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But the nutritive function exists in the Vegetable, no less than in the animal kingdom, but under very different circumstances, and which, in some cases, approaches to a sort of weak sensation; and therefore the station assigned it by nature, is in the middle between the other two ; the digestion of plants, on the one hand, not being so gross as that of animal digestion; and their sensation, on the other, not being so exquisite and refined as that of animal sensation. This scale therefore stands thus, Left. Central state.

Right. Nutritive function Organic or Nutritive Sensitive function of Animals, function of Plants.

of Animals. Thus, by the phenomena of the animal and organic functions, we have arrived at the scale of three; from which another scale will immediately issue, which will give us the scale of five ; and this scale of five will be of such a nature in its various operations, as to comprehend the perfect scale of seven.

Having proved the above scale of three to be complete in its nature, like the three-fold radiance of the Sun; it must therefore stand entire, as it requires nothing to be added to its right or left.

But from the two extremities of this, proceed the five senses of animals; by the exercise of which, from their wonderful nature, they are conversant with all the sevenfold phenomena of the great scale of the universe. The five senses of animals in the straight line, are,

Smell, Touch, Taste, Vision, Hearing.
1
2
3
4

5. The order of the scale of the senses is as follows: the undermost figures represent the straight line as above; the uppermost, their situation in the Septenary Scale.

3
4

5
Smell, Touch,

Taste.
1
2

3

These three, are senses which are fitly represent the three central steps conversant with matter, and with mat- of the scale. But the sense of Vision, ter only when in a state of juxtaposition which is the fourth of the order, with their respective organs. And in counting in a straight line, conversing this respect they appear to be allied with objects at a distance, is the proto the three central steps of the great per organ to be exercised in observ. scale: not that each sense corresponds ing the mechanical phenomena of the to each respective step of that scale; heavenly and other bodies, where such but the three senses, as a whole, repre- phenomena are to be seen, which are sent the three steps as a whole, in as the second of the scale; and by conmuch as both in the one and in thc trast, the intellectual phenomena, as other, are the objects of them within expressed by the countenance, which our reach as it were, and may be exa- are the sixth of the scale; these two mined without the deductions of rea- respective steps in all the scales, soning.

amalgamating with, and sliding into But the other two senses, namely, each other. Thus, therefore, by addVision and Hearing, are not thus re- ing the sense of Vision to each extrestricted in their operations, but con- mity of the above scale of three of the verse with objects at a distance ; so senses, we shall have a scale of five, that the whole five senses, though they answering in the manner of their opedo not exceed this number, yet from rations to the five corresponding steps the very nature of their operations, do of the scale of the universe, viz. in the most aptly correspond to the whole three central conversing only with sevenfold scale of the universe. The present objects, and the other with three first, as conversant with matter objects at a distance. Thus, only when in a state of juxtaposition, 2

4

5
Vision, Smell, Touch, Taste, Vision.
4
1
2
3

4

589
The Physical and Moral World.

590 We now want only other two numbers, for the entire completion of the scale, which, accordingly are supplied by the sense of Hearing, which is in its nature more spiritual than that of vision, in as much as by the latter we converse only with objects which in a manner are in our presence, or before our eyes; whereas by the former, we converse with or about objects at a distance, and entirely out of our presence, even things, such as are revealed in the scriptures, concerning which we could have no correct knowledge, but by this admirable sense of Heuring ; which is the medium of faith, (for faith cometh by hearing,) and is conversant, as it were, with the first and last of the scale, namely, the elementary state of matter, and the moral state of intelligenec ; which cannot be perceived by the senses, strictly speaking, nor reasoned out by the intellect, but must both remain purely matters of faith, which can only come by Hearing.

Thus we perceive how even the senses, which are but five in number, can amalgamate and slide naturally, and without force, into the perfect septenary scale. 1

2
3
4
5
6

7 Hearing, Vision,

Touch, Taste Vision, Hearing 5 4

2
3
4

5

Smell,

1

Having thus traced the animal and who, having done so, immediately organic functions of nutrition and sen- returns, and, according to the nature sation, and assigned to the five senses of bis answer, occasions pleasure or of animals their proper place in the pain. great scale, as it respects their opera- Now, instead of these supposed tions; I shall now speak of the nature impressions on the brain or spinal and origin of the animal faculties, in marrow, excited by the action of exrelation to external objects.

ternal objects on the extremities of The parts in the animal economy | the nerves, (a doctrine which no phywhich constitute the bases of the siologist has ever established,) would senses, are the infinite ramifications of it not be better at once to consider the extremities of the nerves; distri- these extremities of the nerves, on buted partly on particular organs, as which we are certain external objects the retina of the eye, the tympanum operate, as in their very nature, and of the ear, the tongue, and the olfac- in their own proper setves, endowed tory membranes, and partly, as in the with all that sensibility, which is organ of touch, throughout the body ascribed to impressions on these orat large.

gans, through their instrumentality ? The mode of this operation is diffi- If impressions be really made upon cult to trace, but it has been thought, the brain, is it not somewhat strange that as these extreme filaments are ex- that the brain nevertheless indicates quisitely sensible, they easily receive no symptoms of feeling ? but all the the impressions of external objects, feelings seem to be restricted to the and by some way, as yet unknown, seat of the contact of external boconvey the impressions to the brain or dies with the organs of sensation. spinal marrow, according as the one Having thus got clear of the inexor the other may be the origin of the plicable doctrine of cerebral impresnerve excited. But without multiply- sions, and of the nervous fluid, and of ing words, or wasting time, we must the nerves impressing the brain by say, this seems an unnatural and cir- vibrations, or any other manner; we cuitous method. It seems an odd perceive full well how the whole may conceit, to suppose the nerves as cen- be explained without them. tinels, stationed throughout every 1. It is undeniable that the seat of part of the body, to give warning to sensation is in the organs of sensation the brain or spinal marrow, of any themselves, and not in the brain ; at object that approached it. And still least, we know it to be with them we more odd, to suppose that the brain or feel, and not with the brain. Therespinal marrow, upon being informed of fore we contend, that as it is with some visitant without, dispatches a these organs we feel, and not with the messenger to examine his errand, brain, the brain evidently has no sen

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sible feeling, except when impressions i in a proper trim for performing their on the external organs are too violent diversified functions, but if these be for them, and thus by main force make injured, like the rot at the root, the impressions on the brain, as a violent functions will be injured too. shock on the boughs and branches, It will be necessary to remark, that will agitate and shake even the roots the above illustration regards only of the tree.

the sentient feeling in the animal eco2, It is evident that, between the ex- nomy, and not those which relate to tremest filaments of the nerves, and mind; for mind seems more the result the brain and spinal marrow, there is of the animating principle, but which, a close and necessary connection; but as yet, we feel so subtile, that we not a connection of that nature, as to cannot get hold of it. carry all the impressions to the brain However, from what has been said, and spinal marrow before they be felt; we are now prepared to enter upon but rather a connection of this nature, the nature of the evolution of the anithat there are none felt in these situa- mal phenomena. tions, except when they are driven Now, supposing the various tribes forcibly in upon them. The connec- of animals which exist in nature, to tion between the nerves and the brain, be furnished with the root and the is like that between a tree and its branches, or, in other words, with the roots; and we know that it is not brain and the nerves, each according every impression on the former that to its particular kind, but all in a will affect the latter. The connection sound and healthy state; the divertoo, between the heart and the blood- sified operations of these, by means of vessels, forms another point of resem- the vital principle, will produce the blance; and we know that impres- following sevenfold phenomena. Phesions on the extremities of the blood- nomena, too, which do not seem arbivessels, unless they are to a conside-trary, but appear to have their founrable extent, and of long duration, dation in nature, formed upon the will very little affect the heart. perfect septenary scale of natural ob

3. As to the nature of the connec-jects, proceeding in the gradation tion between the brain and the sentient from the lowest to the highest, marked extremities, it is not so much a sensi- with a central step, and with the reble connection as has been generally spective steps on each side, naturally supposed, as a vital one, in which the sliding into one another. brain and spinal marrow, continuing We shall first lay down the scale in in a sound and healthy state, like a order, and thus make it evident at one good soil which gives strength and glance, and then explain its various vigour to the plant, they will preserve parts. all the nerves which issue from theni 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 Sensation Perception, Conception, Attention, Memory, Association Imitation, or feeling,

of ideas,

1. In this scale of our ingenious au- 3. Conception.

Our author says, thor, we have first Sensation or feeling. Conception draws a picture or idea This is to be taken in the most general in the animal sensorium, of those absense ; for though excited by external sent objects which were formerly perobjects, it gives no other information ceived; in so much, that in the act of concerning them, but merely that conception, the animal imagines the they make the animal feel.

objects to be really present, without 2. Perception goes a step higher. remembering whether it ever perceived It conveys through the medium of them or not, (for conception does not Sensation, some direct knowledge of imply memory, though memory imthe existence and qualities of those plies conception.)” external objects which excited Sensa- But what we have said above of the tion; as, when Eve perceived," inexplicable doctrine of cerebral imthrough the seductions of the serpent, pressions, renders our author's defiIthat the tree was good for food.” nition of Conception very doubtful; 593

The Physical and Moral World.

594

and it would perhaps be better to con- These are the seven faculties of the sider Conception, as implying only an animal spirit; and their analogy to inferior kind of memory relating to the seven steps of the great scale, apobjects which had been perceived; pears as follows.and in this sense, too, it will better The faculty of attention, on the correspond with the fifth of the scale, strength or weakness of which the three which is memory, in the more perfect last depend, is the central step of the state.

scale. Those which precede it on the 4. Attention, is that faculty whereby left, are of a lazy passive kind, obthe animal fixes its thoughts upon any truded on the animal, whether he wills particular object of sense, conceived it or not; but those which follow on or perceived, to the exclusion of all the right, are of an energetic active other objects of sense which sur- kind, depending, so to speak, on the round it.

will of the animal. 5. Memory, is an effort of the ani- The harmony of the third and fifth, mal, whereby it recollects whatever it that is to say, conception and memory, has formerly felt, perceived, or con- we have seen in our definition of conceived, with a degree of force propor- ception; the former we have consitioned to the degree of attention which dered as implying an inferior kind of it may have bestowed on such feelings, memory, relating to objects perceived; perceptions, or conceptions, when they the latter, memory in its more perfect actually occurred; but the suggestions state; hence the barmony or correof memory can have no place where spondence between them. there has been no previous atten- The three central steps of the scale tion.

of the animal faculties, viz. concep6. Association of ideas, is a conti- tion, attention, and memory, analogous nual train of thought, which goes on to the respective steps of the great in the animal mind, during its life- scale, imply little or no information time, without intermission. It con- as to the relations connecting different sists of conceptions, strong in propor- external objects ; for in these three the tion to the degree of attention formerly animal mind is filled, as it were, with bestowed on them, and linked toge- a single object, implying far less extenther by a sort of instantaneous me- sion of thought, if the expression be mory, founded on the relations of con- allowable to the subject, than the tiguity or juxtaposition in place or other steps of the scale. time, external resemblance, &c. &c. The harmony of the second and sixth By means of this faculty, the occur- of the scale, namely, perception and rence of any particular sensation, per- association of ideas, is illustrated thus. ception, or conception, instantly sug- The associating principle, or sixth of gests the memory, or recollection, of the scale, is to the inferior animals others, which nearly resemble it, or what reason is to man. And in the with which it may have formerly oc- exercise of it, the animal is guided by curred in juxtaposition or contempo- his perceptions of present external obraneously; and the animal acts as if jects, which recall to his memory conboth were again before him, thereby ceptions of what bad passed on some exhibiting a semblance of reason, former occasion : an admirable examwhich is the sixth, and corresponding ple of which, we have in the neighing step of the great scale.

of the horse, which obtained for Darius 7. Imitation, the last and highest of the kingdom.--The sagacity of animals the animal faculties, arises out of the seems to depend upon the faculty of association of ideas, or sixth principle the associating principle. of its nature. This faculty of imitation But the harmony of the first and is found perfect only in those animals last, is still more remarkable ; that is, of the ourang-outang, or monkey ge- of internal feeling and imitation ; for nera, whose anatomical structure ap- there is not only a harmony between proximates to the human model. And these two, but, as our author remarks, on the other hand, the simple princi- “ they are strikingly analogous to our ple of imitation, which is the perfec- ideas of morality. Thus, we talk of tion of the mere animal, rises by in- moral feelings and sentiments, of which sensible gradation into the earliest we can give no account, but that we twilight of reason in the human feel them, and that they unaccountably infant.

dispose us to imitate or affect some

things, and to dislike and abhor solicitor. The early part of his eduothers.-In like manner, imitation in cation he received at Peckham, in animals or children, seems to be the Surrey, under the Reverend Martin spontaneous effects of volition, un- Ready, from whence he removed to a connected with the reasoning faculty- situation in the Bishop of London's which we have yet to examine.

Registry, in Doctor's Commons. Such are the phenomena of the ani- While at school he became introduced mal faculties, considered in relation to the Rev. Dr. Collyer, who, perto external ebjects. But there is an-ceiving bis great predilection for the other class of animal sensations, which ministry, strongly encouraged it; and, are connected with internal objects, in conformity with the Doctor's advice, and involved in more obscurity still. he returned to the academy at PeckThese are what have been called appe- ham, and entered upon a course of tites, desires, instincts, antipathies, feel preparatory studies, previous to his ings of pleasure and pain, and the admission into the Old College, at like. But these we must deler till Homerton, which took place in 1804. the next paper.

He remained in this ancient and re( To be continued.)

spectable seminary, under the tuition of the late Rev. Thomas Hill, and the

present eminent theological tutor, Dr. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF THE REV. J. P. Smith, rather more than four THOMAS RAFFLES, LL.D. years, and on leaving the College, was

ordained to the pastoral office over the (With a Portrait.)

Congregational church at Hammer

smith, which had been recently deIt is generally admitted, that biogra- prived of its minister by the death of phy is capable of conveying more the Rev. W. Humphreys. The cereinformation to the mind, than any mony of ordination was performed in other branch of history whatever. It the chapel of the Rev.John Leifchild, admits us to a view of nature in her at Kensington. The services on this genuine colours, and thus enables us important occasion, were exceedingly to obtain a fund of instruction of the interesting. The introductory disbest kind, as well as of amusement course was delivered by the Rev. the most innocent and delightful: John Humphreys; the ordination cheered by the example of those who prayer by Dr. J. P. Smith; the charge have weathered out the storm, we ac- by Dr. Collyer; and the sermon to the quire fresh confidence in the progress people, by Dr. Winter. of our voyage through life, and, warn- Mr. Raffles continued at Hammered by the ill fate of others, we escape smith two years, highly esteemed by those rocks upon which their tempo- the congregation, which, under his ral and eternal happiness has been ministry, had very considerably inirrevocably lost.

creased ; when, in consequence of the Among the great variety of charac- melancholy event, which deprived ter which comes within the province Liverpool of the excellent and lamentof a biographer to delineate, none is ed Spencer, he was invited, with more valuable to its possessor, nor of other ministers, to supply for a few more importance to mankind at large, weeks the bereaved church. In Nothan that of a Christian minister, who, vember, 1811, Mr. Raffles preached deeply sensible

of the responsibility of on three sabbaths in Newington Chahis office, discharges, to the best of pel, Liverpool, and very soon after his abilities, its awful duties ; solely his return to Hammersmith, he rerelying on the assurance that “to him ceived an unanimous call from the that soweth righteousness, shall be a church and congregation late under sure reward.” Such, we are firmly Mr. Spencer's charge, to become their persuaded, are the views and senti- pastor. This invitation was accepted ments of the Reverend Dr. Raffles, by him, and in the April following whose biographical history we are he took up his residence in Livernow about to detail to our readers. pool.

Thomas Rafles was born May 17, Mr. Spencer, a few months previ. 1788, in the parish of Christ Church, ous to his unfortunate death, had laid Spitalfields, London, where his father the foundation of a commodious chawas an eminent and bigbly respected pel in Great Georgc-street, which was

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