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mineral: the noise, activity, and bus- | it, and all the chippings and rubbish tle, are here curiously contrasted procured by excavation, were thrown with the silence and horror that reign upon the surface. As it became harin other parts of this underground dened and secure, the canal was granavigation. The branches, which dually lengthened; and in a few sumdiverge in every direction, extend mers, upon a morass which would not upwards of eighteen miles. Some of bear even the weight of a man, were them are as much as 180 feet below, seen the luxuriant crop, and the comand others 90 above, the level of the fortable farm-house. Here also is a stream by which the mine is entered; capacious reservoir, containing all and by means of very powerful machi- the boats employed upon this extennery, the lower ones are secured from sive navigation. The mine, with its inundation, whilst the water in those varied appendages, has ever been a above is retained at its proper level. leading object of curiosity. The stranThe latter convey the coal from the ger as he journeys by the place, or shaft beneath Walkden Moor, which the sportsman as he ranges at his ease continues to be worked to an amazing through the neighbourhood, seldom depth.
reflects upon the operations which are It would be impossible, without the going on in silence and in darkness so aid of graphic illustration, to give any far beneath his feet; nor do mankind adequate description of the very intri- in general consider by what human cate and effective machines contrived exhaustion, intrepidity, and deprivaby Mr. Brindley for these works. tion, their most habitual conveniences They may doubtless be found in the are very frequently procured. scientific publications of the date of The estimated value of the entire their erection; and one or two, with undertaking was £220,000; but it is which we happen to be acquainted, known to have cost above double that will probably be more acceptable than sum; the voluntary appropriation of a detail of the whole. Near the a single individual: the tunnel alone mouth of the tunnel is a mill, which cost £168,960. How fortunate would answers the treble purposes of work- it be, did the speculations or whims ing three pair of stones for corn; of of the rich and powerful, always opea machine for sifting and compound- rate so beneficially for the community ing mortar for the works; and of a at large! boulting mill. There is a perpendi- Yet, notwithstanding this immense «cular shaft for the conveyance of wa- expenditure-an expenditure which ter from the upper canals to those entirely consumed the hereditary revewhich are connected with still deeper nues of the Duke—the speculation has parts of the mine : this also acts as a proved altogether successful. Farms, bellows, forcing downwards supplies upon the whole line, quickly rose of fresh air, for the security of the from £20 to £100 a year. The net adventurous miner. On this lowest profits, many years ago, exceeded level, boats with loose frames were £80,000 per annum ; and it is fair to employed, which, on arriving at its presume, that with the rapidly adtermination, were hoisted up* by vancing opulence and magnitude of powerful machinery, deposited on Manchester and Liverpocl, this others in the upper stream, and by princely income has progressively inthem conveyed to the entrance of the creased. Brindley's excellent mamine. A little beyond the termina- nagement and ready ingenuity, pretion of the canal was an immense bog, vented originally a very great addivery unseemly to the eye, and preju- tional expense; nor have the Duke's dicial to rounding cultivation. successors been less fortunate in their Brindley had deep drains made from servants, under whose superinten
dence the mine has been uncommonly * The noble and ingenious proprietor, in productive, and the canal, by judi1800, received a gold medal from the Society cious diversions, connected with alof Arts, for an ingenious contrivance by which most every navigation in the kingboats with their lading were conveyed by an in- doni.t clined plane from the lower to the upper canals, instead of being hoisted up perpendicularly. Twelve tons of coal are raised at each + The receipts were bequeathed by the evolution, and the boat and cargo weigh eight Duke to the Marquis of Stafford, in trust for or nine tons more.
his son, Earl Gower His Grace was a man
The lucrative nature of canal navi-, avoid every species of relaxation ; and gation led, as might be expected, to to neglect those innocent recreations, its rapid adoption in every part of the by which mind and body are mutually country; and Mr. Brindley's well- revigorated, and their united energies earned celebrity, produced reiterated secured. Once, and once only, was applications for his services. His he induced to be present at a theatrifirst undertaking was the Grand Trunk; cal representation, from which he dehis last a branch from Chesterfield to rived about as much satisfaction as a the Trent. Between those periods, Lancashire weaver would feel at the he had planned or completed upwards opera-house. The multiplied underof twenty canals, one of which was takings in which he was engaged, the old Birmingham; and when it is attended from their nature with such mentioned that the price of coal fell, intense application, and unaccompathe day after it was opened, from 18s. to nied by the "jucunda oblivia vita" 7s. 6d. per ton, our readers will allow which most men enjoy, brought on a that it must have been highly condu- hectic fever of tedious duration, which cive to the commercial importance terminated his active and honourable which this town has subsequently at- life in the year 1772, at the early age tained. He superintended a new sys- of 66. tem of drainage for the fens in Lin- As a public character, Mr. Brindcolnshire ; invented an efficient appa- ley struck out an entirely new path, ratus for cleansing the docks at Liver- surrounded with difficulties, and oppopool; and, finally, constructed an sed to experience: but enthusiastic ingenious machine for clearing mines, enterprise diminished the one, and by a losing and gaining bucket. It commanding ability superseded the may be stated also, since public atten- other. As a private individual, he tion has recently been directed to the was consistent, virtuous, and benevosubject, that Brindley offered to con- lent; and if the useful application of struct a canal aqueduct at Runcorn splendid talents be a legitimate ground Gap, where the tide flows to the for distinction, there are few who can height of fourteen feet; nor is it likely claim a larger proportion of it than that his inventive genias would have JAMES BRINDLEY.
W. sunk beneath the difficulties which at present damp all enterprise in that quarter.
the cheST IN THE CORNER.--No. 2. In alluding to the termination of Mr. Brindley's life, we cannot but
“ Where through groves deep and high, consider the waste of faculty conse
Sounds the far billow,
Where early violets die, quent on the excessive cultivation of
Under the willow: his memory, as greatly contributing There through the summer's day, to accelerate that event. This pro- Cool streams are laving, pensity, or necessity, induced him to There while the tempests sway,
Scarce are boughs waving :
There thy rest shalt thou take, of very secluded and somewhat singular ha- Parted for ever, bits: bomely to an excess in his appearance, Never again to wake, and still more diffident in his address. It is Never, o Never !" said that a neighbouring clergyman, to whom
MARMION, Canto III. he had some dislike, requested an interview on matters of business. He called several
The night mentioned at the close times, but could never succeed; the Duke slipping out at the back door, whilst the Divine of my last paper, being passed,
my was parleying at the front. Retiring one
readers may find me, at the commencemorning, vexed and disappointed, he observed ment of the next day, at my door, the Duke stealing away through an avenue of with my hat and my stick in hand, trees, and immediately quickened his pace to and about to set out to the school, the overtake him. His Grace, finding that he was pursued, proceeded still more rapidly, till at
scene of my daily labours. It being last he fairly took to his heels. The Clergy- Good Friday, I had determined to man was, however, the nimblest; and his allow my pupils and myself a cessation Grace, as a last resort, jumped into an old from scholastic employment, only resaw-pit: but here his inveterate pursuer questing some of the elder ones to shortly followed, exclaiming Duke, I have you at last!" His Grace put afford me the pleasure of knowing that his hands to his sides, and shaking with they reverenced the day, by learning laughter, said, “ Fairly beaten, by G
the 53d chapter of Isaiah's prophecy.
When I arrived near the little build- A few minutes more found us on the ing, the noise which issued from it road to the hut of the deceased. The informed me that my scholars had morning was cloudy, but now and assembled themselves, according to then the sun burst from his ambush, my request the day before. Order, and gilded creation with his rays. however, was restored, when I en- We occupied some time in desultory tered, and resumed my place at the conversation, till at last the object of head of the room. I had no sooner our visit coming on the carpet, Adam expressed the above-mentioned desire, became very silent, and as I am not than twelve or thirteen boys rose, and of a particularly loquacious disposiprofessed their willingness to comply tion, I did not endeavour to rouse bim with my wishes. I commended them; from bis moody dream, but allowed and after intimating to all the very myself to rove in imagination o’er high displeasure which I should feel, days gone by. It is impossible for me did they not conduct themselves with to give my readers any adequate idea propriety, I dismissed them.
of the quick transition of thought with My readers will forgive me if I am wbich my mind was occupied ; reprolix. I cannot help it, for never membrances of the scenes of childhood was there a happier school than ours. flashed across my mind, bringing with I have seen several generations of them all the endearing recollections scholars pass away; some are settled of boyish pleasure : my native little in comfortable situations, some are cottage, the surrounding garden, en dead; I have watched them as far as riched with fruit trees, the delightful human ken can reach ; I have traced rivalry, whether my sister or I should them to the verge of that glory, where pluck the first ripe strawberry for our my mortal vision has been overpower- mother, and get the sweetest kiss for ed by brightness; and as they have our pains, and then, as at the whistle soared from the arms of earthly con- of the theatrical prompter, all these nections, I have anticipated ineffable scenes vanished, and in their stead, delights, beyond the bounds of earth, rose the awful forms of estranged and the limits of temporal exist- friends, of vanished joys, or the storms
of adversity, which had separated But to return, I remained some those from me, whom childhood had time in the school, reading; at last, held dear, and whom youth bad venethe clock striking eight, reminded me rated. My ideas then ran on the dethat it was time I should return homeceased. How various are the states to breakfast. I accordingly walked of men! “Perhaps,” said I to myleisurely thither. My meal was ready, self, as we entered a field at the top of and I had drunk about half my milk, the hill, “this poor man who now when a sound in the passage, and a excites the pity of even this old sailor, tap at my door, announced the arrival was once the care of affectionate paof my guide; who readily accepted the rents, the joy of admiring friends, and invitation I immediately gave him, to the delight of extensive acquaintanenter and seat himself. “I thought ces; and how is the scene changed! you would have finished your meal we may say with the poet,
" Where before now,” said he, in reply to a are your gibes now, and those flashes of casual inquiry, such as people usually merriment, that were wont to set the make upon meeting. “I think,” re- table in a roar ?" Forsaken, friendless, turned I, “that you are before your dead! no voice to calm the tumult of time;" to which he made no answer, thy breast, when nature was overbut continued to amuse himself, as he whelmed with disease; no hand to had previously done, by making wipe away the death-damp when the figures with his stick in the sand, body and soul were about to be sepawhich covered my floor. “How far is rated. The idea was irresistibly afit to the residence of your deceased fecting, and, spite of my philosophy, friend, Adam,” inquired I. “ About the tears rushed to my eyes. five miles," said he, “and a very plea- were now on the top of the hill, that sant walk too. We go across the overlooked, on one side, the town, the fields on the hill, and down the valley priory, and Erdline Hall; and on the by the river side.”—“Then it is near Other, the river, the church, the the Long sand beach."-"Yes," said beach, and the ocean, the latter rehe," about five minutes walk.” sisted by rocks of amazing height and
gave that to
tremendous aspect. The night hav- sphere, and at a distance we occasion. ing been rather stormy, and the wind ally heard the murmurs of thunder. A blowing directly from the N. E. had narrow plank was laid across the excited the waves, which at present stream, which was the only place by were in a state of considerable agita- which we could have access to the hation. The clouds passing quickly bitation of the deceased. We passed over the breakers, as they bore on over it with care, and having climbed their backs a considerable quantity of up the rock, I softly opened the latch, sea-weed, and now and then the sun as one is always wont to do, on apbursting suddenly from one of the dark proaching the remains of a fellow creamasses with which the sky was enve- ture, and found Mr. Atkins, our worthy Joped, and gilding the extremity of magistrate, making arrangements for the fluid bills, had an inconceivably the funeral ; while two men under his agreeable effect. Here and there direction had taken possession of a were to be discovered the little fishing square sort of box, which lay in the smacks, while the sea-bird screamed corner of the hovel, very much in apon the shore, to call back its mate pearance resembling some boxes from its stormy resting place.
which I have seen for keeping philoThe church on the opposite hill is sophical apparatus. rather a modern building, but still it Adam, who during our walk had adds much to the beauty of the scene. been full of thought, now appeared to The old church, which was nearer the be transported by rage. sea, was destroyed by the sand; the cried he, with a voice that might have remains of it, however, are still to be rivaled Stentor, Avast, that's my traced, and the number of human prize; d'ye think I'll let you board teeth and bones, of all descriptions, her, no, founder me if I do ; (the that are strewed near the few scatter- men immediately left off their attempts ed stones, announce to the beholder to force open the box,) for poor Olithat the remains of fellow-creatures ver," continued Adam,“ have slumbered for ages on the very me, and for his sake I'll keep it, poor spot, where now the reeds whisper as fellow! poor fellow ! poor fellow !" the playful winds wander among them, sinking his voice at each reiteration and where the spotless sand dances to of the exclamation of pity, till the last the music of the breeze. We next was almost inaudible. By this time I descended a deep ravine, that led had found leisure to survey the hut. into the glen, through which we had It was partly natural, partly artificial. to walk for about two miles more, to On a rude couch, the head of which the hut of the deceased; we left the was towards the rock, lay the body of ocean on the left hand, and passed the deceased, his eyes closed in death, under the shade of some large pincs, and his features now more than ever which overhang the valley, and whose wearing a melancholy cast. Care had shadow was reflected back by the lit- already made wrinkles on his brow, tle river which meandered slowly and silvered parts of his hair, though, along.
as I have since found, he was not We had pursued this way for some above thirty-five. I took a very attentime, till at last we saw the Long tive survey of the features—I saw sand beach; and shortly after, my every expression of the countenance companion, who was a few paces be- -I felt a strange sort of sympathy bind, cried out, “Stop.” I turned, arising in my breast--a sudden recoland perceived that we had arrived at lection of past days. Memory in vain the termination of our journey. On tortured herself with inquiries, and the opposite side of the river, (which at last relinquished the unavailing in this place was of considerable search. Round the hut were rude depth, besides having a bank of about utensils; a chair, a table, wooden six feet) was the hut of the solitary trenchers, cups, and so on, formed on a rock, about seven feet from the the furniture of him, who was removed top of the opposite bank of the river. to that place, where the inhabitants On both sides it had rocks for a shel- sball hunger no more, nor thirst ter from the wind, and from the eye again. of the passenger. Every thing about During the altercation between Mr. it looked very lonely. The clouds bad Atkins' men and Adam I remained by this time quite obscured the hemi- silent, but when it was over, I moved No. 42.- Vol. IV.
towards the corner, and on the top of have found documents relative to our the chest perceived a parcel of paper, family, which will explain this myswhich had hitherto escaped notice. I tery, and which I design to lay before took it up, and found it a memoran- them in some succeeding papers. dum, whereby Oliver, commonly known by the name of the silent gentleman, gave all his effects to Adam Review- Lectures on Physiology, ZooEarnest, &c. At the bottom of this
logy, and the Natural History of document was signed F. 0. which I
Man, delivered at the Royal College conceived to be the initials of the deceased. I shewed the paper to Mr.
of Surgeons, by W. Lawrence, F.R.S. Atkins, who immediately acquiesced
Professor of Anatomy and Surgery
to the College, &c. in Adam's claim to the box, which was lifted up by a person who had just “For let the witling argue all he can, joined the party, without my observ- It is religion still that makes the man. ing him, and who, though an old man, appeared to possess considerable No work has emanated from the press strength, which he displayed in plac- for a considerable period, calculated ing the box on his shoulder, in carry- to excite a more lively and general ing it down over the rock, and adjust- interest, than the present volume ; ing it in the wheel-barrow, which he whether it be considered in reference had brought with him. Adam re- to the author-the importance of the quested that I would allow the chest subject-the doctrines which it inculto be taken to my house; to which I cates-or the circumstances under willingly consented, and the man and which they have been promulgated. barrow drove away, and were soon The high reputation and generally acout of sight amid the windings of the knowledged ability of Mr. Lawrence, valley. Mr. Atkins then informed are sufficient, of themselves, to give Adam, that if the box contained any a more than ordinary degree of immoney, it must be applied to defray- portance and interest to any subject ing the expenses of the funeral, which which he should select as the object he said would take place on the suc- of his attention; but when to these ceeding Wednesday. The old man are superadded, matter, deeply affectexpressed a wish that the few other ing our religious creeds and belief, articles remaining in the hut might be not only our existence here, but hereconverted into money, for the same after-subverting all former principles purpose. Then,” said Mr. A. “ the of Ethics—this volume comprises broker may take them, I suppose.” every thing at once interesting, either
Yes.” replied the old man, “and in a moral or physical sense. if you, Sir, (to Mr. A.) would be so Much, however, as we naturally feel good as”
“ Certainly,” returned the disposed to bow to the superior talent magistrate, “it shall be so, Adam.” of Mr. Lawrence, we are by no means We here parted, my old companion prepared to receive his opinions upon and myself taking the road to the the present question as orthodox; por town. The old man insisted that I even to admit that his conclusions should return to his hut, which was legitimately result from his own argubut a little out of the way home, ments. On the contrary, we are into take some refreshment. I complied clined to think, that he has grossly with his wish, and after sitting at his exaggerated some, and misrepresented little table some time, we moved others, of the facts; and indeed, that slowly to my apartments, where the the first half of the book presents a chest was deposited in the corner of complete tissue of perverted reasonmy parlour. “ Adam,” said I,“ shall ing and false induction. I open it?”—“ Yes,” Mr.
said he, The great object of Mr. Lawrence giving me the key. I unlocked it, and is, to that all the phenomena of on the inside of the lid, in large letters mind depend upon medullary organiwas inscribed, “FREDERICK ORRIL.”.zation ;--that the man and the oyster
"Good heaven's!” exclaimed I, —the Newton and the ass--are merely unable to suppress my feelings, “my modifications of the same material cousin !"
principles ; and that the difference I must now inform my readers, consists only in a superior nicety of that 'in the chest in the corner, I mechanism, and a few ounces more