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On Conscience.


ter's views cannot, on this account, be Those who are in grace mustof course, involved in any obscurity.

if any are, be enlightened from heaven.

This supernatural power, of necessity, MR. EDITOR.

must direct them in their decision beSIR,—A communication of mine, sign-tween good and evil; they cannot do ed A. F. on Conscience, I thank you wrong without knowing it. But I for inserting, agreeably to my_wish, think no man, let him enjoy “the in the Imperial Magazine for Febru- peace of Conscience” as it is expressary, 1821. I shall again feel myself ed, as much as can be, which I take obliged if you will allow the early ap- to be a sign of the individuals being pearance of the subjoined.

in a state of grace, can himself believe I think the gentleman who in the be is thus from heaven enlightened; first instance proposed the question-- I mean with respect to his ordinary “ What is Conscience ?" has not, at actions, when he is continually discopresent received a sufficient reply ;- vering that he was in the commission of for this reason, I shall take the liberty some sin, the criminality of which he to answer him more fully than I did never knew till that moment, and then before. I conceive this to be a very only knew from reading, or from 'ininteresting subject. The correct inean- formation from bis fellow men. ing of the word Conscience, is a thing, I reme ber myself, when I was many more than Mr. J. B. of London, about 16 years old, being greatly desire, and one by which thousands attached to religion; my faith was would be benefited. It has been Calvinistic; I was full of the love of justly remarked by Theologius, that God. I was then possibly in a state * This question deserves a very seri- of grace; I acted as aprightly as I ous attention, because Christians in knew how ; I enjoyed a peace of Congeneral appeal to the decisions of science ;-if ever in my past life the Conscience, in order to justify their light of heaven directed me, I am sadeportment." It is generally believed tisfied it did then. But I am now a that this same quality, (which must convert, and am firmly attached to necessarily be divine,) is perfectly an opposite religion. I have known competent thus to decide. This is the the delight of grace in my present opinion of the gentleman whose an- faith; this will readily be granted. swers are inserted with mine—that the God respects not creeds, if there is finger of God is ever present in the piety; but agreeably to our faith we mind of man, to discover to him truth act! I now practise daily, deeds, I in passing judgment upon his actions; at present think virtuous, but which -this I shall attempt to contro- my former faith condemned as vicious. vert.

If God then directed me, it is plain he I am anxious that Conscience should does not now. Still my Conscience is be understood—I think it is nothing as approving as it was then; it is as more than the judgment of the under- happy. Men of all persuasions die standing; which capability of decision in the peace of Conscience; and the is increased or limited by the degree last deeds of some, done out of piety, of instruction and revelation of God's others die condemning. If Conscience will that has been received ; and that is from heaven, it must lead into truth again, by the measure of natural rea- in this extremity of life ; but is this the son each individual mind is possess-case? ed of. I think it is seldom, and only It is certain that numbers of good upon momentous concerns, that the men die in the possession of God's Almighty bestows a divine intelli- grace, whose final disagreement in gence.

faith and works, proves that ConI know that those who think Con- science must be human ; that it is noscience to be a divine power, say, it thing more than the Understanding. is never fully gifted till we are in a The disproportionate possession of state of grace ;-I shall, therefore, for this power by individuals, and their brevity's sake, say nothing of the moral and religious information (the faculty those have of distinguishing great guides to the understanding in between good and evil, who are not in passing judgment upon the will) being the enjoyment of God's grace (though likewise so unequal, are the causes of it seems, according to this, that such the differences of Conscience in diffemen's Consciences must be human.) / rent men. No. 41.-Vol. IV.

2 M

I class God's works as natural and A Political Dream in May, 1821, and ordinary, supernatural, or miracu- repeated in May, 1822,-by John lous. The perfection at which the Bunyan. body arrives, and the increase the understanding receives in the course The Catholic Question, now agitating of life, are the ordinary blessings of in the House of Commons, having exGod. Superior or miraculous qualifi- cited a considerable degree of interest cations of the body, or divine endow- both among Protestants and Papists, ments of the mind, when bestowed will furnish a reasonable apology for upon man, I conceive to be extraordi- the insertion of the following dream. nary or supernatural gifts. The Al. It is to be lamented that while the admighty's will is to a great extent vocates for this bill are using every known all over the world; some na-exertion for the accomplishment of tions, some religions, some men, pos- their purposes, too many Protestants sess more of the truth than others; view it with a degree of apathy, for but in general, enough is known to which it is difficult to account. direct us in our conceptions of good The important question has long and evil, without the aid of a superna- been before the public; and it is well tural light; I mean an unceasing com- known, that whatever alterations it munication from above to direct us. may have undergone in the modifica

The Almighty, when he creates a tion of its subordinate branches, its child, bestows upon it a mind immor- radical principles remain unaltered. tal. His creature is at the birth com- Hence, the article which is subjoined, pleted. He has not afterwards, as though not entirely new, retains all the child matures, to add another in- its point and original force. It is not stinct to the mind, or enlighten with in the nature of time, either to impair a beam of his divinity, the soul, as it truth, or to give to error a new esissues into the world, to point out his sence. On this subject, what was will, when bis law is already known, true in 1821, is not false in 1822. On and the understanding is capable of both sides of this question, the dreamcomprehending it. As the infant mind er has imbodied the principal argumatures, the principles, or essentials, ments, by which the measure has been of morality, are quickly understood advocated and opposed. The quesfrom inspiration, and religion, and tion seems to be placed in a proper revelation, also. These things, when light; and we want neither Daniel we know their importance, are trea- nor the wise men of Babylon, to show sured and deeply imprinted in the either the vision or its interpreta. memory, and any person must see tion.—Editor. how capable the mind is thus ren- After hearing the debates in a cer. dered, competently to judge between tain great House on the question of good and evil. We all know that the giving political power to Roman Ca. Almighty grants to us sometimes, and tholics in this Protestant country, I I may say, not very unfrequently, returned home at three in the mornupon momentous concerns, a superior ing, and being exhausted by the attenintelligence ; but this is not general, tion I had given to all the speakers, I and therefore cannot matter to my threw myself on a sofa, and fell fast argument.

asleep. And as I slept, I dreamed, I have, I think, now sufficiently and behold a castle, having four turproved, that Conscience is nothing rets, stood before me :near to this more (as I said at first) than the hu- building was a crowd of people, holdman Understanding, and that limited ing a consultation, apparently on to the information it has received. some important subject. I inquired

On this momentous subject I shall of a person who was passing, the be glad to have the thoughts of others, name of the place, and the cause of whether they confirm or correct my the assembly. He informed me that own. There is nothing to which we so I was on Tower Hill, and that the frequently appeal as to Conscience; crowd was composed of the neighbourbut it must be confessed that there is ing inhabitants, who were then consiscarcely any thing less understood. dering the merits of a Petition which

Anne FitzALLAN. had been presented to them from the Camp-Hill, near Birmingham,

wild beasts who inhabited the Tower, Oct 9th, 1821.

praying emancipation from confine


A Political Dream.


ment, and an equal participation in Sovereign, wherever he may bappen all rights and privileges possessed by 1 to be resident, and were perpetually every tame and harmless animal in the swearing obedience to bis will and metropolis - also admission to the commands, they could not be reSelect Vestry of the parish, and a lied on as trust-worthy subjects of share in all offices, emoluments, and King George IV. wbo was nothing but advantages, at present enjoyed by a man. the resident inhabitants and house- A grave old gentleman entreated holders.

honourable members coolly to weigh I thought I was in time to hear the this fair objection, he was, however, Petition read ; and it set forth, among silenced by a shrewd and powerful other things, “ that the brutes were, orator, who reminded the assembly properly speaking, lords of the crea- that the Lions, having for the last 200 tion, being created previously to man: years been regularly washed every 1st that they were also the original inha- of April, had been purged by degrees bitants and possessors of the British of all their natural ferocity, and they Isles, which were infested by wolves, would certainly require nothing of and other wild animals, before they their subjects inimical to the peace of were discovered by man: that, al- the nation at large, or to the authothough they did not deny the truth of rity of their well-beloved human brocertain histories respecting the cruel- ther on the Throne. A loud shout of ties, murders, and enormities, of ma- Hear, heur!)-Having confirmed the ny of their progenitors, nor even that solidity of this argument, no one had they had been sworn enemies both to courage to answer it. Another Petithe human race and to all tame ani- tion reminded the meeting, that the mals, yet that ever since they had wild beasts were in the constant habit become their fellow parishioners in of maintaining that no faith was to the Tower, they had lived harmlessly be kept either with men or tame aniand peaceably, molesting no one, and mals; and that they were in the habit neither biting, tearing, nor devouring, of taking an oath, that, should it be any thing but their daily food : that, considered for the good of the wild so far from being injurious, they had fraternity, they might tear and slaughcontributed very greatly to the emolu- ter other animals as a matter of conment and security of the Tower; and science. that in evidence of this their good con- Another grave man now entreated duct they could bring forward the tes- the assembly to allow this fact to postimony of their keeper, and also that sess its just and proper weight with of many monkeys, pelicans, and other them; so that, if they would not listen respectable and defenceless animals, to argument, they would at least rewho had lived for years in the Tower gard a proof of such nature. A flouwith them in undisturbed security. rishing fellow, however, quashed all For these, and other reasons, they this by stating, that what the wild prayed emancipation from their pre- beasts promised on their honour to sent state of oppression and unjust the tame animals, or to man, was confinement."

of much more importance than all Perceiving the favourable manner the oaths they took to their Crein which the Petition was listened to, ator. and fearing, as the crowd was rapidly After the Counter-petitions had all increasing, that I might not be able been read, I thought the debate conto escape before the wild beasts should tinued as follows:--"Mr. Chairnian, be liberated, I was happy to learn all beasts have equal rights—they that counter-meetings had been held have been obedient subjects, and in Lamb's Conduit and Cateaton- peaceable inhabitants.”_"What do Streets, Nag's Head Court, Hounds- you mean?” replied another: “why, ditch, and Cow Cross; at which Peti- one got loose and killed the keeper's tions had been voted and forwarded wife in the Tower; and a relation of from the various tame animals in the his, at Exeter Change, broke out, metropolis against the emancipation and ate two monkeys. Another wild of their wild fellow-subjects in the beast got out near Salisbury, atTower. One of these Petitions stated, tacked the Exeter mail-coach, tore 6 that since the wild beasts acknow- one of the horses, and killed a dog ; ledged the Lion as their rightfull and wherever they have got loose


they have always done the same: and | ing their teeth, and giving him conas for the Tower, if they have lived siderable trouble; and as this advoharmlessly there, it has been for cate was known to be much in the this plain reason, that they have not secrets of Government, his notion had the power of doing mischief, seemed to take surprisingly with all, which very power you now wish to except with those who apprehended, allow them."

that, when the wild beasts should “ But,” said another, “they may once feel their own strength, they be let out safely now, for they are would set up for themselves, and ready to give security; they will give only concede to this modern champion bonds, and sign and seal any thing of their claims the privilege of being you please.”_" Hang it,” exclaimed devoured last. another, “but they can claw it to pie- Another Member affirmed, that ces as soon as they have signed it.”- times were completely altered, and “Sir,” said one, “a gentleman has that therefore wild beasts and every most unjustly reproached wild beasts thing else must be altered too.”as bloody and ferocious in their dis- “Yes,” said one, “ but what has made positions; I can disprove such asser- the alteration ? Has it not been the tions altogether, and put beyond doubt putting down the power of these ferothe fact, that all wild beasts have at cious animals? If you are sensible of times been generous, grateful, and the blessings of light, freedom, secuhonourable: in proof of this univer- rity, and peace, then keep them while sal characteristic in wild beasts, Iyou have them; and if so, you will will appeal to the story of Andro- continue those under control who have cles in history, and to the fable of the never allowed these blessings to other Bear, who so carefully whisked the animals than those of their own fraterflies from bis master's face while he nity.” He also added, “Suppose was asleep.”

you let them out, and they should be“I'll tell you what,” observed an gin their old tricks of tearing and dehonourable Member; “you bad bet- vouring, how are you to get them in ter let them all out directly; for they again ?" He was, however, silenced have grown so much stronger latterly by cries of Order, Order! and a than formerly, that, if you do not, reprimand from the Chairman, that they will soon force their way out his expression,

6 old tricks,without leave.

unparliamentary, and that any refeNo one present seemed to think this rence to future evil could only be speargument worth answering, since all culative. remembered our successful opposition

The facts which had been brought to the French Revolution, and the glo- forward were, however, deemed likely rious end of the battle of Waterloo. to have some effect on the minds of “I am for letting them out,” said an- impartial hearers, and it was thereother, “because I am sure that we fore considered advisable to divert enjoy so much light, knowledge, and them from close consideration : and, freedom, now, compared with what in order to effect this, I thought a we did when England was covered lively little old man stepped forward with wolves, that people will not suffer as a volunteer with a violin under themselves to be torn to pieces as they his arm, and said, “Mr. Chairman, used to be formerly.

I will sing you a song on this subAnother advocate for the claims, ject;” on which he began, and I who had been conversant with many thought I never heard a more musical foreign menageries in the course of voice than that of the old man. He his life, appeared to think, that, so far skipped round and round like a bird from there being any real grounds for on his perch, and brought such mealarm, the wild beasts, when released, lodious sounds out of his violin as would, from the natural principles made all the people cry out, Hear, of gratitude and self-interest, be found hear!” and clap their hands with among the most orthodox, pacific, ecstacy. The following, I thought, and loyal, of all His Majesty's sub- was his song :jects, and even afford considerable

• Through this grand conciliation, assistance in keeping in order cer

We shall be a happy nation. tain refractory animals, who, under

Loving grows each savage beast, the present system, were often show- Grateful for our favours past.


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Blessed day when all are free!

STAMPS ISSUED FOR NEWSPAPERS. Let them out, my friends, and see.” Now, I suppose, it will be allowed that there was more sound than sense

The following is an account of the in all this, yet it had such an effect on number of Stamps issued for Newsthe hearers, that they seemed indis- papers, for the years 1801 and 1821, posed to hear any one else, and there together with the amount of duty, was a general cry of “Question, Ques

omitting fractions. tion!A Member indeed ventured to


£. say, “Mr. Chairman, on a subject Daily.

Number. Duty. of this serious importance to us and to English Chronicle

136,650 1,992 our children, is it to be supposed that General Evening Post 192,500 2,807 we shall allow ourselves to be fiddled London Chronicle

227,500 3,317 out of our old English understanding

Lloyd's Evening Post 99,611 1,452
Morning Advertiser

622,500 and common sense ?” But, perceiving Morning Chronicle


527,500 7,692 that he was against the question, they Morning Herald

762,500 11,119 soon coughed him down; and only Morning Post

312,500 4,557

541,025 7,889 one more speaker would they listen Oracle to: this was a bald-headed man,

Porcupine; with Heart of

191,000 2,785 who pleased them much by reminding Public Ledger; with them that there was once a lioness London Packet

534,250 7,791 who used to suffer her keeper to go St. James's Chronicle ; into her den whenever he pleased; The Times ; with Evening

243,500 3,551 from which circumstance he asserted


1,085,750 15,833 it was proved that wild beasts were Traveller; with Commerby nature friendly to mankind; and cial Chronicle

323,500 4,717 after dwelling most forcibly on this True Briton; with San 804,000 11,725 wondrous piece of disinterested hospi-Whitehall Evening Post 129,750 1,892 tality, he added, “One good turn de


Craftsman; with Selector 70,250 1,024 serves another."

Johnson's Sunday Monitor 97,500 1,421 This was enough—They were now London Recorder; with ripe for emancipation; and strangers Westminster Journal 71,000 1,035 being ordered to withdraw, I was

Old British Spy

6,250 most happy to find it possible to obey

Sunday Review

35,450 516 Weekly Dispatch

17,000 247 the command, lest I should feel the York's Political Review 20,000 fraternal hug of so many lions, tigers,

Three Weeks. bears, and leopards. Just as I was Police Gazette

22,000 320 passing Allballows Barking, I thought Total number of London some one bad conveyed the joyful re

Newspapers which can

be distinguished 7,073,486 103,155 sult of the meeting to the Tower; and

Provincial Newspapers the universal howl, growl, and scream, and Stamps issued for of exultation emitted from the dens of the supply of London the various animals, terrified me so Papers, not specified in greatly, that I awoke, and behold it the above account, which

cannot be distinguished 9,011,419 131,416 was a dream,

Total number of Newspa-
per Stamps issued

16,084,905 234,571

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£. ARISTOTle being reproved for bestow


Number. Duty. ing charity on an unworthy object, an- British Press; with Globe 777,500 12,958 swered, “ I gave it to the man in mise- British Traveller

81,575 1,359 ry, and not to his manners.”_Dr. Courier

1,594,500 26,575 Johnson acted in the same noble spi- Morning Advertiser; with rit, for having been a great friend to

Sunday Advertiser 970,000 16,166 Morning Chronicle

990,000 16,500 an author, whose character afterwards

Morning Herald

875,000 14,583 proved infamous, he observed in reply Morning Post

630,500 10,508 to one that expressed his wonder at New Times

846,000 14,100 his having been so long deceived; Public Ledger

430,500 7,175

Star • They who look constantly upon the

410,073 6,834 ground will see dirt, but I desire al

Statesman; with Consti-

239,150 3,985 ways to have higher objects.”

170,000 2,833


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