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sufficiently rigorous to confine them eye to the advancement of morals and for a limited time to constant labour religion, and to the alleviation of in the factory at Parramatta.

human misery, he steadily pursued a A premium of £50 is held out to course of indefatigable industry and every master of a vessel for a faithful of toilsome labour, which nothing but discharge of his duty; and satisfactory the most determined resolution could vouchers for the correctness of his withstand, and which cannot fail of conduct and humane treatment of the not only bringing with it the high reprisoners on board, signed by the ward of an approving conscience ; but governor of the colony, and the sur- it must also receive the united thanks geon-superintendant of the ship, must of every friend to order, to society, and be produced for that purpose.

to humanity. Formerly the owners of ships char- Bent entirely upon the accomplishtered for the conveyance of convicts to ment of a public good, and the mitithe colonies, contracted for victualling gation of human suffering, he saw, as them during the voyage, and were even it were, in the vision of his mind, all at liberty to provide persons of their the formidable obstacles which he own selection to act as surgeons, should have to encounter; and therewithout any stipulation being entered fore prepared bimself for the worst, into for landing them safely at the with the means necessary to surmount place of destination. It will not ap- them. Diligent in attention to the pear strange, then, when we state, education of the convicts on board that it was by no means uncommon for incessant in bis pious addresses and a ship of this description to have from devotional worship, for their religious 40 to 70 deaths and upwards in the instruction, and conciliating in his course of a voyage. Whether the measures, he seems to have acquired persons who were then employed to the full dominion of their minds. act as surgeons were duly qualified With a missionary zeal, he undertook for the situations or not, is a question to employ his talents, and exhaust which we cannot pretend to decide; his energies, in the arduous enterprise but it is evident, upon the very face of of seeking reformation, and applying the statement, that the more who died, gospel truths, in the very sink of utter the greater was the profit; and it is wretchedness, depravity, and sin. No but a fair inference to deduce, that in view of heathenish barbarism could all probability they were not surgeons, possibly appal the human mind more or, if they were, that they were but ill than entering the miserable abode of calculated for their office.

a convict-ship, where 170 men were Since naval surgeons, however, congregated together ; wrapped, as have been appointed to the superin- within one covering, in the blackness tendence of convict ships, this cause of crime,-immerged in all the excess of regret has been considerably less- of hardened profligacy and vice,ened ; and if two or three deaths slaves to ignorance, strangers to occur in a voyage, it is thought very morality,-and enemies to religion; unfortunate indeed. In 1818, out of and yet such was the scene of horror 1059 convicts embarked in England and of woe into which our author and Ireland, 1057 were landed at plunged, to carry a balm for all their Sydney in tolerably good health. sorrows,-to arouse their dormant

The navy-board allows the surgeon lethargies,—to awaken their moral £50 by way of passage-money, re- feelings,-to offer them scripture conturning from the colony : but whether solation, and to hold out the boon of this sum of money be a fair equivalent perfect bliss and immortality! for the severe discharge of an un- But after all the gratifying stategracious duty, is more than question- ments which our author presents of able, as it is a well-known fact, that extensive amendment in life and conthe sum demanded for a passage from duct of those under his charge, it is New-South Wales to England, is from a melancholy fact, which reflection £150 to £200.

serves only to aggravate, that it must Such is a brief analysis of this inter- all prove abortive under the present esting book; and before we dismiss existing system of New South Wales. the subject, we cannot but offer to our very few, if any, members of our author that tribute of praise which legislative assembly can be perfectly is so justly his due. With a single aware of the gloomy and frightful

a last part

681
Review.-- Elements of Self Improvement.

682 state of public morals in that vast | institution for the sole intent of affordcolony, otherwise we cannot suppose ing the vast number of culprits conthat it would be suffered to remain fined in gaols the means of education, in insignificance, not as a punishment cleanliness, and moral and religious for transgression, but as a nursery for instruction. With such a provision, the propagation of every seed of pes- it cannot but be anticipated that pritilential growth. Is it possible to son morals would be benefited, and believe, that, in such a spot where the public crime abated. Cleanliness and God of nature has been so bountiful, education are the two main pivots his prophecies and bis prccepts are upon which turns the whole moral not oflicially communicated to its in- machinery of man. Every subordihabitants ? and no means applied for nate link connected with the chain of their introduction by the benevolent, this stupendous apparatus, depends pious, and Christianized land of Bri- upon their movements and regularity. tain ? Surely forgetfulness alone must If once these principles of action beplead her apology.

come inoperative, all the best enerEndless would be the task of commenting gies in the moral constitution of man on the deterioration, if not total ruin, of moral are immediately suspended. principle, that must result from this want of We shall offer no remarks on the classification and religious care among community so constituted as this just noticed. tions on Seduction,” for two reasons ;

this book, viz.“ Reflecreclaim men of this description under circum- first, that they certainly have nothing stances so inauspicious! I fear the hope of at all to do with the primary object of their reformation, therefore, is extremely the work; and secondly, that they distant, unless some means of an efficient will produce little good. We question nature, like that alluded to, be soon adopted. not that our author's views were to Sanguine indeed must be the mind that can expect improvement in a mass so hetero- benefit society by introducing this geneous, composed of delinquents of every appendage ; but we are equally satisage; a commixture of guiltiness of every fied, that if he had thought a little shade and degree, --without any controlling more deeply, he would have come to influence over depravity, however extravagant,--without any humane friend to warn

the same conclusion as ourselves. against error, or direct to the paths which These “ Reflections” might prove alone lead to peace and happiness.'

useful to the most abandoned and When directed to the multifarious profligate ; but as we apprehend that institutions that are the ornament and it is the more respectable and enthe glory of this favoured island, and lightened part of the community that which have for their object the in- will peruse this volume, we are decistruction of the uneducated--the ame- dedly of opinion, that they will be lioration of human woe, and the ex- productive of little good. tension of Christianity, we are lost in wonder and astonishment that there are so many fields open in our various Review.--Elements of Self-Improvegaols and prisons for the dissemination ment; comprising a familiar View of of practical piety and the cultivation the intellectuul Powers and moral of moral feeling, and yet not one Characteristics of Human Nature. public society has been raised for By the Rev. Thomas Finch.

800. these express purposes. All the good pp. 266. London: Hamilton, 1822. which has been done for these unhappy prisoners, is performed by a This is a sensible and well-written very circumscribed portion indeed of little volume, embracing topics in private individuals, who from generous which every reader is interested, and liberality mingle their prayers and promising to render essential service their instructions with their purse. to the rising generation. To commiserate with suffering guilt respects it bears a resemblance to in silent and pensive reflection, and Mason on Self Knowledge ; and withhold the more important duties of touches on various points that may action and of usefulness, is but to be found pursued more at large in mock humanity in the face, and to Watts's Improvement of the Mind; wear the mask of foul hypocrisy. We but in others it widely differs from trust that these remarks will be the these justly celebrated performances, cause of some noble-spirited ipdivi- as much as they vary from one duals stepping forward to erect an another. This work is not profound, No. 42.--VOL. IV.

2 X

In some

pp. 5.98.

but it is pleasing and instructive, nate as he is meritorious, and he will containing truths of the utmost im- deserve a golden medal from the reportance to mankind, without dressing public of letters. them up in the attire of metaphysics, There is scarcely perhaps a more which rarely fails to tire the thought- eventful period in English history, less, and frighten the frivolous and than that in which Oliver stepped bethe gay. Mr. Finch, however, mea- tween the two Charles's; beheaded sures the vegetable mould of human the father; and drove the son into nature, if he does not sink into its exile; assumed the dominion of the subterraneous regions, and shews us kingdom, and cansed the name of what fruits it is capable of bearing, Briton to be revered in every nation without exploring those beds where throughout Europe. This is the man, gold and gems lie buried " deep with and this is the period, of which this diamonds in the flaming mine.” volume treats.

The paper is excellent, the work is The introductory remarks, which neatly printed, and the price (58.) run through twenty-seren pages, evimoderate. Were we, with an ill- dently bear a political character, in natured eye, to examine every page, which the effects of the Norman it would be no difficult task to fix our conquest, the feudal system, the protalons on something objectionable ; gressive advancement of civil and but this task wc shall consign to political rights, the dawn of liberty others, satisfying ourselves that the and the principles of the British conexcellencies of the work will more stitution, pass in review before the than counterbalance every defect. author. In these pages the questions

which the above topics originate, are

discussed with moderation by an enReview.- Oliver Cromwell and his lightened man, who advocates the

Times. By Thomas Cromwell. 2d cause of well-regulated liberty, withEdition, 8vo.

London : out consigning his countrymen to the Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, 1822. dominion of despotism, encouraging

anarchy, vindicating licentiousness, Few men have ever been either more or inviting usurpation. applauded or execrated, than Oliver It is scarcely possible for us, in our Cromwell. This naturally arose from assigned limits, to give even an outthe conspicuous part which he acted line of the eventful life of Oliver on the great theatre of the nation, from Cromwell. For the numerous vicisthe conflicting opinions of the various situdes connected with his biography, parties with which he was surround- the reader must have recourse to the ed, and from the good and evil which work itself. resulted from his prosperous usur

It is well known from the historical pation.

accounts transmitted to us, both from With common mortals, in what the friends and foes of Charles I. that rank soever they are placed, the tide bis arbitrary measures, in connection of popular censure or applause is only with his attempts to introduce popery, destined to live its appointed hoor. roused his subjects to arms, and terBut although nearly!two centuries have minated in his ruin. The volume elapsed since Oliver Cromwell trod before us tends to confirm, and not to the stage of public life, party feelings correct, the preceding opinion. What still continue to glow with no common the condition of this country and its warmth, when his name is mentioned, inhabitants might have been, had and the politicians of 1822 frequently Charles pursued his measures without light their torches at the flame which meeting with any resistance, furnishes he kindled, when the nation was in a subject of dangerous and painful volved in all the horrors of a civil war. speculation, which leads to conseHence

quences that we dare not anticipate. “ One thinks on" Cromwell," heaven's own

The character of Cromwell, though spirit fell,

somewhat flattered, is evidently drawn Another deems him instrument of bell.”

by an able artist. His virtues and The biographer, who, under these his vices are both placed before the circumstances, can draw a portrait of reader, from whose eye his foibles Cromwell, that shall escape the cen- and infirmities are not concealed. sure of all parties, must be as fortu- From the earliest period of his history, farther circulation.

ANNIVERSARIES OF RELIGIOUS AND

BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS.

sources.

685
Anniversaries of Religious Institutions.

686 he seems to have been marked out for some great and singular event, which the subsequent vicissitudes of his life more than verified.

Royal British Institution, for the The work itself is interesting, en

Education of the Poor. tertaining, and instructive.

It expatiates in one of the most fertile The annual meeting of the friends fields of English history, marks the and supporters of this institution, movement of political opinion with which took place on Friday, the 3d of precision, and traces the various May, at the school - house, Northactions which distinguished and di- street, City-road, was most numerousversified the scene, to their respective l; and respectably attended. His

It abounds with anecdote, R. H. the Duke of Sussex was exincident, and local narrative, with pected to preside; but being preventwhich every reader must be highly ed, Alderman Wood, by whom this amused and gratified, developing the institution was founded, took the various principles by which the leaders chair. The report stated, that since of prevailing factions were actuated, 1813, this society had received under and exhibiting the parts which they its care 4808 boys; of these, 4501 had respectively acted in the great drama 2807 had been completed in the comthat then arrested the attention of Europe. To kings and subjects it mon rules of arithmetic. Within the imparts a salutary lesson, which all last three years, 580 girls had been have an interest in learning, and by admitted into the schools, and instructwhich they may acquire knowledge ed in needle-work, and the rudiments without exposing themselves to the of education. At present 217 re. danger of experiment.

mained in the school, which furnished of the history of those eventful

room for the admission of more.-times, this volume contains a con

These schools are founded upon the densed, but luminous account. Crom-/ liberal plan of Mr. Joseph Lancaster, well is but the centre on which one without endeavouring to proselyte the leg of the author's literary, biographi- children to the dogmas of any sect. cal, and historical compasses, is fixed, The funds of this institution appeared wbile with the other be takes a general on the whole to be in a flourishing sweep that includes England, Scot condition. land, and Ireland, in its extensive range, moving all Europe, and even

Prayer-Book and Homily Society. our transatlantic and Indian posses- This society has been many years sions, by the circle which it de- established. Its name designates its scribes.

import. The tenth anniversary was Between Cromwell and Buonaparte, held at Stationer’s-ball, on Thursday, several coincidences and contrasts are May 2d, Lord Calthorpe in the chair. drawn, which place these distinguished | The report represented the efforts of individuals in an interesting light. this society as having of late conBy statesmen and heroes their cha- siderably extended the doctrines of racters may be reviewed with much the established church, and as being advantages, and even kings may de calculated to revive a knowledge of rive wisdom from the melancholy the fundamental truths which distincontemplation.

guished the Reformation. It erected The work is written in a perspicuous the best possible monument to that and judicious manver. The materials noble army of martyrs who suffered in are arranged with an eye to the events Smithfield and other places, during which followed each other in regular the dominion of popery in this kingor tumultuous succession. Many in- dom. More prayer-books and homi. teresting notes are appended, which lies had been distributed during the may be perused at the reader's leisure, last year, than in any one which prewithout breaking in upon the narrative ceded it. Of homilies alone the inof leading facts. The second edition crease in copies had amounted to is now on sale ; and if merit can be- 30,000, and nothing but an augmencome a passport to public approbation, tation of funds was wanting to give to we have no doubt that another will these valuable compositions a much soon be demanded.

City of London Pension Society. was evident that the divine blessing The object of this institution is, to had accompanied the exertions of the afford relief to decayed artizans, me- society. chanics, and their widows. Its fourth

Port of London Society. anniversary was held on Wednesday, the 1st of May, at the Albion-house,

At this anniversary, which was held Aldersgate-street, H. R. H. the Duke London Tavern, Lord Gambier pre

on Monday, May 6th, at the City of of Sussex in the chair. The meeting sided. The object of this society is, was more numerously attended than to promote religion among the sailors on any former occasion ; and from the and watermen, that are found within respectability of those present, and

the port of London, not only by supthe statements which were given, nothing could be more obvious than its plying them with bibles and testa

ments occasionally, but by establishadvancing character and reputation. In the term Pension, those who have ing preaching on board of convenient more fastidiousness than wisdom, may

ships, where they may be able comfind something to excite their dis- fortably to attend. These establishapprobation; but in the estimation of ments have already been made in all, who look rather to utility than to various parts, and the example has

extended its influence to foreign names, the object of the institution

countries ; among which Gibraltar, cannot fail to excite admiration.

and Boston in America, were particuLondon Society for promoting Chris-larly named.

tianity among the Jews. The 14th anniversary of this society

African Institution. was held in the Egyptian-ball, Man- On Friday, the 10th of May, the sion-house, on Friday, the 3d of May, sixteenth anniversary of this meeting the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor in the was held at Freemasons' Tavern, chair. The meeting was most nu- Great Queen-street, his R. H. the merously and respectably attended. Duke of Gloucester in the chair. The report stated, that the exertions The audience was large, and highly of benevolence were unremitting, and respectable ; the majority consisted that some new societies had been of ladies: The design of this instiformed in England and Ireland; but tution is, to watch the progress or we regret to observe, that although decline of the slave trade, which much money has been expended for appears, from the report, to have this benevolent purpose, and several dreadfully increased during the last instances were adduced, of the be- year. The report stated, that the nefits which had resulted from the whole western coast of Africa, from undertaking, the wishes of the san- the river Senegal to Benguelo had guine had not yet been realized. swarmed with slave ships, and that an

active and increasing slave trade had Naval and Military Bible Society. been carried on, on the eastern shores The anniversary of this society was of that continent, particularly from held on Tuesday, the 7th of May, in the island of Zanzebar. The chief the King's concert-room, which was seat of this inhuman traffic lay on the completely filled with a large assem- river Bonny, and at Calabar. Into blage of ladies and gentlemen. The the former river 190 ships had enterchair was taken by Lord Gambier, at ed, and 162 into the latter, for the 12 o'clock. The report stated, that purpose of purchasing slaves. To during the last year, the receipts and prevent this detestable trade, every disbursements of the society amount effort had been made, but hitherto too ed to about £2050, but that there was many ships had escaped the vigilance a debt owing of £1332, which had of the vessels which guarded the prevented that extensive gratuitous coasts. circulation of the scriptures, which they should rejoice to behold. 8631

London Female Penitentiary. copies of the sacred writings, how- The annual meeting of this society ever, had been distributed, and the was held on the morning of Monday, demand still continued exceedingly May 6th, at the Crown and Anchor great. From various parts the ac- Tavern, Strand. On this occasion counts were highly gratifying, and it W. Wilberforce, Esq. M.P. presided,

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