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Review ---Campbell's Travels in Africa.



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that which too often comes under our | inhabitants bear a strong resemblance notice.

to one another. Both are wild and Like most poets, our author is uncultivated, possessing capabilities a lover of the moon, the stars, which have never been called into moon-light scenes, &c.; and this love, action, yet bearing weeds, and nouany one will perceive, is too often rishing reptiles, which render solitude expressed, if they only read half a frightful, and place human nature in dozen pages;--in one page we be- its lowest state of moral degradation. lieve

noticed “ moonbeams," The following passages will illustrate “cold moon,” “pale moon,

the melancholy fact, that these outlight,” &c. &c. The beauty of the casts of society, and strangers to the passages where these occur is, by this blessings of civilization, are involved repetition, in our opinion, consider- in a state of the most deplorable menably injured :-another fauit is, that tal darkness. there seems a want of music in some

Many attended our worship at eleven P.M. of the lines; our readers have proba- when they were told what great things the Son bly noticed this already in the pas- of God bad done for the salvation of men, and sages we have quoted. We cannot

in order to gain their love. The people gave read on so smoothly as we could wish; apparent attention. There were present the

King, the ebief captain, and Mooshene, capsome are too short, others too long, tain of another Tamnaba town, ten or twelve and we are often obliged to jump over miles distant. After the meeting was over, words, and supply others, to keep the king and chief men returned, and we ena regular, smooth, unbroken chain tered into conversation with them. On being of soft, musical, and harmonious requested to tell what they knew of God ? The

King replied, that they knew nothing of God, sounds.

but when they saw waggons, and the things in The writer of this volume, is, if we them, and the tent, &c. they thought that the mistake not, a regular contributor to men who could make such things must be a the London Magazine; we fancy we kind of gods, but now that we had told them can perceive traces of the same ro

otherwise, they knew we were men like them

selves; he then added, that they knew not mantic and lively imagination in some

what to think of God. The King (who is an of the Scottish Tales in that publica- old man) said, that old men in former times tion,--tales as pleasing as they are used to speak of those things, but men now original.

speak of nothing; that he knew he was ignoOn the whole, we are highly pleas- On being asked if he knew that he had a soul,

rant, and had come to the tent to be instructed. ed with this performance, and think

he said he did not, nor did he know any diffeit will become a favourite with the

rence between men and beasts ; but that they public.

bad always known there was a God, and that Of the poems which close the vo- he was near them, and killed them, but they lume, we can say but little :--they par- did what was bad, I asked if their hearts told

never knew why he was angry. When they take of a portion of the same spirit as

them it was evil which they had done ;-such the dramatic poem, but are, we con- as when they murdered or stole? The King ceive, of inferior value. Some of the answered “ When a man does evil he does not songs are very pretty, sweet produc- think of it, but if a man tells him, and retions, and will be well received, and proves him for it, then he thinks of it and is duly estimated, by Scotchmen espe-them,” I inquired, " did they do any thing to

afraid :"-"When they thought God killed cially, and all those who admire the please him?" The King replied, “We never rustic simplicity of Burns.

thought of it-no man ever thought what would plense God.”

He was surrounded by the wonderful works of God, I observed, such as

the sun, did he ever think how large it was ? REVIEW.-Campbell's Travels in the Answer, They never thought of it. “ Let the South of Africa.

King think of it now," I said, “and tell me

what he thinks?" He said he could not think (Concluded from col. 466.)

of it, but we must tell him. With this request

I immediately complied. On being asked This volume is replete with infor- said he thought (speaking with seeming diffi

where that luminary went in the night-time? he mation, which is both amusing and dence) it took a short turn from there, (pointinstructive, containing delineations of ing to the west) and came back to the east. African character, which have a close “ Does it come back under the world, or connection with the important object how?" He could not tell, but he knew that for wbich this journey was under- sun, moon, and stars, all went one way; whe

ther they went through or under the earth be taken, and the recesses of the desert did not know. He wished to be informed were explored. The country and its wbether it was a new sun every morning, or

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the old one that came back again ; he thought him, and made him believe this. They canwbite men were a kind of gods compared to not, he added, feel what she is; but should a them; and that in their own country they must man be permitted to touch her, which seldom have gods greater than themselves; that when happens, she breathes hard upon bis arm, and he looked at our clothes, and observed how fit this makes him shoot better. She eats nothing they were for defending the skin from thorns, but bulbous roots. After Ko comes up from when he viewed our table, stools, and wag- the ground, and dances a short time with them, gons, he wondered at us.

she disappears, and is succeeded by her “Does the King think that God is subject nymphs, who likewise dance a wbile" with to death like men ? Answer, He does not them. know. I took this opportunity of telling him “At this stage of the narrative, Makoon that God alone could send them rain, and that remarked, that these were old stories of the the persons among the Bootsbuanas and Bar- Bushmen, about which he cared little ;' adding, roolongs, called rain-makers, bad no such that he wished to see and hear no more conpower over the clouds. The conversation af- cerning them, but only to be taught the knowterwards proceeded as follows.

ledge of the true God " • Does the King know any thing of the « On asking him whether Bushmen thought devil ?'— Yes, we call him Burrimo! but we of going to another world when they died ? he think he is a God.' Here Munameets told the said he did not know what other Bushmen King that the white people called him Satan; thought about it, but when he died he knew that he was a rogue, and, like Makkabba, was that he should be eaten up by a wolf, and constantly trying to stir up all men against God there would be an end of him. He added, that and each other. Have they ever heard of the when a Bushman died, they made a grave and Ocean, or Great Water?' The King, smiling, buried him in it with his face towards the said, "Where shall I see such a Great Wa- rising sun. Were they to put his face towards ter?” He then inquired from whence beads the west, it would make the sun longer in

On being asked how the fowls were rising the next day. He could not state any upheld in the air, he said, he did not know difference between a man and a brate-he did whether by air or not. He wished to know not know but a buffalo might shoot with bows where we got our clothes, and from what they and arrows as well as a man, if it had them.were made. Mooshene then asked for a knife; How striking an indication of the degraded and the King said we must shoot flesh for condition of these wretched outcasts! yet them; which was heartily seconded by Pelan- Makoon was one of the most intelligent I had gye, who urged the King to persevere in that seen among them.”-p. 34. request, which be evidently did from the hope of coming in for a share of whatever might be

Nor is the civil state of these unthus obtained. Sedras, the Bootshuana inter- happy tribes superior to their moral preter at this time, told the King and twenty condition: war, depredation, plunder, others who were sitting in the tent, that and injustice, accompanied with acts though Pelangye had travelled with us all the of unfeeling barbarity, form the most journey up the country, and had heard the word of God every day, yet here he bad inter- prominent features in their history and rupted the conversation by talking about flesh: character. The following instances adding, that he was a man who was never happy will place this statement in an awful but when he saw a potful of flesh boiling before

light. him.”-p.5.

During our absence from Lattakoo, the Another instance of a similar na- Bushmen had stolen twenty head of cattle ture occurs in the life of Makoon, a from Mateebe's people; a commando immedichief of some wild Bushmen.

ately pursued and overtook them on the plain,

when they killed ten men, five women, and “ He said his countrymen knew nothing of five children. On returning from the slaughGod, and he knew as little. On being asked ter, a peetso, or general meeting was held, what the Bushmen thought of God, he seem- and all the circumstances attending it were ed unwilling to answer, but carelessly ob- related. After which, men and women disserved, that Bushmen told lies; however, on persed themselves over the town, imitating being pressed and questioned, be said, they the screams of those persons who bad been had a name which they gave to God who is killed, repeating their expressions of terror, above them, and another to God who is under and representing their actions when begging them. The former is a male, the latter a fe- for their lives. The Lattakoo women discomale. The male God they call Goa, the female vered on this occasion a more cruel disposition Ko; and ber attendants are called Ganna. than even the men. They imitated, with much When the Bushmen dance, Ko sometimes apparent pleasure, the screams of the Bushcomes and informs them where game is to be men, when put to death by the Bootshuanas. procured ; and when any animals are killed, Alas! how truly do the Scriptures represent certain parts of them must only be eaten by the dark places of the earth as being the habiparticular persons. She is a large, white tations of cruelty.”—p. 59. figure, and sheds such a brightness around, “While we were at dinner in the tent, at that they can hardly see the fire for it; all see Machatchanai, a little girl, almost a skeleton and hear her as she dances with them. Being from hunger, stood near the tent, gazing at us asked if he had actually seen her himself with an anxious countenance. We gave her with some hesitation, he said he had seen her, some meat, which she devoured with the voand she spoke the Bushman language. Pro- racity of a tiger. Many of the captains' bably, when a boy, they had imposed upon daughters sat near, evidently astonished that

p. 157.

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Review-Campbell's Travels in Africa.

362 we should take notice of such a poor child; characters, Mr. Campbell gives the for they think that if any thing be given away, following account. it ought to be given to the rich. It is remarkable, that the dogs in that part of Africa seem “RAIN-MAKERS, as the word expresses, are to be similarly affected, for should a poor persons who pretend to possess power over half-starved dog happen to make his appear- | the clouds, and to be able to bring rain upon a ance, all the well-fed dogs, as if by consent, country in times of drought. They are held in rush apon bim, and are ready to tear him to high estimation by all the Bootshuana tribes; pieces.”-p. 136.

but are seldom employed by the nation to * At the peetso, or general meeting of the which they belong, each nation preferring to captains, when it was resolved that they should employ one who lives at a distance from them. go on no more plundering expeditions, to Should it happen to rain soon after his arrival steal cattle from the neighbouring nations, in any country, his fame is established for life, Seemeeno, who opposed the motion, said, if and he will not forget to boast of it wherever they relinquished going, upon commandoes, he goes. Upon his approach to a town, many the young men would have no way lest of of the inhabitants go out to meet and congradistinguishing themselves by killing people, talate him on bis safe arrival; and he is usu. and rather than that they should not be re- ally presented with a black sheep. On bis nowned in this way, as formerly, he recom- reaching the place assigned for his residence, mended that they should kill their mothers.”- he assumes a grave countenance, and none are

permitted to enter his habitation without first * Inquiring if he knew how men first came

taking off their sandals.. White oxen, cows, into the world ? he said he was a child,

or sheep, are then collected and given in (meaning in understanding) and knew nothing; charge to the King, who, with his chief that he never heard his father speak about any captains, formally present them to the rain

maker. thing except game. I inquired where the sun

He rarely commences the usual ceremonies went after it sunk behind the mountain ? He could not tell; but thought it died, and a new

for procuring rain until he sees clouds arising

in the N.W. from which quarter rain generally one came up the next morning. He had heard of God since he came to live near Kars, but In those latitudes rain seldom falls except at

comes : but of this the natives are ignorant. all his forefathers had died ignorant of this

the changes of the moon, a circumstance of knowledge. He said the Bushmen knew

which the rain-maker, from observation, is soinething of the devil; as for bimself, he beliered him to be a rogue, and that his blood

aware; and he frequently ventures to proroise

a supply at such times; if it do not happen to was like that of the Bushmen. He kuew this, because the people sometimes killed him, and

come, he assigns some reason, and promises saw his blood. 'On asking how they could kill which corresponds with the next lunar

to bring it in so many days more, a period the devil more than once? he replied that he

change. came to life again, and that he can kill people with fire, not thunder, but a peculiar kind of tempts to bring rain, be must exert all his

“When he is Jong unsuccessful in his atfire of his own. " Busbmen, said he, do not think they have expectations of the people, who then begin to

faculties to devise methods for keeping up the souls, yet they die one after another, burying complain. The general reason at first assigned the young people, and throwing the old to the is, that sufficient presents have not been given wild beasts. "Here Kars, the Griqua, said him; when he has proceeded as far in this way that the Bushman sitting yonder (pointing to a

as he judges prudent, he devises new me. man in the tent) had an aged mother-in-law.

thods; for example, on one occasion he comDuring the absence of the son-in-law from home, her own daughter, who is his wife, Krooman River.

manded that all should wash themselves in the

Most of them obeyed, dragged the old woman into the field, and left

though it is a ceremony against which they ber alive among the bushes, where she was torn to pieces by the wolves that same night, the young men, refused, declaring, that if

are prejudiced; but some, especially among On asking the man if he did not think it cruel

rain could not be obtained but on such terms, to drag the poor woman to the field to perish ? with the atmost indifference, be answered, maker, therefore, desired these persons to

they would rather be without it. The rainthat it was not be but his wife who did it. The catch a large baboon, and bring it to him alive. other day, when this same Bushman was

This is an animal extremely difficult to obtain. chastising one of his children, an elder son took his bow, and would certainly have shot foolish expedition, and tried many expedients

A numerous party immediately set out on this the father, had he not been prevented by a

for obtaining one, but all were fruitless : howperson who happened to be near. The father, ever, they were successful in killing one, which however, did not punish his son for this

This he attempt at parricide; perhaps he was afraid rejected with disdain, as being useless; and

they brought to the rain-maker. lest he should, if provoked, murder him while ordered an owl to be caught, and brought he was asleep."-p. 236.

alive to bim. This undertaking they found as

difficult as the former, and returned without Among the superstitious customs any. These fruitless expeditions, however, which prevail in this region of credu- fully answered the design of the rain-maker, lity and darkness, one of the most which was to gain time. They also afforded extraordinary is, that of attributing themselves. He then went to Reyner Moun

him an opportunity of throwing the blame on to certain individuals, the power of tain, and rolled down great stones, order, procuring rain. Of these celebrated if possible, to make the clouds turn towards

power, and

Lattakoo; but the clouds, as might be expect- | among the greatest which could take place in ed, continued in their own courses.

a remote corner of the earth. When about Two years ago a rain-maker from the Ma- the one half of Berend's farm was ploughed, show country, after using means for many the ploughshare broke; a loss irreparable, weeks, and receiving various presents, was probably for years. They had no prospect of quite unsuccessful. The patience of the people being able to replace it till the next Beaufort being completely exhausted, he was called, at fair, which would not return for eight months ; a general meeting, rogue, lion, wolf, &c. and and as there were only two ploughshares for the Missionaries were requested to pray for it. sale at the last market, there might be none at 'They held meetings for this purpose, and it the next. Besides the risk of finding any for pleased Divine Providence to answer their sale. it is necessary to undertake a journey of prayers by causing rain to come in a short six hundred miles ; and many poor Bushmen time. The Mashow rain-maker, while he re- may thus perish for want, in consequence of mained in Lattakoo, attended the preaching of the breaking of one plough share.--p. 240. the Missionaries, and from various conversations they had with him, they thought he had

Their manner of conveyancing is more understanding than any of the Matchap- attended with little ceremony. They pees, though only about twenty years of age. neither have, nor want, attorneys; and He seemed sincerely to believe that he pos- from the following circumstance, the sessed power to bring rain, notwithstanding price of land appears to be much his late fruitless attempts.

“When the last Matchappee rain-maker died, lower than in Lombard-street. and no one coming forward to succeed him,

“Mr. Hamilton having finished a mill-stone, they chose one themselves, who refused to

and likewise a mill-wheel, for the grinding of accept of the appointment, on the ground that

corn, it was found that the most suitable spot be possessed no power to bring rain. This they would not believe, but asserted that he

for erecting the mill belonged to a Matchaphad

pee captain, who was willing to dispose of it. him the customary pre

gave sents, being desirous not only of deceiving Alter dinner I went with My. and Mrs. Hamilbim but themselves.”-p. 201.

ton, Jav Hendric, Cupido, and the captain,

to view the ground. On reaching it, the capAccustomed as they are to an arid tain walked round it, pointing out certain waste, we can have no conception of bushes, stones, &c. which marked its bounthe value of water among these simple daries. He also showed two excellent founchildren of nature. The following might be four or five acres of land. He was account of their astonishment, on one

asked what price he demanded for it? on wbich occasion, at the sig

of the ocean,

he mentioned a certain quantity of beads; but

Mr. Hanilton told him he had no beads. He appears quite in character.

then said he would giveit for a roll of tobacco, Many of the Killiharry people accompanied weighing about twenty pounds. Mr. H. said he them as guides on the road, and to the pools had not that quantity, but would give it when of water. They likewise assisted in plunder- it grew. Not having patience to wait for the ing the natives of Mampoor. At one part of growing of the tobacco, he next asked a fat the road they were ten days without finding sheep, which he said would please his wife, any water, using wild water-melons in its whose ground it was. He was promised the stead. On one occasion they came to a pool choice of the sheep when they came to the in which elephants had been standing during kraal in the evening."--p. 149. the night; they all drank of the water, wbich

With instances similar in descripoccasioned violent sickness. They found a pool in a large cave under a cliff, into which tion to the above, these volumes the oxen went and drank; and on the seven- abound; but for their variety and teenth day afterwards they came to the Great number we must refer to the work Water, (or ocean,] of which they were all itself. Of the Coranna tribe, Mr. afraid ; those parts that reflected the san's rays, and Campbell gives the following melangreat waves that ran after them, and then rancholy picture. back again; they had never seen any such " No nation in Africa has been found by the sight before.

The water was like a great Missionaries more indifferent to all kinds of country that had no end. They saw swarms information than the Corannas. If a Missionof locusts fall into the water, which were all

ary visits a kraal they will attend to bis addrowned. The country was level near the sea, dress; if he chooses he may remain; if he but there were hills at the distance of ten

goes away they manifest no wish to detain him. miles.”—p. 118.

I'hey are equally indifferent to his coming, Closely connected with the value of remaining, or departing; they feel indisposed water is that of iron, especially among knew the Corannas well, from a residence 365 Review-- Two Voyages to New South Wales, 8c 566 he requests others to assist him in solving the many children dependent on him, asked his difficolty. After farther calculation again upon son to take them under bis protection. There his fingers, he will look you in the face, and was a third and elder girl, whom I did not see. tell you he has three !” This may appear a

to any effort of mind or body. Mr. Sass, who those who have acquired some know- amongst them, gave me a striking illustration ledge of its use. Of this we may form of the contracted state of their mental powers. some conception from the following Suppose,' said he, that you ask a Coranna misfortune.

man bow many children he lias? He muses

for a while, looking towards the ground ; then "A great disaster happened a few days raising his land he appears to be engaged in before our arrival, indeed it might be numbered calculating with his fingers. Yet after all this

An institution at Griqua Town, for receiving, complete caricature to Europeans, yet from supporting, and educating, orphan Bushmen what I have seen, I believe there is no exag- children, might save many lives, and be of esgeration in the statement. Mr. S. said that sential service to the children themselves. The most of them do not milk their cows in the expense would be comparatively trifling. A morning, because their rest would be disturbed few pounds annually laid out in the purchase by early rising. After a long night's sleep, of beads, would procure a sufficient number of tbey will stretch their hands to the warın cows from the natives higher up the country to asbes of the fire, to light their pipe and smoke support the institution,”-p. 283. for a few minutes; and when the heat of the sun increases, they crawl on all fours to the

From this amusing and instructive nearest shade, again to indulge in sleep. If work, we had marked several other this retreat be invaded by bis powerful rays, passages which we intended to insert, they are roused from their second slumber, and but our limits admonish us to desist. will creep to some more shady part. About The specimens which we have given, noon the cattle return from the field to drink; will be sufficient to furnish the reader with great exertion they then bestir themselves to rise and milk them, when they drink as

with a general idea of these volumes, much of the milk as they can; after which they which nothing will prevent from being smoke, and compose themselves for sleep, till extensively read, but their not being the cool of the evening seems to rouse them a

extensively known. little. This is their ordinary mode of living,

From almost every page may be inexcept when on journeys, for which they pre.. pare by killing a sheep and eating as much of ferred the necessity of sending the it as they are able to devour. They then set gospel, and the arts which embellish off, and are sometimes absent for five or six civilized society, among these unculdays without tasting a morsel more. Like tivated barbarians. In many instanmost other savage tribes, if destitute of food, they tie a skin-cord round them, which they ces, formidable difficulties will no draw tighter and tighter as they feel the doubt present themselves, but from attacks of hunger.

the efforts which have been made, and “ These people have a singular custom the advantages with which these exeranong them. The eldest son of a captain, tions have been attended, Missions while a lad, is hardly allowed to walk, but

to the interior of South Africa will kept continually idling away his time in the hat, and compelled to drink milk frequently, not be undertaken in vain. In several in order to make him a strong man.

He is not districts the fields appear white unto permitted to wait upon himself, but has the harvest, and both prophecy and promilk handed to him. When bis father thinks mise conspire to ensure success. he has arrived at manhood, he produces two kiris, (or short sticks with bullei heads ;) one of these he gives to his son, reserving the other for himself. With these the father and Review.---Two Voyages to New South son often fight; if the son happens to succeed Wales and Van Diemen's Land, with in knocking the father to the ground, immedi

a Description of the present condition ately on rising up he commends his son, and of that interesting Colony: including acknowledges him to be captain of the kraal in

Facts and Observations relative to the his room."--p. 276.

State and Management of Convicts of The sacred volume represents the both Sexes, &c. By Thomas Reed, unenlightened man as without natural Member of the Royal College of Suraffection. On this fact, among many geons in London. 8vo. pp. 392. others, the following circumstance furnishes an awful comment.

No one can seriously contemplate the “ 'Two Bush girls, whom I wished to see,

vast multitudes of our miserable felin consequence of what I had heard of their low creatures that are continually history, were brought to the waygons. The being transported to the Hulks and to eldest, whom they have named Flora, was New South Wales, without feeling about ten years of age; the youngest, Sabina, poignant regret, that while there is was only two years and a half old. When their mother died, their grandmother insisted little concern for the moral improve

so much delinquency, there seems so that they should be thrown into the same grave with her, and buried alive; but this was pre

ment and reformation of the culprit. vented by the interference of Adam Kok. When once the criminal is embarked, Being disappointed in her cruel purpose, she Justice appears to be satisfied; instead afterwards threatened to murder them ; when of which, the mere act of transportaKok told her that if she did so, she should be severely punished; which made her desert the tion for seven, fourteen years, or for kraal, and leave the children to be supported life, should be but a subordinate conby any one who chose to do it. Kok having | sideration; while amendment in heart

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