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in a considerable state of forwardness follies and vices of that dissipated when that melancholy event took place. country. This work has gone through This building was opened for divine three editions; and it is not unfreworship on May 27th, 1812, and from quently used by travellers as a guidethat time to the present, it has been book, through the romantic scenery of the active scene of Mr. Raffles's la- Savoy. bours.

In 1820, Dr. Raffles públished a In December, 1820, Mr. Raffles volume of Lectures on some imporwas created Doctor of Laws, by the tant branches of practical religion ; Senatus Academicus of the Marischal and a second volume, (in continuaCollege and University of Aberdeen, tion,) on Doctrinal Subjects, is now from whence he had previously re- in the press.-He is also the author of ceived the degree of Master of Arts. the following sermons, “The Claims His testimonials on being created a of Jesus of Nazareth examined ;" a Doctor, were signed by the Dukes of demonstration sermon to the Jews. Sussex and Somerset, as Graduates “ Missions to the Heathen vindicated of the same degree in the English from the charge of enthusiasm ;" Universities.

preached before the London MissionOf Dr. Rafflles's abilities as ary Society. “ Sermon to the People, preacher, it is unnecessary for us to delivered at the ordination of the Rev. say any thing ; they are too generally J. A. Coombs, at Salford, near Manknown, and too highly appreciated, chester;" and “ A Discourse on Purto obtain additional eminence from gatory," delivered at Preston, in Lanour encomium, or to receive increasing cashire. So great was the interest fame from our eulogy. The crowds excited on hearing this last discourse, which attend his ministry, the affec- that Dr. Raffles, in compliance with tion which is felt for him by the mem- the wishes of many of the congregabers of his church, and the universal tion, was induced to deliver it a esteem with which he is regarded by second time on a subsequent day. all classes of society, are the best Dr. Raffles is the author of that tributes to his talents and his virtues, excellent tract, “The Sunday School and the brightest and best rewards he Teacher's Monitor ;” and of several can hope for, or desire, on this side of essays, &c. in different periodical eternity.

works, particularly of“ A Life of the Dr. Raffles has been the author of late benevolent Robert Spear, Esq. several useful and important works. of Milbank, near Manchester,” pubIn 1812, he published, “ Memoirs of lished in the first number of “ The Inthe Life and Ministry of the Rev. Tho- vestigator," of which work Dr. Rafmas Spencer.” Of this work, one of fles is joint editor with Drs. Collyer the most interesting pieces of biogra- and Brown. phy in the English language, five edi- In Sir T. S. Raffles's History of tions have been printed, and nearly Java, is part of the Bráta Yudha, or, six thousand copies have been sold in “The War of Woe,” a Javanese this country alone, and probably more poem; which Dr. Rafles has recomthan that number in America. It is posed, and put into elegant English supposed that this book has contri- verse, from the verbal translation of buted as much as any modern work, his cousin. It has been a matter of to induce pious young men to enter the regret, that only a part of this poem ministry.

has been published. It abounds with In 1815, Dr. Raffles published a true touches of nature ; and we cordinew edition of Brown's Self-interpret-ally join with an eminent critic in the ing Bible, with additional notes, in hope, that “not only in justice to the two quarto volumes.

poetry of Java, but to the talent disIn 1817, he accompanied his cousin, played by this gentleman, the whole Sir T. S. Raffles, in a tour through of his metrical version will be given to France, Switzerland, &c. &c. and on the public." his return, he was prevailed upon by In 1815, Dr. Raffles married Mary the solicitations of numerous friends, Catherine Hargreaves, daughter of to publish his Tour in a series of let the late James Hargreaves, Esq. ters. The observations he has made of Liverpool, by whom he has two in his progress through France, afford children. a true but melancholy picture of the

ESSAYS MORAL AND LITERARY.

That man may be said to live long,

who is often engaged in looking baok No. 3.-On Retrospection. upon the past; for the proper estimate

of life, does not depend upon months • The present joys of life we doubly taste, and years, but upon the events which When looking back with pleasure on the have happened to us since we had a past.”

being. Actions, not the revolution of Perfect happiness is not the lot of the seasons, are what we have to judge humanity; we are born for trouble as by. That individual who has most to the sparks fly upward. But perhaps treasure up, and who contemplates the mixture of good and evil fate which the oftenest, partakes most of exisis given to every man, ought pot to be tence, whether his life be thirty, or made the cause of so much regret as threescore years and ten. To mere it frequently is. We know that our listless sensation, one day is as a enjoyments are increased by the endu- thousand. But it is also the faculty rance of previous sorrows; and that of the mind not only to observe these the cup of consolation which we occurrences which belong to itself, but sometimes taste, is the sweeter from in imagination at least to become the remembrance that there have been acquainted with what has befallen times when it was not ours. A long others ;-to learn what has been the series of unbroken misery, is almost fate of kings and conquerors, of phiimpossible to exist; and the few sun- losophers and statesmen; and to recur ny spots that light up the track of to scenes which are as old as the human life, are dearer to us from the earth on which we tread. It is the consciousness that they have been but great privilege of a meditative man, few. It is the many turns in our event that let him be situated as he may, he ful journey-the joys and griefs which will always find sufficient variety in have been given to us, that make life his own recollections, well to employ 80 dear, and that cause it to be a fit his thoughts. He can never be said subject for meditation.

to be alone, for he has companions in Perhaps there is not a purer plea- his own bosom, that will never leave sure in which we can be engaged, him nor forsake him; and he can than in dwelling upon the varied often walk in the midst of crowded scenes of our past being, and in con- cities with as much composure, as he sidering those conclusions which the can in the green fields around his calm remembrance of them must volun- country cottage. He may observe the tarily make. The mind sees where it complex machinery of the universe, did right, and where it did wrong; he may analyze the passions and mowhen it was happy, and when it was tives by which men are actuated, miserable. We behold the hills and shunning the evil and cherishing the the valleys, the flowers and the bram- good. He may ramble among the bles, which have crossed our path ; we

flowers of the valley, and find improveremember the springs of pure water ment there; he may watch the rising which have flowed by the way-side, and the setting sun, and gaze upon and the sweet resting-places where the innumerable company of stars, we have reposed, after the day of toil. which, We recollect some tender trial of feel

“ Ebb in the aërial dome, ing, some series of joys, that then

Moving the pendulum of heav'n;" seemed wedded for ever-the golden hopes of our youth rise up before us or turn his thoughts inward, and mediin their dreamlike beauty, and then tate upon the final destiny of his own

come back upon our hearts again,” being. To such a man time cannot be to soothe us with their earliest sympa- said to be short; every past hour thy. Oh! what a compound is human brings to him something for reflection, life !-of what hopes, and loves, and and every object he sees, something joys, and friendships, -of what griefs, for instruction; the smallest incident and cares, and broken plensures, is it will often awaken him to a rememcomposed! To begin a review of our brance of some considerable occurpast life, is to create for ourselves one rence in his life, that passes before of the purest enjoyments; and at the him, and that “bears a glass which close of our reflections, to become not shows him many more.” only wiser but better.

Perhaps the purest of all our recol.

lections, or at least that which brings will change the current of life, and with it the greatest degree of self-satis- how often it is that a mere saying or faction, is the level days of our child- thoughtless action will decide the deshood. Almost all that we have done, tiny of our future days. or said, or thought of, since that happy But there are some men who can time, has had something of care mixed scarcely be said ever to have marked with it, that has too often sullied and out for themselves one decided path ; broken our best enjoyments. We such a man was Rousseau-impatient, feel that when the pcet says “the romantic, and tender-hearted, he was world is too much with us,” he is rather the sport of chance or fortune, telling us a sorrowful truth, and we than one who travelled in any beaten are at times ready to determine it track. Never was there a man who so shall be so no longer. But its specious intensely remembered his youthful gaieties lead us on and on, promising days, and never perhaps was there a those things they never perform, and man who had so many things to reholding for our acceptance some far- member. What to me constitutes the off good, which we find, too late, is chief delight in reading Rousseau's unattainable. Still, amidst all our Confessions, is, the vividness with disappointments, the remembrance of which he pictures his happy moments, our early days casts a beautiful balo and the charm of gentle pity which he around our path, and throws many a casts over his weightiest sorrows. sunbeam on the cloudy skies. Men Who can have forgotten his meeting perhaps are never so decidedly ac- with Madame Warrens, the passionquainted with what they are and have ate love he bore for her, which seemed been, as when overtaken by misfor- to cling to him with firmer bold as his tune, and never feel the real value and years increased ; or the thrilling expleasure of retrospection so forcibly, clamations of his withered spirit, as when in this situation. When the which sound upon the ear like those heart is searching after some blessing, piercing words of Lear, when, amid real or imaginary, it often forgets the desolation of his heart he cried, those joys that are past; and it is

“Never, never, never.” only when our expectations receive a gentle check, that we see the full Perhaps the remembrance of happibrightness of our early days. It is ness can only be pleasurable when then that we inwardly wish for another the heart is in some degree peaceful; revolution of their artless sports. when it is broken by sorrow, its reflecChildhood is the “ glory and the fresh- tions must be painful. The fittest ness of a dream,” which we exchange state for recollection is, when we have for “the light of common day ;" and partaken of folly sufficiently to know notwithstanding all that we may pos- its bitterness, and tasted as much of sess in the world, its power, honour, unbroken joy as to feel its worth. and riches, there are moments, and

Much more might be advanced, but not a tew, when we are compelled I shall not proceed ;—these few imalmost involuntarily to exclaim, that perfect reflections have been suggested there hath passed away a glory from by finding among my papers the folthe earth.”

lowing lines. I am not an unhappy Next to the pleasure derived from man, nor one whose mind is soured by a contemplation of the scenes of our disappointment; yet I cannot help childhood, is that of remembering the wishing that I was now the same as hopes and loves of our youth. The when I penned these verses, for alone is a season of unalloyed happi- | though nineteen summers have hardly ness; the other is a state of fear and passed over my head, there are few joy. In the one we follow the inno- who have tasted more of good and cent dictates of nature; in the other evil life. we begin to plan out schemes, and

August, 1820. seek to become men of power and Well-Childhood's bours are past away, affluence. Youth is the time when the And other prospects round me rise, mind is formed, and the affections

Which I in future must survey exercised ; and in after-years we well

With stronger hopes and nearer ties : remember this period as it gave the

A cowslip by the river's side bias to our fate. In many cases it

I've gather'd with a boyish pride;

Tbe star of even was to me may be seen how small an incident

A sight it never more will be, No. 42.- VOL. IV.

2 Q

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