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DISTRESS IN IRELAND,

689
Gleanings from Literature, Science, &c.

690 supported by many eminent characters. It appeared from the report, that during the last year, 149 appli- NotWITHSTANDING the sums which cations had been made by the unhappy have been contributed by the benevoobjects for whose sake the charity lent in this country, for the relief of was instituted. Fourteen young fe- Ireland, the sufferings of the inhabimales had also been placed in si- tants appear undiminished. The sums tuations; 39 had been restored to thus far advanced, amount to nearly their friends ; 21 had either been £100,000; but so numerous are the discharged or had quitted the peni- individuals that stand in need of astentiary on their own account; one sistance, that scarcely a week's subhad been sent to her parish ; and one sistence can be expected for each, had died. From some of those from this vast contribution: From placed in service, letters had been Cork, from Clifden, from Galway, received, expressing their gratitude, from Killarney, and from Bantry, acand requesting to become subscribers counts have recently been received, towards the support of an institution stating, on the most unquestionable by which they had been recalled to authorities, the severe distress which the paths of virtue. The subscrip- almost every where prevails. tions amounted to £4075. 19s. which A letter from Bantry states, that was £123 more than the disburse- one woman with three children died of ments; but still there was a debt of actual starvation. They were nearly £500 on the society. A similar in- a week without sustenance. The wostitution has lately been established man was ashamed to make her case at Brighton.

known; and before assistance could Sunday School Union.

be administered, they were all found

lifeless together. Many are seen to The anniversary of this association faint through mere exhaustion during was held on the morning of Tuesday,

the necessary delay that occurs in adMay 7th, at the City of London Ta

ministering food; and it is probable, vern, Joseph Butterworth, Esq. M.P.

that without British liberality, the in the chair. A large company assembled to take breakfast between suflicient to purchase costins for those

local subscriptions would hardly be 5 and 6 o'clock ; about 1000 persons who would die of mere want. were present. The report stated, that in London and its vicinity, the total number of Sunday scholars was 52,549 children, and 478 adults, which were

GLEANINGS FROM LITERATURE, instructed by 4870 gratuitous teachers.

SCIENCE, &c. The increase of scholars during the past year was 3687. In three counties Rust.-Greasy and oily, or resinous substan

Method of preserving Iron and Steel from in Wales, the aggregate of Sunday ces, have hitherto formed the basis of the difscholars, including children

and ferent preparations proposed and employed for adults, amounted to one-fifth of the this purpose ; but in the former, when ranciwhole population. Great Britain and dity comes on, an acid is produced, which Ireland contain upward of 600,000 corrodes the iron; and the latter, when dry, Sunday scholars, aceording to the moisture. But melted caoutchouc, or India

are apt to crack, and thus afford an inlet to accounts received, but from many rubber, is found to possess peculiar advantages places there have been no returns, in preserving the surface of iron from being New-York and Philadelphia contain acted on by the atmosphere ; arising from its an aggregate of 33,000 Sunday scho- exposed to the air; from its treacly consistlars. Such is the progress, and such

ence, under all ordinary temperatures ; from the extent, of Sunday schools. Their its strong adhesion to the surface of iron or extensive effects stand as a monument steel; and at the same time from the facility of what united energy, dictated by with which it is removed by a soft brush benevolence, can accomplish.

charged with warm oil of turpentine. The

finger or a soft brush are the most convenient ( As it will be impossible for us to do implements for applying the caoutchouc; and, justice in this number to the interesting as soon as the article has been covered, it branches of these benevolent anniver- ought to be set up on end, in order that the saries which remain, the conclusion of place in a day or two. The temperature for

excess may drain from it, which will take this subject is unavoidably carried to melting caoutchouc is nearly equal to that reour next.)

quired for the fusion of lead; but if this is attempted to be performed in a pipkin, or any ces are rendered perfectly free from fætor by it other open vessel, a copious emission of va- in a few days. pour will take place, the mass will become Use of Phosphoric Acid in Jaundice.-Dr. more or less charged, and be very likely to Caleb Miller has, in Silliman's Journal, stated take fire. A close vessel, or a kind of copper the success he obtained in cases of jaundice, tlask, can be employed, containing a horizon- by the use of phosphoric acid. His practice tal stirrer or agitator, which being kept in is to give a cathartic of calomel and julep, or motion by means of a handle rising above the some of the neutral salts, and then balm tea, flask, prevents the caoutchouc from burning to moderately acidulated with the phosphoric acid, the bottom.

which is to be continued till it operates as a Method of rendering Cloth incombustible.-M. diuretic, and until the urine becomes clear or Gay Lussac has found, that the most effec- nearly so. One patient had taken eight pints tual solutions for rendering cloths incombusti- in twenty-four hours. In general, the yellowble, are, solutions of muriate, sulphate, phos ness disappears in three or four days from the phate and borate of ammonia, with borax, and urine, and in a few more from the skin. Dr. also some mixtures of these salts. M. Merat Miller has met with but one case (a person Guillot of Auxerres has shewn, that the acidu- 80 years of age) that had not yielded to this lous phosphate of lime possesses the same treatment. property. When linen, muslin, wood, or pa- Use of Sub-ritrate of Bismuth in Intermittent per, are dipped in a solution of that salt, of Fever.-Dr. Henkesew, a physician at Hildethe specific gravity of from 1.26 or 1.30, they sheim, has been in the habit of prescribing this becoine completely incombustible. They may remedy in agues, for several years. He conbe charred by an intense heat, but they will siders it to be a powerful febrifuge and antinot burn.

spasmodic. He exhibits this salt in the dose Singular Heat developed in the Fusion of Tin of four grains, with a few grains of sugar every and Platinum.—If a small piece of tin-foil is two hours. wrapped in a piece of platinum-foil, of the Oil for Watch-work, &c.-Oil used for disame size, and exposed on charcoal to the ac- minishing friction in delicate machinery, should tion of the blow-pipe, the union of the two be free from all acid and mucilage. The folmetals is indicated by a rapid whirling, and lowing is the process (M. Chevreul's) recomby an intense brilliancy in the light which is nended as the most convenient for procuring emitted. If the globulė thus melted is allowed it in the most favourable state. Put into a to drop into a basin of water, it remains for matrass or glass fiask, a portion of any fine oil, some time red hot at the bottom; and such is with seven or eight times its weight of alcohol, the intensity of the heat, that it melts and car- and beat the mixture almost to boiling; decant ries off the glaze of the basin from the part on the clear upper stratum of fluid, and suffer it which it happens to fall.

to cool ; a solid portion of fatty matter sepaAid in case of Shipwreck. Several experi- rates, which is to be removed, and then the ments have recently been made before the Tri- alcoholic solution evaporated in a retort or banity Board, and a Board of General Officers, sin, until reduced to one-fifth its bulk. The at Woolwich, on a new plan, for affording elaine or fluid part of the oil will be deposited. speedy and effectual aid in case of shipwreck. It should be colourless and tasteless, almost It differs from Captain Manby's plan, inas- free from smell, without action or infusion of much as the line of communication can be litmus, having the consistence of white olive made by means of a rocket instead of a mor- oil, and not easily congealable. tar. A roller is also added, and so admirably Hydraulic Orrery.-Mr. Busby, an engineer constructed, as to render considerable facility and architect, bas obtained the gold Vulcan and safety in reaching the shore. The advan- medal of the Society of Arts, &c. for this matage that must be derived in the night-time chine; the peculiarity of which is, that the from the rocket is obvious, as it is so con- apparatus floats upon an unruffled expanse

of structed that it will burn in the water. The water, and that the circuits, obliquities, paprecision by wbich the line of communication rallelisms, and rotations, of the planetary bois formed is also considerably augmented, and dies, are not effected in the ordinary manner, the safety of life and property consequent upon but by certain hydraulic combinations, produchaving the apparatus ready on board, in case ing movements which admirably imitate the of accident, is paramountly enhanced. The grand and harmonious order which reigns two Boards have spoken in appropriate terms throughout the mightiest works of the Creator. of the new plan, and bave made their report We believe an exhibition of this interesting accordingly

machine is now open in the Strand. Preservation of Anatomical Specimens.-Dr. Improved Window Sashes. These improveMacartney, of the Dublin University, has for ments consist in making them to turn round, some time employed a solution of alum and so that their outsides may be brought inside nitre, for the purpose of preserving anatomical the room: this is done by fixing hanging styles preparations. He finds that it preserves the to the sides of the sashes; the hanging-styles natūral appearances of most parts of the body and sash-styles being so rebated, as to render more completely than spirits or any other fluid them weather-tight; and they are connected heretofore used. The proportions of the alum by hinges, so boxed in, each way, to the and the nitre, and the strength of the solution, styles, as to make them very strong and durarequire to be varied according to circumstan-ble. Neither bolts nor any other fastenings ces; and, in order thoroughly to impregnate are requisite to prevent their turning, when the anatomical preparation, the liquor must closed.-(For an invention somewhat similar, see for some time be occasionally renewed. The Imp. Mag. vol. I. col. 249.) solution possesses such antiseptic powers, that The Plough.--An experiment was lately the most putrid and offensive animal substan- | tried, in order to ascertain the difference be

693 Queries to Correspondents.-Prices of Stocks, 8c. 694 tween the working of the long mould-boarded greatly differ in their accounts of the plough (used within 25 miles of London) with elements of the planets, that I think four horses, a man, and driver, and a common light Scotch plough, with a pair of carriage you could render a valuable service horses and reins. The result turned out, that to many of your readers, and to the the pair of horses ploughed, in six hours, one public at large, by the insertion of acre, nine inches deep by twelve, walking at this query Your's respectfully, the rate of three miles an hour; the four Dec. 15, 1821.

T. B. E. W. horses ploughed half an acre, seven inches deep by nine, stepping two miles an hour. This may be relied on as a fact, and it is hoped MR. Epitor. Sir,—The following it will open the eyes of every farmer.

problem, requiring for its solution the Growth of Wood. It has been ascertained that wood increases in the following propor appeared in print. It is certainly not

use of both globes, I believe has never tion : The first year 1, the second as 4, the third as 9, the fourth as 15, the fifth as 22, the

to be found either in the popular treasixth as 30, the seventh as 40, the eighth as

tise of Butler, or in the more scientific 54, the ninth as 70, and the tenth as 92. From production of Keith. If you deem it this it is concluded, that wood ought never worthy insertion it is quite at your to be cut till it is in the tenth year of its

service. growth. Cleansing Raw Silks.--Mr. Brierley, of Sal

I am, Sir, Your's respectfully, ford, Lancashire, has contrived a plan, the

Norwich.

J. W. P. object of which is to cleanse raw rilks from

A problem in the use of the globes, gum and other impurities with which they are invariably found intermixed, when imported

which requires both the terrestrial and into this country. Previous to dyeing or ma

celestial globe.nufacturing the raw silk, it has been usual to To find that place which has a proprepare it by wasbing the hanks in boiling posed star in its zenith, at a certain water, when by the necessary agitation of the hour, under a given meridian. For has been done to the silk by its entangling! example, Capella, when at London it The intention of Mr. B. is to avoid this incon- is ten o'clock in the evening of the venience, by employing steam instead of boil- second of March. ing water, during the operation of which, the First. With the celestial globe, silk is to be suspended within a close steam find the hour that the star passes the closet or chamber, where, by the action of meridian, on the given day, which in the steam, the fibres will become separated, the case before us will be found to be and the gummy matter discharged.

The mode of operating proposed is, first, to six o'clock in the evening. soak the raw silk in a strong solution of soap Secondly. Find the meridian of the and water for a sufficient space of time to sof- earth, where they reckon this time, ten the gum; after this, the silk is to be taken when, at the given place, (London,) it in hanks (while wet) and hung on poles within a chest or closet, heated by a pipe leading will have the star (Capella) upon the from a boiler, the apparatus being furnished meredian. with safety valves, stop cock, and a cock for Thirdly. Seek upon this meridian, drawing off the condensed steam. Here the that place which has its latitude of the silk is allowed to remain a sufficient time to

same number of degrees as the declidissolve the gam. After this, it is to be washed in a weaker solution of soap and water, and nation of the star (either in north or ultimately in clear water only, until the impure south) which, in tbe present example, parts are entirely removed.

being 45} north, it will be found to be

Louisbourg, in North America, where QUERIES TO CORRESPONDENTS. the star, Capella, passing the meri

dian, will be in the zenith at the time On Astronomical Books and Calcu- assigned.

lations. MR. Editor. Sir,--As a lover of Average Price of Grain per Quarter, for the 12 Astronomical Science, and occasion

Districts, from the Gazette. ally an instructor in that interesting

Wheat. Barley. Oats. Rye.Beans. Peas.

s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. and sublime branch of study, I re- May 18.47 0 16 11 17 422 0 22 8 24 6 quest the favour of knowing, through 25.46 4 16 7 17 5 20 10 22 4 25 3 some of your literary correspondents, June 1. 45 1 16 0 17 020 5 22 10 24 8

8. 44 7 15 10 17 516 0 22 8 24 3 what author may be the most accu

15.43 10 16 2 17 10 17 4 22 4 24 0 rately depended upon for the numbers

Price of Irish Stocks, June 19. which express the diameters, distan

Gov. Deb. 3} per Cent. 91) Š ces, and periodical revolutions, of Do.

5 per cent. 33 the primary and secondary planets. Do. Stock, 5 per Cent. 34 ŠE The various elementary and other Exch. Bank Notes 9} 9 per Cent. books with which I have met, so Bills in Course 8j per Cent.

Price of Stocks, London, June 25. Spanish 5 per Cent. in & sterling 624 . 3 per Ct. Rd. 801 | 13 3

pm. par 2pm. Prussian 5 per Cent. 86. 3) per Cent. 917 Do. £500,41 3 pm.

Danish 5 per cent. 86 to 1.
4 per Cent. 97)
Do. small, 3 6 pm.

Columbian 6 per Cent. 84 to 83.
4 per Cent. (New) 98% Lottery Tick. £21 18 Chili 6 per Cent. 80.
Long An. 203 7-16 Cons. for Acc. 80% *
Ex. Bills, 2d. £1000,

Average Prices of Sugar| Number of Bankrupts. Prices of Foreign Stock in London, June 25. May 22, 32s. 8£d.cwt. May 25, 28, - 18 French 5 per cent. 91f. 25c. to 75c.: Exchange, 29, 32 62

June 1, 4, 23 25f. 35c. to 40c.

June 5, 33 87

8, 11, 25 Russian 6 per Cent. 82: Exch. 11: per rouble. 12, 32 51

15, 18, - 26 Neapolitan 5 per cent. 73 to 4.

19, 30 13

22, 10 Austrian Metallic 5 per cent. 77.

Total

102

9

COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 22d JUNE, 1822. The pursuits of commerce seldom offered less inducements than they do at the present moment. Both at home and abroad a general languor prevails throughout its various branches. It is however observable, that the numerous propositions submitted to Parliament for altering the import duties of different articles, together with the uncertainty as to the effect likely to be produced by the passing of new commercial bills, now in progress through Parliament, tend together to unsettle commerce, yet their effect cannot fail to be salutary and enlivening. The resolution of the Bank of England to discount mercantile paper at an extended date, and at a reduced rate, cannot fail of being productive of much good. The lower rates of merchandise, much below the cost of production, in most instances, must eventually attract the notice of the capitalist, who will doubtless find a more satisfactory if not more secure mode of investing bis means, than in the purchase of foreign securities, however flattering the rate of interest may appear. These circumstances lead us to augur more favourably of the future course of commerce, and we hope ere long to see a better order of things, promising more security and a greater remuneration to the merchant,

We now proceed to notice some of the latest operations in our market, as they will best shew the actual state of things.

The supply of Cotton bas fallen off materially of late, whilst the demand has improved, and the sales effected (almost exclusively for home consumption) have increased ; the total import of last week was bat 2597 bags; and of the present only 618 packages. The sales of the last week amounted to 11,023 packages ; and of the week just now ending, 8006 packages, as follows: d. d.

d. d. 3981 Bags of Upland, from 71 to 98 26 Bags of Mina Geraes, 1125 Orleans,

8
to 111 245
Demerara,

9} to 10% 84 Sea Island,

131 to 24

190
Carthagena,

75
550
Pernambucco, 10 to 11 28

Bourbon,

13 598 Bahia, 98 to 101 60

Surat,

7 to 7 754 Maranham, 9. to 10

Bengal

61 20 Para,

92 The market closes with a trifling reduction. "Public opinion is certainly not in favour of an advance ; but the value of Cotton is now so much reduced, that any circumstance tending to renew confidence in either buying or holding would probably cause some improvement in price.

British Plantation Sugar.-About 1050 casks have been sold this week, at some little improvement on the good and fine qualities, but brown and middling descriptions went off rather lower. Besides the above, nearly 600 bags of East-India have likewise been disposed of; yellow to low white at 62s. to 66s. Od.; good white at 71s. to 73s. per cwt.

Coffee.-Several parcels have gone off at full prices, though chiefly purchased by the grocers.

Rum.--The inquiry for this article is very limited.
For Rice, the demand has improved, though at rather lower rates.
Very little has been doing in Hides, the stocks at present being low in the importers' bands.

Dry Salteries. The stock of Ashes bas for some time past been gradually declining, and it is supposed, that the new supplies will come to a bare market. Montreal Pots role at 36s. to 375.: Pearls 45s. Dye-Woods are less demanded. Solid Nicaragua Wood, £27 per ton. Jamaica Logwood, £9. 10s. Campeachy, £10. 10s. per ton. Cuba Fustic, £10. 10s. to £11.-30 tons of Sicily Brimstone fetched £22.7s. 6d. to £22. 15s. per ton. 550 bags of Sumac, at 18s. to

At the sale of East-India goods yesterday, 55 chests of Bengal brought Ss. 1d. to 10s, 2d. per lb. being an advance of 6d. per lb. on the last sale. 54 bales of Safflower £3 to £5 per cwt.

Our Corn market does not improve, nor has there been any decline this week. The millers are the only purchasers of wheat. Oats and Beans have advanced a little. Barley is slow of sale. Flax Seed continues to decline this week --a parcel of 120 hhds. sold at 32s. per hhd. to a crusher.

28

per lb.

19s.

per cwt.

LONDON : PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY H, FISHER..

THE

Imperial Magazine ;

OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.

AUGUST.] “SOCIAL REFINEMENT HAS NO EXISTENCE WHERE LITERATURE IS UNKNOWN.”'

[1822.

THE PHYSICAL AND MORAL WORLD.

sensations arising from the action of

external objects on the sentient extreNo. 8.-Examination of the chief Phe- mities of nerves, are positively those

nomena of the Right or Spiritual Side nerves which arise from the brain; and of the Scale, continued. And 2d. that all the sensations of internal feelOf Animated Being in general, and ings, arise in consequence of some the Internal Sensations or Instincts, exciting cause applied to the sentient Appetites or Passions.

parts of those nerves which have their

origin in the spinal marrow. In our last paper we treated of the To say nothing of the anatomical phenomena of the animal faculties distribution of the nerves, which of considered in relation to external itself proves the hypothesis to be anobjects. And at the conclusion, hint- founded; how often do we perceive ed that there was another class of in others, and even experience in ouranimal sensations, which are connect- selves, the most violent internal feeled with internal objects, and involved ings, produced by some sudden and in more obscurity still. These are unexpected external occurrence? How what have been called appetites, de- often also are desires, and antipathies, sires, instincts, antipathies, feelings of and sensations of pleasure and pain, pleasure and pain, and the like. excited in the sentient parts of those

Their explanation has been attempt- nerves, which we are certain arise not ed, by the hypothetical doctrine of from the spinal marrow, but from the two different kinds of nerves originat- brain? Though it is but an inferior ing in the brain and spinal marrow ; example, what a pleasurable sensaand two different kinds of sensations lion does even sneezing sometimes arising from such a distribution of the occasion on the filaments of the olfacnerves,—the one connected with the tory nerves, which are the first branch brain and external objects, the other of the cerebral set? The internal desires with the spinal marrow and internal for, or antipathies at, particular kinds feelings.*

of food, occasioned by a morbid state But this whole hypothesis seems to of the digestive organs, which are be merely a jingle of words. In the supplied by the stomachic plexus of first place, what feelings can a living the eighth pair, go also to disprove animal experience, which are not the distinction on which the doctrine internal? that is to say, not in its own rests. body? All feelings must be internal But it is one thing to disprove a in this sense; for no creature can have doctrine, and another to establish its feelings distinct from, or external to opposite; this, accordingly, still reitself.

mains to be done in the present case, All feelings, therefore, being thus which we shall attempt in the followconsidered as in the body, it is ad- ing manner. mitted, that in relation to one another, Though the nerves be of two kinds, there are some feelings more superfi- as to their origin, it does not appear, cial, and others more deeply seated; however, that the function they persome affecting the very external sur form is more than one, though greatly face of the skin, and others the most diversified in operation. To commuinternal parts of the system ; but nicate feeling or sensibility, is the though these be facts, they do not function in which they all agree ; prove the point in question.

though this function be infinitely diStill the doctrine is hypothetical, versified, according to the circumupless it can be proved, that all the stances of the different creatures, and

of the different parts of the samo • Richerard's Physiology.

creatures. The feeling of desire, for No. 43,-VOL. IV.

2 Y

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