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changed their emphasis, and are con- still remain some little inelegancies, sequently pronounced as different and

numerous expletives, which words; and many have changed their might, without prejudice, be spared : sense, so that, although the use of these should be corrected in another them formerly could not offend the edition. picest ear, at present it would be a transgression against elegance and

CHAUCER. propriety. We instance in “ax,' fre

Ther maist thou se coming with Palamon. quently used by Chaucer, for ask; Licurge himself, the grete king of Trace; "livin,' for believe ; 'bedradde, for to Blake was his berd, and manly was his face ; dread ;

begiled,' for imprisoned ; The cercles of his eyen in his hed * thilke,' for thine ; 'emforth, for ac- They gloweden betwixen yelwe and red, cording to ; 'bejaped,' for deceived, &c. And like a griffon loked he about, These things produce so much unin- His limmes gret, his braunes hard and stronge,

With kemped heres on bis browes stout; telligible nonsense, rhythmical dis- His shouldres brode, bis ermes 'round and cord, and apparent vulgarity, to the longe ; ear of a modern, that but compara- And as the guise was in his contree, tively few read our old poets: we

Ful bighe upon a char of gold stood he. therefore lose the early flashes of our Instede of cote armure on his harnais,

With foure white bolles in the trais. country's genius.

With nayles yelwe, and bright as any gold, Chaucer first struck the British lyre He badde a beres skin, cole-blake for old. with success.

He triumphed over the His longe here was kempt behind bis bak, barbarian sounds of the uncouth lan- As any ravenes fether it shone for blake. guage then in use, and from inhar- Upon his hed sate fal of stones bright,

A wreth of gold arm-gret, of huge weight, monious materials produced a sym- of fine rubins and of diamants. phony which roused the poetical ener- About his char there wenten white alauns, gy of his countrymen. He is there- Twenty and mo, as gret as any stere, fore deservedly styled the father of To hunten at the leon or the dere, English poetry. The sounds became And folwed him, with mosal fastybound, more melodious in the immortal Shak-An hundred lordes had be in his route

Colered with gold, and torettes filed round. speare's hands; "the divine Milton' Armed full wel, with hertes sterne and stoute. brought them to perfection; and the melody has been continued through a

THE SAME AMENDED BY LORD train of noble bards to the present

THURLOW. day.

-With Palamon did

pace Chaucer is universally allowed to The black Licurgus, the great king of Thrace; possess great beauties; we are there- Black was his beard, and manly was bis face. fore pleased with any attempt to make the circles of his eyes, that terror shed, him more easily understood. But in Barn’d ’twixt a yellow and a fiery red; order to modernize his antiquated That from the furnace on the anvil glows,

Much like the hue that the hot iron shows, style, it is necessary to translate him, And, being soft with fire, accepts the forger's for such an alteration would really blows : deserve that name. The work we And, like a griffon, look'd he round about, have before us is executed with consi- The straight hairs combed on his temples stout, derable judgment.

The author ap

And great bis limbs, his muscles hard and

strong, pears to have imbibed the poetic His shoulders broad, his arms were round and spirit of Chaucer; he has therefore long : taken care that none of our venerable And as the guise did in his country hold, poet's brilliancies are lost. In many Whom four white bulls in the great traces

Full high he stood upon a chair of gold, instances, where Chaucer is almost

drew, as unintelligible to one unacquainted Their glossy sides like summer milk in hae: with him, as if he had written in an No armour had he of device, and riveted unknown language, the author bas With nails of gold, that a bright lustre shed; completely modernized his poetry; But had a bear's skin, even black for age, and in other instances where Chaucer The king had killed with a cross-barr'd spear,

A coal-black bear, whom in his sullen rage may be understood, although with in the cold Thracian wilds, where winter difficulty, as much of his own style and language is preserved as possible, His long straight hair was comb'd behind his after lopping off his superfluities,

back, Indeed, in some instances, his lord- | And shone, like any raven's feather, black :

A golden circle of enormous weight, ship has been so careful to preserve And thick as a man's arm, upon his head there Chaucer's own language, that there sate,

rages drear.

p. 67.

That blazed, like morning, with th' inserted directed to seek after that happiness light

which endureth for ever: the various Of noble rubies, and of diamonds bright:

classes of Christians firmly united to And all around his chair went alans* white, Twenty and more, as great as any steer,

accomplish one great end : the infidel To hunt the tawny lion, and the deer;

objection against our holy religion, And follow'd him, with muzzles fastly bound, from the little interest taken by profesAnd golden collars, and rings filed round : sors in the extension of its light over And lords a hundred bad he in his rout,

the world, answered. It is the grain Their armour proof, their hearts were stern and stout.

of mustard-seed sown by the great

husbandman, which shall grow till it The above specimens shew the necessity of this work, and the manner dow over the hills and the valleys, and

become a great tree, casting its shaof its execution. To those from whom the beauties of our venerable poet

spreading its influence from the river have hitherto been hid by the veil of to the ends of the earth. his antiquated language, we recom

Such being our opinion of this insti

The mend this work, assuring them that tution when we first heard of they have the splendid bard of the out of compliment to the late Bishop

Porteusian Bible Society,” (so called fourteenth century habited in a modern garb.

Porteus, with whom the plan origiIn the display of his poetical talents nated,) the impression made upon bis lordship appears under many dis- our minds was not the most favourable

towards it; however, after an examiadvantages. Fettered with an original, the ideas of which he was bound nation of its nature and object, we to preserve, he had no opportunity of were satisfied that no apprehensions

need be entertained of its interfering introducing any new combination of thought; and every bright corusca

with the business or injuring the intetion of genius that might have blazed rests of the former, as its specific obbefore him, he was bound to sup- the sacred volume, by distinguishing,

ject is to assist uninformed readers of press. It is only in works where an author is free to make his own selec- with an appropriate mark, those chaptions, that his abilities can shine in ters in the Bible which are best calcutheir 'fairest forms. If Pope had only affect their hearts.

lated to inform their judgments and translated the satires of Donne, his name would never have ascended so

The Bible is the word of God; and “high on Parnassian hills” as it now

upon the belief and right application

of its principles depend our eternal appears. * A species of dog..

interests : every successful attempt, therefore, to direct the minds of men

to its important truths, and gain the Review-Of the Holy Bible ; contain- attention of the young and ignorant to

ing the authorised version of the Old | its careful study, merits our warmest and New Testaments : in which the acknowledgments and most decisive leading and more interesting chapters support. are distinguished for youthful medita- That an indiscriminate reading of tion, and as a course of family read- the scriptures is not the most “exceling. To which is prefixed the Family lent way,” has been the judgment of Guide to the Holy Scriptures. The sober Christians in all ages of the chapters selected upon the plan of the church. In latter times selections late Bishop Porteus. London, 1821. have been recommended by many emi

nent men, both in the church and The commencement of the nineteenth among dissenters: Porteus, Gastrell, century has been distinguished by Locke, Bennet, Watts, Wesley, &c. We, that illuminating sun, "The British however, rather hesitate as to the and Foreign Bible Society.” After propriety of putting such selections into the darkness of the middle ages, and the hands of persons instead of the the morning star of the reformation, | Bible itself, since there can be no we have seen the splendid beams of question that selections from the Bible this illustrious luminary scattered lose, in a high degree, the authority of over many portions of this “visible the Bible. They are viewed as a mere diurnal sphere.” We have seen the book, and not as the book which has dark places of the earth the recipients God for its author. This objection of its influence: the human mind I lies not against the Porteusian Bible.

Another reason why we prefer the Repentance.-Repentance necesplan before us, is—it is not so calcu- sary.-Wherein it consists.-Exhortalated to encourage a partial reading tions to it.—Motives. If genuine, will of the scriptures. It puts the whole of obtain pardon.—The danger of delaythe sacred volume into the hand of the ing it. reader; and while it assists him by Faith.–Faith in God necessary to pointing out those passages which are please him.-Must be unfeigned and especially adapted to his state, it re- durable.--Insignificant without the commends to his careful reading, and works of charity and love. Faith mature reflection, the whole of the without works compared with the faith word of God.

of devils.

JUSTIFICATION.—Justification not «« « All scriptare is given by inspiration of God,' and it is earnestly requested that this

to be attained by the law.-Nor by may be considered as the motto and foundation any works of our own.—Is given unto of the · Porteusian Bible Society.' But it is us by the grace of God.—Through the universally acknowledged, that all scripture is merits and blood of Christ.—By the not alike suited to the instruction, comfort, means of faith.-In answer to prayer. and edification, of all classes of readers. It is

Under each of tbese heads the therefore of importance to bring before persons those portions of the word of God which reader is referred to a number of are adapted to their state : that by exciting a scripture passages where the doctrine pleasing interest in the mind, they may be led is explicitly taught. The latter part to search THE WHOLE OF THE SACRED VO

of the work, we should observe, is LUME.” (Prospectus p. 1.)

chiefly an abridgment of Bishop GasWith these sentiments we perfectly trell's “ Christian Institutes :" and is, agree, and we shall proceed without we believe, well calculated to instruct further remarks, to lay before our the rising generation in the principles readers the plan, and some specimens, of the Christian faith; being a short of the work.

compendium of it in the language of Prefixed to the Bible is an Index, HOLY WRIT. which comprises :

We must not omit saying, that the I. An index of reference to suitable work is so free from every thing like portions of scripture, prayer, and ex- party feeling, that neither the high hortation, under various circumstan- churchman por the rigid dissenter ces of Christian experience and afflic- need scruple putting it into the bands tion.

of his children. The Bible which II. A collection of scripture doc- follows is the “ Authorised Version :" trines, duties, and promises, relative having the chapters distinguished as to the temporal and spiritual interests we before observed. The chapters of parents, children, servants, and thus marked are distributed into three others.

classes : III. A table of reference to the “I. Those of a more spiritual or discourses, parables, and miracles, of moral nature. Christ; arranged in chronological II. The leading historical chaporder.

ters. IV. The scripture promises arrang

“III. Our Lord's discourses, &c. ed under each separate book through- and other peculiarly important chapout the Holy Bible.

ters." V. A collection of scripture pre- Such is the nature of the work becepts, promises, and threatenings, fore us; and we doubt not that it will exhibiting the Christian's faith, duty, be found extensively and permanently and privileges. The whole arranged useful. In the event of a seventh under separate heads, and delivered edition being called for, (which will in the words of holy writ.

doubtless be the case shortly, as the This occupies 96 closely and beauti- list of subscribers is large and respectfully printed pages: and it is obvious able,) it would be well if the Index that much care and great judgment were printed with a larger type, as it have been used in compiling this part is a lamentable fact, that many of of the work : though we do not wish those persons to whom the work would it to be understood that we view it as be exceedingly useful, are past the faultless, or incapable of amendment. meridian of life, and with them,

We select the following as speci- “ those that look out of the windows mens of the work:

be darkened."

ON DISCOUNT.

when one of the payments is small in

respect of the other, and the time MR. EDITOR.

between them very long. But, until SIR,Mr. Bonpycastle obseryes, that a different mode of calculating discount no rule “in arithmetic has been the be adopted, it seems as if it would occasion of more disputes than that of remain the only true one, for it is plain equation of payment. Almost every at what point of time soever, between writer upon this subject has endea- the days on which the two payments voured to shew the fallacy of the me- are due, the whole debt is discharged, thods made use of by others, and to that the creditor is entitled to interest substitute one of his own.” This dif- for the first payment; and likewise ference of opinion, I apprehend, must, that the debtor ought to be allowed in a great measure, be occasioned by discount for the second payment, for simple interest being employed in the the time it is paid over soon ; and calculating of discounts. This will that when these happen to be equal, appear more obviously by a familiar they destroy each other. Now the example. A. owes B. £115. to be point of time when the interest of the paid at the end of three years. B. first payment is equal to the discount proposes to take £100. ready money, of the second, is what Malcolm's rule that being the present worth at 5 per precisely shews; and therefore, agreecent. per annum discount. A. replies, ably to the above principles, it must I can do better, I shall put my money be the true rule. "But as it is exout on interest, and by that means I tremely tedious, and as a result, shall have the use of the interest which approximates very near to the which I shall receive half-yearly for truth of it, may be obtained by the three years, whereas, were I to accept following rule, I offer it for insertion your offer, I shoald transfer that ad- in your valuable Magazine. vantage to you; wbich would, in RULE.Find the equated time by effect, be to pay you the odd £15. at the common rule, rejecting fractions, six half-yearly instalments, and you when they are small. know that not a' penny of the debt is Find the present worth, at this due till the end of three years. Allow equated time, of each payment then me 5 per cent, discount, compound not due. interest, and you shall have the Substitute each of these present money.

worths for its respective sum In equation of payments, when the payment, and repeat the operation common rule is used, which some by the common rule for the true equawriters have defended as the true one, ted time. it is plain that the debtor will have the The above rule is founded upon this advantage, inasmuch as he will re- principle: The interest of any sum ceive the whole of his interest at the for any given time, is equal to the equated time; which he would not discount of its amount for the same otherwise be entitled to till the time of time: thus, if the interest of £100. tho last payment.

for a year be £5. the discount of £105. Several authors have called the (which is the amount of £100. for a time at which the sum of the present year) for the same time will be £5. worth of all the payments will amount

I am, Sir, Your's, to the given debt, the sure equated

A. B. time. That this rule fails, is on ac- Shiney-Row, Feb. 16, 1822. count of the erroneous principles upon which the rule for finding the present worth is founded. That it actually Answer to a Query on Marriage does fail, may be proved thus: the Rings, to J.H. B. sum of the present worth, at the equated time of all the payments then not in answer to the inquiry, col. 294, due, added to the amount of all the respecting the first usage of the ring rest at the same time, would equal in the marriage ceremony, nothing can the given debt, if the rule were true; be given with absolute certainty. The but it does not, and therefore the origin of the custom is fixed by some rule is false.

in the early times of the Hebrews, on Even Malcolm's rule is not above the authority of a text in Exodus the reach of objection ; especially xxxv. 22. Some again affirm, that the No. 40.-Vol. IV.

2 H

or mu

ancient Hebrews used no nuptial ring; of Julian the apostate, are spoken of whilst others further contend, that as troops, whose personal prowess was they gave it in their marriages in the such, that they were reputed invincistead of a piece of money, which they ble; the Galls observing that the had been used to give before ; which bravest among the Roman forces were money was about its equivalent in called gentiles and scutarii, approprivalue. The Greeks and Romans, ac- ated the derivative appellation of cording to Tertullian, used the mar- Esquires (it is said) from this

cumriage ring in the same manner, and stance, to the boldest and bravest from them the primitive Christians among themselves. Every body has took it up very early. A formula of made himself more or less familiar consecration was added by the Chris- with the duties of the squires of old tians to the former ceremonies, and romance, as the attendants of knights there is little doubt of that period in their doughty expeditions at a later having been the æra of its present period; those days of chivalry, howusage, when they first received the ever, have now passed away, with custom from the heathens.

“the glory of them.” It need not be OMEGA. said that other “modifications" of the

use of this title have since prevailed,

and other “ qualifications" for its asAnswer by J. B. Chivers, Schoolmaster, sumption been admitted-a spirit of

St. Austell, to the third question, commerce has gradually superseded “ On Animal Increase,inserted in the spirit of chivalry, Tempore mutanthe Imperial Magazine for February tur, (as Partridge says,) et nos 1, col. 200.

tamur in illis : and the institutions of

chivalry have left but a faint trace Ir appears by the nature of the ques- behind them of their primitive existtion, that the increase in the first year ence. will be 0; in the second, 1; in the The title, as now established

among third, 1; in the fourth, 2; in the fifth, us, continues to be next below that of 3; in the sixth year, 5, &c. &c. to 20 knight, and is the right, by law, of years. Therefore, by the nature of "all younger sons of noblemen, and progression, the whole series will be the eldest sons of such younger sons," 10,945, which is the increase required as also “ the eldest sons of knights, in 20 years ;-if for 40 years, the and their sons successively,” and, if amount would be 165,580,140.

such an office be still kept up, "the A similar answer has been received four esquires of the king's body;" and from Rubert Hall, Jun. Colchester. if such a ceremony (which I suppose

to be now obsolete,) be ever perform

ed, “esquires created by the king, by Answer to a Query on the title putting about their necks a collar of Esquire.

SS's, and bestowing on them a pair

of silver spurs.” So runs the authoEDITOR.

rity to which I am indebted for most SIR,—The following answer to a query of the above information. I believe of one of your correspondents, in the not even members of Parliament have March Magazine, col. 296, is very a direct legal claim on this title, in much at your service.

virtue of their office as representaI am, Your's, &c. tives. A-, C- R- No modification whatever, of this

law, has taken place; by custom and The English word Esquire, is derived courtesy, however, which in many from the French escuyer ;- Equiso, a cases are allowed by lawyers to be groom or hostler, according to some; paramount to law"heads of ancient according to others, scrutarius or families”-men of patrician descentscutiger, a shield bearer, is the members of parliament—those who Latin from which escuyer derives its till certain offices under governmentorigin.

or who belong to either of the liberal Antiquarians are not agreed as to professions-share in this title, as the remoteness of the title, or even the also perhaps other sorts of men of less peculiar ranks and office of those who note, “patrician desert,” who claim first held it. The scutarii, in the days such a distinction on the score of pro

Mr.

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