguishtheir forms. In order to this, we ed; for the consolidation of the first must remark, that the change in the period might suffer a farther change constitution of the air and general at the second or third: but no risk of temperature, is necessarily connected mistake seems to be encountered in with an alteration in the solid parts of fixing the extinction of the Mammoth the globe itself. Seas, rocks, land, race at a time the most recent; that clouds, rivers, minerals, &c. must be is, about the age of Moses; for, while moulded to the new order of things: the face of nature in Siberia was so from an expression before alluded to, changed, as that land, capable of of the division of the earth in the time bearing extensive woods, was convertof Peleg, we find that such a change ed into a mass of ice, only a slight took place in his day; and from bisto- geological change seems to have been ry we learn that something similar has introduced. No. 36.-Vol. IV.


Bat while many will agree with me, ported from Liverpool, I had occasion in regard to the causes of the extinc- to make application, amongst other tion of the lost animals, it is probable offices attached to the establishment, that doubts will be entertained with at the one occupied by Mr. Lee, (if I respect to the suddenness of the catas- remember right, he was a land waiter) trophe; for it has been a favourite which was situated under the Piazzas, speculation with infidel writers, and the next to the door-way, and stone in which they have been thoughtlessly stairs leading up to the long room. followed by others of a different stamp, A Dog, belonging to that gentleman, that all the changes in the constitution about the middle size, I believe of the and structure of the earth have been terrier breed, perceiving my approach, effected in a very gradual manner, immediately leaped upon the adjoining and that the magnitude of the effects desk, and, giving a single bark, fixed which we witness, has depended only his eyes attentively upon me.

For a on the immensity of time during which moment I paid little attention to the they have been producing. The argu- circumstance; upon which my new ments adduce din proof of this idea, acquaintance, not easily to be repulare futile in a high degree, and have sed in his overtures of friendship, rebeen triumphantly controverted by peated his bark in a still louder tone, De Luc, and others ;-but it would and at the same time placed one of occupy too much time to notice what his by no means cleanly or gentle he has advanced. To those, with paws upon my shoulder withal, still whom the divine word is sufficient continuing to look me attentively in authority, I would simply recommend the face. Some spectators of this an attentive perusal of the book of amicable interview, amused at my Genesis. To others, I would recom- alarm, desired me not to be afraid, as mend the Essays on Creation and Ge- it was merely an appeal to the chariology, which have appeared in the table benevolence of my feelings. An Imperial Magazine, vol. 2, with the applicant so strange, so truly pathetic addition of an argument drawn from and touching, of course could not be the complete state of preservation, in refused. Whilst preparing to comply which many minerals, and specimens with his demand, the animal attenof natural objects, of the most tender tively regarded the motion of my hand fabric, are found ; specimens which towards my pocket, and indicated, by

could scarcely have existed a week very expressive looks and wagging without extraordinary means of pre- his tail, no small satisfaction at the servation. Specimens of fossil fishes expected result. On throwing down have been found in stone, in the act a halfpenny, at some distance, the of devouring each other. I do not Dog rushed impetuously in pursuit of conclude from this, that the creature it, and in his mouth carried it forthseized its prey through appetite, in with to a neighbouring cake womanthe act of petrifaction; but I have dropped it at the foot of her basket, known fishes do this in the agony of a and received its value in return. violent death in the water; and this Having thus satisfied the claims of was probably the case in the instance this 'affair of Customs,” I dealluded to.

parted. Polperro.

J. Couch. On a subsequent occasion, meeting

this sagacious animal in the same Custom-House Yard, following his

master, at some distance from his MR. Editor.

office, I had a desire to put his fidelity

to the test, which I did by throwing SIR, -Having just read in the Metho-down a halfpenny before him. Having dist Magazine, for March, 1821, an secured this in his mouth, be appeared account of the sagacity of a Dog—I for a moment in a dilemma how to act, beg leave, through the medium of under the influence of two powerful your instructive Miscellany, to state a and conflicting feelings,-whether to circumstance of a similar nature, repair to his old friend the basket wowhich occurred to myself.

man, and satisfy the demand of hunIn the year 1815, having to pass an ger, or nobly to put a constraint upon entry at the Custom House, in Dub- his sensation, and follow his master. lin, of some goods which í had im- To his credit be it spoken, the claims



A Dissertation on Friendship.




of duty prevailed over the keenness suade me their friendship was indeof his appetite. However, perceiving lible,—that no vicissitudes of fortune soon after, his master stop to speak could annihilate it; but, alas! I have to some one, he cast a wistful eye found such boasting friends, too much towards the spot where all his heart's resembling the bubbles upon the watreasure was deposited, and stole ter, deceitful, and dispersing into vanimbly away towards it without a mo- pour. Such treacherous friends, when ment's hesitation. But on his way, applied to in time of need, contrive, turning for an instant a glance round by any frivolous and prevaricating exupon his master, and perceiving him cuse, to evade rendering assistance to in the act of passing on, this faithful the man they formerly seemed to animal again relinquished his object, adore ; and finally leave him in his measured his steps backward, pa- utmost distress, totally disregarded ! tiently followed him round the yard, Such kind of friendship as this, and until at length, after a considerable such sort of friends as these, induced circuit, he had the no small satisfaction the Poet to sing, and doubly-felt enjoyment of return- “ And what is friendship but a name, ing to the spot where the claims of A charm that lulls to sleep.; duty and inclination, doubtless with- A shade that follows wealth and fame ;

But leaves the wretch to weep?”. out any scruples of conscience, could be satisfied together. What a lesson A false friend, like a viper, entwines this “for the nobler creature Man." around you with sparkling eyes, and

Your well-wisher, J. H. tempting fascinating appearance; until 25, Paradise-street, Liverpool.

he finds out your frailties, and then he stings you in the tenderest parts! He blasts your reputation, he defames

your character, he vilifies your inteBY R. CROFTS, OF HOWDEN.

grity, and in short, as a reason he

assigns for discarding you, but in reReal friendship is a virtue, which no ality to conceal his own baseness, he one can prize too much. It is not uses all his endeavours to effect your merely a name, when individuals act co ete overthrow ; and, if he fail in upon its true principles. Felicitous the accomplishmentof his purpose, you must such persons be, whom it draws may thank the intervention of Divine forth in mutual sympathy. In pros- Providence for protecting you. How perity it is pleasant, but in adversity cautious and circumspect ought we to it is faithfully tried, and in distress is be in the choice of a friend ; for, “ in proved its reality. A true friend will the affairs of the world, men are saved not forsake us in any calamity that not by faith, but by the want of it.” may happen. He will (as far as pos- Not so the bebaviour and conduct of sible) alleviate our drooping spirits, a true friend ; for as a tree is known dispel the gloomy forebodings which by its fruits, as a Christian's faith is overhang our minds, and divest the proved by his works, so is real from throbbing heart of the difficulties, counterfeit friendship distinguished anxieties, and perplexities, with which by its operations and effects. He will it may be overcharged. Even when on counsel with you, commiserate you the margin of despair, a sincere friend under misfortunes, and not only enwill not leave us, until he succeeds in courage, but help and assist you with rescuing us from apparent danger or his person, his purse, or both : he will ruin. That such friendship, as is here bear with your infirmities, soothe you described, however rare, exists, I can in affliction, and support you in the confidently assert. Happy the man hour of dissolution! He will never possessing such a friend!

leave you nor forsake you; not feel it It is manifestly true by woeful ex- a burthensome task to serve you. perience, that the world abounds with While life lasts, he will represent to false friends. I have been frequently you hopes and prospects of better and deceived this way. I have been led, happier days in this world ; or, in as by an ignis fatuus, too much to es- the article of death, he will pray for teem those whose friendships were your eternal welfare in another.

"As * only professional,--their pretensions iron sharpeneth iron, so doth the counvain,—their promises nullified. While tenance of a man his friend." There I was in prosperity, they would per- ! subsists a reciprocity of ideas, and an

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identity of sentiments between true same Spirit of holiness, and glory in friends, which binds them in constant | being fellow pilgrims through this union and firm compact to each world to a better. They frequently other ; and when death separates commune with their God together ; them, as nothing else can, the sur- laying before him all their frailties, vivor mourns his loss; yet not like one imperfections, trials, afflictions, miswithout hope, having a cheering pros- fortunes, and necessities ; mutually pect of meeting his friend in a place imploring his kind aid in, and deliverwhere celestial friendship shall be con- ance from, all their troubles; in a word, summated in everlasting duration ! “ How can two walk together unless

As there can be no effects without a they are agreed ?” Such is the happy cause, let us inquire a little into the life of true friends, and such are the source and origin of friendship. Some- motives of real friendship ! times it is generated by early ac- “ Far be the thought from any verse of mine, quaintance ; at other times by long in- And farther still the form’d and fix'd design, tercourse together ; and last of all, by To thrust the charge of deeds that I detest, sudden and accidental occurrences. Against an innocent, unconscious breast: Like vibrations in music, there is With safety to himself, is not a man :

The inan that dares traduce, because he can evinced an almost instantaneous uni- An individual is a sacred mark, son of souls, which naturally discovers Not to be pierc'd in play, or in the dark ; itselfin action. Friendship originates But public censure speaks a public foe, in allection ; its object is first loved, Unless a zeal for virtue guide the blow. then befriended; and the stronger the Let just restraint, for public peace design’d, tie of assection, the stronger will be the Chain up the wolves and tigers of mankind; tie of friendship. But as friendship The foe of virtue has no claim to thee, unbiassed by partial principles is hard But let insolvent Innocence go free." to be discriminated; so friendship,

Cowper. which is only professionally established on false pretensions of regard, and unfaithful love, is as difficult to be ascertained and guarded against. A letter from a Missionary at Amboy

The progress of real friendship (from na, has the following article :-“At whatever cause it originates,) is ge- my entering a large Negari, (village) nerally gradual ; because a discreet called Lilebor, N. E. of Amboyna, 800 person will wisely weigh every motion persons and more came to meet me; of his friend. He watches him with a and to convince me of their believing circumspect and jealous eye. He in one only God, they had brought all trusts him first with a little, then with their idols, confessing their superstia little more ; yet still with fear and tions. To prove their sincerity, I detrembling, until, by repeated ventures, sired them to pack the whole together he is so fully confirmed in his opinion, in a large chest, heaped up with that at last by further trial and ex-stones, and throw it into the sea, in perience, he approves of his choice, my presence ; which was accordingly and dares unbosom all the secrets of done." his mind without diffidence or restraint.

What most essentially and effectually constitutes not only real, but durable friendship, is, a conscientious Extract of a Letter from Mr. Bourne, regard to religion and sacred things.

dated Burder's Point, Tahiti, May True friends feel mutual delight in 15th, 1821. worshipping their Creator, Preserver, “ The land of this island is chiefly and Redeemer, together; and in mountainous. Some of these mouncommunicating to each other the spi- tains are an immense height, and ritual emotions of their minds. They seldom free from clouds, which cover joy to tell each other what God has the tops of them : between these done for them, both in his providence, mountains are several extensive valand through his grace. They are leys, which abound with the mountain happy to find each other interested in plantain. These are very delicious the mediation and benediction of a when perfectly ripe, and when mashed crucified Saviour. They exult in being up with milk, resemble very much the alike guided and influenced by the strawberry. When the bread-fruit is


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