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and life, and restoration to virtue and the scroll which records the actions of to society, ought to be the paranıount these illustrious philanthropists, he is aim. There can be no surprise that worthy to rank, not only as an hero in many felons should return from trans- the annals of benevolence, but as a portation worse than when they went, genuine Christian, ready to devote when it is considered that they have his life in the cause of suffering humamultiplied incitements to the continu- nity, and of God, whom he is willing ance in vice, by being congregated and proud to serve. For the facts with such a mass of persons, of the which are recorded in this work, we same depraved nature as themselves ; have not to trust to the memory or reand the very few inducements practi- collection of the author, but we have cally held out to the cultivation of vir- a diary kept by himself of all the tue. It is an universally acknow- prominent circumstances which took ledged fact, that an association with place. vicious company increases and con- The colonies of New South Wales firms evil habit; while it keeps the and Van Diemen's Land are increasmind estranged from the performance ing rapidly; and on account of the of even the appearance of inoral good. fineness of the climate, the luxuriance Every attempt, then, that is made to of the soil, and of its great natural undermine the pillars of innate depra- advantages, the convicts, after the vity, and erect on her ruins the tem- termination of their banishment, in ple of morality, however feeble or general determine to become settlers, unsuccessful, cannot fail to excite the rather than return home. They are most lively sensibilities, and awaken still amenable, of course, to the authe most ardent feelings and gene- thority of the local government; but rous sympathies of those who are if they manifest an improvement in friends to order, to society, and to moral character, and conduct themhumanity.
selves with propriety, every facility is The book before us, which is writ- afforded them to become useful memten in a style nervous, pleasing, and bers of the colony. If the father of a perspicuous, without any ostentatious family who had been transported, but display of possessing exclusive know whose conduct subsequently merits ledge, but with a feeling of philan- the approbation of the governor, he is thropy which reflects credit on its au- sure of being favoured with an order thor, and with an anxious desire to from government, at home, for his ameliorate the condition of the trans- wife and children to go out to him in ports sent to New South Wales and that country, where, in a short time, Van Diemen's Land, contains an ac- they have been known to form comcount of his two voyages ;-one in a fortable and prosperous establishmale convict ship, and the other in a ments. A very liberal provision is female convict ship, with the regula- made for the free women and children, tions on board, and the internal go- during the voyage, for which no vernment of the convicts in these colo- charge whatever is brought against nies, with many other particulars, them, or their father, on the part of which cannot but command universal the government. The inducements to interest and attention. For a man to form a settlement in New South enter the abodes of misery, depravity, Wales are so numerous, and the adand disease-to behold the wretched vantages so great and inviting, partivotaries of vice still clinging to their cularly to laborious industry, that it is idol god—to hear them breathe out well known, and the fact has been anathemas against their best of bene- ascertained beyond question, that factors—and to despise all mitiga- many persons have committed some tion of human woe ; and yet for him offence, which subjected them to transto persevere in the arduous and lauda- portation, for the purpose of being ble undertaking of effecting a radical sent to this colony at the expense of change in the constitution of their government. minds, by condemning their sinful The liberality with which convicts practices, and inculcating moral and are victualled for the voyage, now religious precepts, requires the perse- usually of four months' duration, is verance and intrepidity of an Howard abundantly shown from the following or a Fry; and if our author is not plan of rations for each mess (six perdoomed to have his name inscribed on sons) per week :--Sunday, 4lbs. bread, 569 Review--Two Voyages to New South Wales, &c. 570 4lbs. flour, 8lbs. beef, ilb. suet, llb. , depravity, and all the evils that follow of raisins ; Monday, 4lbs. bread, 3 in its lengthened train, rush on in pints of peas, ilb. butter, 4oz. of rice, quick succession, and disarm the pos2 pints of oats, and 2oz. of sugar; sessor of the power to shake them off. Tuesday, 4lbs. bread, 4lbs. flour, ilb. “ To live well, and to work easy, is suet, ilb. raisins ; Wednesday, 4lbs. a system not very well calculated to bread, 6lbs. pork, 3 pints of peas, reduce the number of delinquents, or ilb. of butter; Thursday, 4lbs. bread, to erase the foul spot on the calendar 4lbs. flour, ilb. suet, llb. raisins, 2 of crime. Idleness is a root which, pints oats ; Friday, 4lbs. bread, 8lbs. when once planted, soon thrives, enbeef, 3lbs. pork, Alb butter; and twines its fibres around the human Saturday, 4lbs. bread, 3 pints of peas, powers of action, and paralyzes all 4lbs. of rice, 2 pints of oats, and 2 their operation. ounces of sugar; besides a quart of Our author in his first voyage, anxvinegar to each mess; and after the ious to accomplish any thing like a ship has been at sea three or four reformation in the convicts committed weeks, loz. of lemon juice, and an to his charge, who were moving on to equal quantity of sugar, are issued a disgraceful and impious terminadaily to each convict. Every indivi- tion of their career, determined on dual also is allowed 120 gallons of attempting the undertaking, although water, and 2 gallons of wine; the the task appeared discouraging. For latter to be distributed under the this purpose, he established a fixed surgeon's superintendence. The wo- system of order and regularity in the men are allowed the same proportion prison on board the ship: and drawof wine, and subject to the same ing up some regulations for their guidrestriction in its use: also a like quan- ance, and submitting them to the contity of provisions, with an addition of victs for their inspection and appro3lbs. of Muscovado sugar, and 3lb. of bation, he found that none expressed black tea per week, for each mess of a dissentient voice, but, on the consix women.
trary, assented to their propriety with Every convict on board the ship is the most cordial concurrence. These provided with one suit of clothes, and regulations, which were far from rigoa change of linen, besides a flock bed, rous, were calculated to effect a pillow, and blanket. It should also change in their conduct and behabe mentioned that the free women sent viour, by which the way for the more out to join their husbands, are allowed important introduction of religious intwo-thirds of a seaman's ration per struction, was prepared and secured. diem, and the children one-half the These laws restricted the convicts from women's allowance. Other necessary cursing and swearing, using obscene comfort and accommodation are pro- conversation, fighting, quarrelling, and vided in case of sickness, as well as stealing. Cleanliness being essenthe smaller articles of cleanliness, tially necessary to the health, comsuch as soap, combs, razors, &c. &c. fort, and well-being, of every person Nothing can exceed the bountiful ge- on board, the strictest attention to it nerosity of government, in making was enforced on every occasion. Resuch ample provision for convicts, spect and obedience to their officers who, one would almost suppose, were and guards, as well as submission to destined for an arduous campaign in those who had the management and support of the laws of the country, care of the messes, formed another rather than to suffer for a violation of salutary feature in this prison discithem.
pline; while encouragements were This excellent provision for them promised that those who behaved well during their voyage, with the indolent should be favourably presented, and life which they lead, (having little or those who should dare to break no employment while on board,) is through these rules, were to be pucertainly a defect which calls loudly nished in proportion to the offence, for inquiry. Wherever there is no- and never recommended to the Goverthing to do, idleness generates all the nor of New South Wales. worst feelings, habits, passions, and The convicts, · knowing the great desires, that can operate in the human benefits arising from the climate, and mind. When once idleness becomes the impossibility of availing thema fixed inhabitant in the disposition, selves of many of them, without the No. 41,--VOL. IV.
notice, favour, and countenance, of the junior convicts; and though there the Governor, were anxiously led to were 23 in number, under twenty the strictest observance of these last years of age, not more than 5 out of mentioned clauses. Cleanliness, which the whole could read, while several is a prominent step to virtue, and of the remaining 18, could not distinwithoat which all attempts at refor- guish the letters of the alphabet. The mation must have been almost ineffec- business of the school was carried on tual, was a most important provision without intermission, and the result in these temporary laws. We admit of the design far exceeded expectathat our gaols and other places of tion. An assiduous attention to the confinement are now rendered much duties of the schoolmaster, excited a more cleanly and wholesome than for- strong and an honourable emulation merly; but still there remains much among them. “In a space of time, to be done, for wherever there is a incredibly short,” our author observes, want of cleanliness, there is generally “I succeeded in having all the mema want of virtue. When we see so bers of this little community not only much dirt and filth still occupying a able to read the scriptures with toleplace in our crowded gaols, we can- rable facility, but also enjoyed the not be astonished not to find crime on greater gratification of believing that the decline. Remove these barriers their minds were impressed with the to reformation and moral improve- wholesome truths of the sacred voment,—these stimulants to vice and lume.” At the period they were delideformity,—and then we may antici- vered over to the authority at Sidney, pate less need of prisons, and less each of these juvenile depredators incitements to crime ; and Virtue will could read the bible fluently, and mabe seen rising majestically above the ny of them evinced a familiar acquainfetters which have enthralled her, and tance with the principles of the asserting her high and dignified claims gospel. to obedience.
One prevalent evil in the system These regulations were attended adopted by Government in sending with so much success on board, that out these convicts, and which we it was thought prudent to commence point out for the purpose of remedy, some moral and religious system, on is, the allowance of spirits, not only to which could be safely founded any males, but even to married females expectation of ultimate success. The and children, which we cannot but native beauty and simplicity of the deprecate in the strongest terms; and truths of religion being best conveyed which we consider to be the effect of to depraved minds in language of mild custom, rather than of sound judgand temperate remonstrance, recourse ment and discretion. No possible was had to conciliation and persua- reason can be assigned for the allowsion; and accordingly bibles, prayer ance of any spirits, except in cases books, and
few tracts, were of sickness. It tends not only to kindistributed among the messes. Re- dle the worst passions, to render them ligious service was also performed, insubordinate and refractory, but which seemed very much to affect also to counteract the inculcation the minds of the prisoners; as many and growth of moral good.
For of them subsequently retired apart a proof of the injurious consequences from their companions, and read arising from such a baneful system, we with serious and devout attention refer to the language of our author, the religious books given to them. who bas given an account not only The beneficial consequences of such a painful to the best feelings of huma. system were soon found conspicuously nity, but agonizing beyond all dedisplayed in the conduct of the con- scription in silent contemplation. victs. They became orderly, and the “ Imagination can scarcely form most general satisfaction prevailed such a picture as one of these females, among them, as they almost to a man when indulged with this immoderate signified the pleasure they felt at being supply of spirits. removed from dangers of the worst “Few mothers could avoid shudderkind, and surrounded as they were ing to see such a female lay her infant with every comfort, and every want baby across her lap, and pour the being bountifully supplied.
liquid poison (rum) into the poor A school was opened on board for thing's vitals, continuing that diaboli
573 Apocalyptic Number._Anniversary of Institutions. 574 cal nursing until the nerves of the un- opencd to the Catholic Lords, which conscious and miserable child are may hereafter be succeeded by an incapable of sensation, and it drops opening to the Catholic Bishops, a senseless from the hands of its inhu- recurrence to the Number of the Beast man parent.'
may not be unseasonable. It is exOn the 7th of May, 1818, they tracted from a learned and interesting landed safely at their appointed desti- work by John Edward Clarke :-a nation, viz. Botany Bay; and thus work which we would strongly recomterminated a voyage of considerable mend to every reader, who wishes to length, the circumstances of which trace the application of predictions to were of deep interest, as involving their legitimate issues.the solution of a most important pro- “It has been already proved that the blem connected with the future happi- Beast is some kingdom; and the pasness of the most worthless and aban- sage in the sixteenth chapter of the doned, viz. whether male convicts are Revelation has been produced, in susceptible of being reclaimed from which the very term Baoileia, or kinglong established habits of idleness, dom, is applied to the dominion of the immorality, filth, and wickedness. Beast. This kingdom, therefore, can Here the most demonstrable proof be no other than that which is purwas obtained, that the human heart, posely omitted in the first Order of however debased by vice, and hard- the first Class ; I mean, "H Aativn ened by practice, still leaves a portion Baouleia, “ The Latin Kingdom.” It uncontaminated, in which the seeds is thus numbered: of virtuous improvement may be cul
H - 8 tivated, and that require only a care
30 ful and experienced husbandman to cherisht, in order to bring again into
300 the state of reproducing wholesome
10 and valuable fruits.
50 During our author's stay in this
8 colony, he prosecuted some inquiries on subjects of natural history, which in that country are abundant. In
200 following up his scientific pursuits,
10 be found his researches well rewarded
λ 30 by valuable specimens in every branch
5 of natural history, particularly geo
10 logy, which principally engaged his attention. Of these, he made a very considerable collection. The obser
666" vations connected with this branch of science, he threw into a concise arrangement, intending to transcribe them at large in a scientific form dur- ANNIVERSARIES OF RELIGIOUS, AND ing his voyage home. However, in returning to England, a dreadful hurricane came on near the Island of The stature of Benevolence has lately Mauritius, which nearly reduced the grown so vast, that we cannot with vessel to a wreck, and the whole col- justice draw its features in miniature. lection of his geological specimens, Not many years since, a more intelwith clothes, books, and papers, ex- ligible description of public liberality cept some private memoranda, were might be comprised in a single counfortunately lost; and he found lumn, than a whole number can now himself on the shore of Port Louis, contain. Even the names of our chadestitute of every personal comfort. ritable institutions, would at present (To be concluded in our next.) occupy no contemptible space; our
readers must not, therefore, expect
from us any thing more than a conAPOCALYPTIC NUMBER.
Prior to the commencement of the At a moment when the door of the public meetings in London, several House of Lords is attempted to be anniversaries in Ireland had tak.
THE LATIN KINGDOM.
OTHER BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS.
place; of these we proceed to give a
Catholic Schools. general outline.
The anniversary of Saffron Hill and Sunday School Society for Ireland.
St. Mary's Catholic Charities, was
beld at the Horn Tavern, Kensington; On the 17th of April, 1822, the an- the Rev. Mr. Morris in the chair. niversary of this charity was held at The object of this institution is to the lecture room of the Dublin insti- | clothe and educate the children of tution; the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Ro-poor Irish Catholics, until of an age to den in the chair. It appears from the be apprenticed. 190 children thus report which was read, that the num- supported, were present, and displayber of schools which this society has ed" an appearance which reflected assisted, amounts to 1553, containing much bonour on the managers of this 156,255 children. The number of gra- amiable charity. tuitous teachers throughout Ireland,
East London Irish Free School. is not less than 11,000, and the income during the last year amounted to
On Monday, April 29th, a highly £3193. Having received a liberal respectable meeting of the friends and donation of Bibles and Testaments supporters of this benevolent institufrom the British and Foreign Bible tion was held at the London Tavern, Society, they have issued during the Bishopsgate-street; the Rt. Hon. the year, 1022 of the former, and 17,574 Earl of Blessington in the chair. From of the latter, together with vast num
the statements made at this meeting, bers of spelling books, &c. The total it appeared, that no less than 8000 expenditure amounted to upwards of boys were scattered through the me£2900.
tropolis, who obtained a livelihood by
committing depredations on the pubReligious Book and Tract Society, lic, the majority of whom consisted of Ireland.
children of the lower order of Irish. The anniversary of this society was
The object of the society is to teach held on the 15th of April, in the same
the boys reading, writing, and arithplace as the preceding; the Rt. Hon. metic, and to instruct the girls in Viscount Lorton in the chair. It ap- schools of this description in the me
needle-work. There are
now six pears from the report, that during the year, 338,949 tracts have been distri- tropolis. The number of children buted at reduced prices, and 26,897 amounts to 300. Since the establishgiven gratuitously to the unhappy in- ment of this institution about 900 have mates of hospitals, gaols, and prisons, received instruction, and on the printhe total expenditure amounting to ciples of these schools, about 1500 £3,807. 19s. 3d.
children are now under tuition. The
establishment is founded on liberal Hibernian Bible Society.
principles, so that ladies and gentleThe annual meeting of this society
men of every denomination may cowas held at the Rotunda, Dublin, on operate, without compromising their Thursday, the 18th of April, the Arch- religious tenets. bishop of Tuam in the chair. The
Magdalen Hospital. receipts amounted to upwards of
On the last Thursday in April, the £5679, which is an increase on the 64th anniversary was held at the Lonpreceding year of £1745. The Bibles don Tavern ; the Hon. Mr. Percy in issued were 8704, the Testaments the chair. The collections amounted 11,964, the total expenditure £5573. to upwards of £400. Many distinSince the formation of this society, guished characters were present. they have issued in Bibles and Testaments 295,695 copies.
Methodist Missionary Society.
The Methodist Missionary Society, Hibernian Church Missionary Society, which is of comparatively recent esta
The anniversary of this society was blishment, now holds a distinguished held in the same place as the preced- rank among the most celebrated instiing, on the day following; his Grace tutions which benevolence can boast. of Tuam again in the chair. The So rapid has been its growth, that receipts amounted to £2579, of which the Methodists have Missionaries in a considerable sum was transinitied every quarter of the globe; and, what to the parent society in London. is of superior importance, their exer