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discordant, which are recorded on the | ANECDOTE OF THE DUKE OF SOMERauthority of those whose discernment and veracity it would be worse than idle to call in question?

The tendency of these queries will be best understood by those who are most capable of throwing light on a mysterious subject, and it is the opinion of those only, concerning which 1 should feel any concern. It would afford me great pleasure if by such they should be deemed neither useless nor unimportant.

The difficulties attendant on the investigation can only be appreciated by those who make the attempt. Some faint idea of it may be conceived by a knowledge of the past, viz. that two Physicians, residing in the same place, (Drs. Percival and Ferriar) each possessed of highly-gifted minds adapted for philosophical inquiry, should, after mature deliberation, have arrived at diametrically opposite conclusions on this subject.

It has been well remarked by an excellent Physician, now living, (Dr. Bardsley,) that "an attachment to the marvellous, a blind obedience to authority, and a rage for hypothesis, seem to have possessed most writers who have treated on this malady;" and it has been equally well observed by another, now no more, and for whose memory I must ever retain unfeigned respect, (Dr. Ferriar), that, "it is a subject on which the mind of the medical philosopher cannot remain at rest, but that it is allowable to hope that careful dissection and accurate discrimination of symptoms will, at some future period, afford the power of removing this hitherto untractable disease." I shall close this, I fear too long letter, with expressing my concurrence in both these opinions, and by assuring you that

I am your's, very truly,

Warrington, Nov. 20, 1821.



CHARLES, the haughty Duke of Somerset, sent for Seymour the painter, to paint portraits of his running horses, and at dinner drank to him with a sneer, Cousin Seymour, your health.” "My Lord," replied the Painter, "I do really believe I have the honour of belonging to your Grace's family." The Duke, offended at this freedom, ordered his steward to pay Seymour, and dismiss him. Another painter was sent for, who, finding himself unequal to finish Seymour's pictures, honestly acknowledged it, and recommended the Duke to recall Seymour. The haughty Peer condescended to summon his cousin once more, when Seymour wrote, "My Lord Duke, I will now prove that I am of your Grace's family, I will not come.'


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IN the engagement between Admiral Rodney and Mons. Guichen, in the West Indies, a gamecock, that had been principally fed upon the main deck, and was much caressed by the sailors, immediately after the firing began, flew upon the quarter deck, and took its station between Admiral Rodney and General Vaughan. The feathered hero seemed not only to enjoy the conflict, but endeavoured, by every means in his power, to inspire all within hearing of him with the love of glory, for every five or six minutes he set up a loud crowing, and continued to strut the deck, and conduct himself in this manner during the whole of the engagement. Admiral Rodney pointing to chanticleer, called out to the General in the height of battle, "Look at that fellow, Vaughan, he is an honour to his country."

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We have received the following communication from a correspondent, under a signature, not much more consistent in itself, than the paragraphs which he exposes, and on which he animadverts, are with each other. On this account his assumed name is concealed; and to hide the cloven foot which many readers would discover in some of his remarks, they have undergone an abridgment. EDITOR.


SIR,-Having always made it a practice to amuse myself during the few

leisure hours an attention to business will allow, in literary pursuits, several articles in your Magazine have lately supplied me with recreation.

For the last few days, the Rev. Richard Warner's Tours have formed my literary dessert. I must give the Rev. Gentleman credit for having furnished me with much pleasing amusement; but at the same time must confess, that the pleasure has been much diminished, in perusing paragraphs such as the following :

"The customs which, some years ago, brutalized the miners of Cornwall, and kept them in a state little better than that of savages, are now, in a great measure, exploded; the desperate wrestling matches, for prizes, that frequently terminated in death or mutilation; the inhuman cock-fights, which robbed the miners of what little feeling they possessed, and often left them plunged in debt and ruin; the pitched battles which were fought between the workmen of different mines or different parishes, and constantly ended in blood; and the riotous revellings, held on particular days, when the gains of labour were always dissipated in the most brutal debauchery, are now of very rare occurrence, and will probably, in the course of a few years, be only remembered in tradition. You will naturally inquire who have been the immediate instruments of so much good, in a district so unlikely to exhibit such gratifying appearances? and I feel I am but doing justice to a class of people, much, though undeservedly, calumniated, when I answer, The Wesleyan Methodists. With a zeal that ought to put to the blush men of higher pretension, these indefatigable servants of their Master have penetrated into the wilds of the mines, and, unappalled by danger or difficulty, careless of abuse or derision, and inflexible in the good work they had undertaken, they have perseveringly taught, gradually reclaimed, and at length, I may almost venture to say, completely reformed, a large body of men, who, without their exertions, would probably have still been immersed in the deepest spiritual darkness, and grossest moral turpitude. 'The irreligious fools of the world,' and the interested assertors of exclusive establishment privileges, would probably consider this tribute of praise to the Wesleyan Methodists, as the dotage of enthusiasm, or the cant of disaffection; but from you I may expect a more favourable conclusion."

A Tour through Cornwall.
pp. 301-2.

"Passing through the village of Bitton, we enter Kingswood. Amid the rugged inhabitants of this dingy district did the indefatigable and conscientious John Wesley adventure his person in the service of the Gospel; and, with an inflexible perseverance, that was neither discouraged by toil, nor scared by danger, continued his exertions, till he had tamed that obduracy and savageness, which habits of life so distant from civilization, and ignorance so profound as the colliers usually exhibit, may be expected to produce. Regarding as I do with abhorrence, the customary baneful effects produced in society by the preaching of Methodists, I should be far from encouraging, in general, their efforts among mankind; yet candour must allow, that in some cases it may be considered as beneficial; for, as poisons are occasionally administered with efficacy in dispelling desperate diseases, so the strong doctrines of Methodism may operate usefully with those classes of society, whose hearts, hardened by profligacy, could not be affected by the mild precepts of rational Christianity. Certain it is, the conduct of the numerous body of colliers, in Kingswood, is now marked by a decency and regularity, which one would hardly expect to find in such a description of people; though the preserving of them in this state of quiet and order must be, in a great measure, attributed to the very praiseworthy and exemplary management of the parochial minister of St. George's parish, and to the energy of the Magistracy of that district."

Excursions from Bath.

pp. 273-4.

Here then we have a minister of rational Christianity anathematizing a set of doctrines, as "baneful" and "poisonous," which, he allows at the same time, to have been the means of converting the savage miner and collier, to gentle and peaceable subjects! Like the Traveller in Esop, from whom perhaps he copies, he blows

hot and cold with the same breath. But, the preserving of the poor wretches from destruction, is only to be done, by "exclusive establishment privileges," and even this "rational Christianity" is unable to protect the poor mortal from perdition, without the aid of the civil magistrate !!!


TAKE a piece of alum, of the size of a nutmeg, dissolve it in a little hot water, and pour it in a pail of the impure water; and in a few hours the filth will be precipitated to the bottom, and the water at the top will be perfectly pure, and free from all taste arising from alum.

is only ours as it is passing-If we make no use of it then, we cannot lay it by for future occasions, neither can we bestow it on others. An hour mispent or misimproved, can never be recalled. It is mingled into chaos, or lost in the unfathomable ocean of eternity.

Time is a talent of inestimable value, intrusted to our care by the omnipotent Jehovah, that it may be improved. The attributes of Deity seem to associate with it, for it is big with consequences, which eternity only can unfold. These, if steadily kept in view, would so overwhelm the thinking powers with their vast importance, that, amidst the din of national commotions, and the wild uproar

REFLECTIONS ON TIME AND ETERNITY. which conflicting passions, and jar


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ring interests occasion, the soul would remain unmoved, absorbed in the grand consideration of rendering up her account with joy.

Two of the most important words in the English Vocabulary, are, "Time" and "Eternity;" and perhaps there The departed year has just taken are no two words so often alluded to, its flight from our world, and it is now of which the importance of their rela- united with the mysterious abyss of tive and intrinsic meaning is so little eternity. But its days and hours have felt and understood. given in their evidence before that Whether we possess wealth, or pow-awful tribunal, at the bar of which we er, or talent, or any other object which are already summoned to appear. is frequently, though erroneously, sup- This evidence, registered in the courts posed to constitute the happiness of of heaven, must very shortly pass in man, they are all included in the word review before us; and in that eventful Time; without it, they could not im- moment, our Judge will pronounce a part even a momentary joy; nay, they sentence, the consequences of which could not even exist. In fact, Time is we must abide for ever. Happy, the most valuable of all our posses- thrice happy they, who, through the sions; the loss of it, therefore, must Saviour's merit, are prepared for this be irreparable. It is not the loss of final audit! property, or even of every species of worldly grandeur, for these may, by an occurrence of unforeseen events, or what is frequently termed chance, be regained; and yet, with what little reluctance are days and months, nay years, thrown absolutely away, in the pursuits of sin, vanity, and folly, while the loss of worldly honours have been bewailed in the most pathetic, heart-rending, and agonizing terms.

The mere light of nature, shining through the misty casements of heathen philosophy, has emblematically depicted Time, as being a bald old man, with the exception of one lock of hair on his forehead; thereby intimating, he might be caught, if he were met in front, but if once allowed to pass, there would be no possibility of seizing him; we must seize him as he flies, or he is gone for ever. Time No. 36.-Vol. IV.

But time, though thus important, is but a small speck in the horizon, a mere point on the broad surface of the universe, when compared with eternity, that "bouudless sea without a shore." Well-improved time is only a prelude to a happy eternity; yet, with what shadowy lightness of thought is this word treated, by those who have been allured into the giddy whirlpool of dissipated pleasures. When we reflect on its endless duration, thought expatiates in a boundless ocean, and is lost in the contemplation. But it is only by connecting with it the idea of endless misery, or of everlasting happiness, that all its importance can be perceived.

Another portion of time is now committed to our care, but before the year expires on which we have just entered, many of our destinies will, in all F

probability, be fixed in eternity. This is a solemn thought, in the issues of which, all mankind are deeply interested. But God, in compassion to human weakness, has provided means through which his banished ones shall not be for ever expelled from him. The Saviour waits with open arms to receive returning sinners, who, notwithstanding their past transgressions, by relying on his merits, improving their remaining moments, and abounding in the work of the Lord, may still connect endless felicity with eternal duration.

If, amidst the murky darkness of heathenism, men were taught to value time, while they had no higher object than the transient voice of fame, to stimulate their industry, how ought we to esteem it, who are blessed with the resplendent beams of the Sun of righteousness, and who dwell in "the land of Bibles," and of Gospel light!


Liverpool Literature, Institutions, &c.

as they lose all relish for solidity and


As we know the provinces must always be supplied from the capital, as servants after their master, we may judge what share of taste and literature is put on one side, and transferred over for the separate benefit and maintenance of our provincial towns. It comes to us thrice filtered through the strainers of collegiate and metropolitan education, and cannot, certainly, hurt us by its strength. We do, indeed, receive the efforts and results of the intellectual energies of both: but we are here speaking of the information and learning which individuals, societies, and towns, possess, in themselves,-not that which they read and hear about in others. It is the spirit and originality, which we seek for, in the persons and places that we visit,-not the little acquisitions they may have made. And were we asked what constituted the literary character of a society or people, we should not pretend to estimate it by a few solitary instances of worth or wisdom; or, by the number of extraneous publications it received, but by its aggregate and inherent wealth -its power, and the expression of its social and peculiar mind, resembling that of national genius and character. Even provincial towns, as well as capitals and nations, are each distinguished by the features of individual

conversation, literature, and the arts, formed by the circumstances of climate, situation, accidents, and the spirit of the age in which they live. From such causes Manchester is devoted to manufactures, and Liverpool to commerce, the former embraces high church principles and Toryism, the latter low church and more Whiggism; the one patronizes coaches, the other steam-boats; this is fonder of music, and that of dancing; the first of a bale of cotton, the last of a hogshead of sugar; this again of a large turtle, and that of a sirloin at a feast.

THOUGH We think literary information is much more widely diffused than formerly, we question whether it has not been obtained by the many, at the expense of the erudition and sound taste of the few. We have more read-ity-the tone and temper of society, ers, and far more writers, to be surebut where are the fine scholars and linguists of the last century? The Germans seem to have taken our place; and the spirits of Johnson, Warburton, and Sir William Jones, to have animated the heavy intellects of the Brudär Schlegels, the Sismondis, and the Russian Adelungs. But if a deficiency of sound philological and bibliographical skill is experienced in our Universities, which we think few will dispute, what must be the state of our metropolitan learning, which only comes in for those second-rate wits, who fail in achieving the honours of a professor, or fellowship? It is of course proportionally diluted to a degree of washiness, scarcely strong enough to give nutriment to our worst Magazines, which are indeed supplied from the dregs of Alma Mater, and vie with one another in feebleness and flippancy, in proportion

But not to trifle, which we seriously did not intend, we shall now come nearer to the question intended to be elucidated by the foregoing remarks. We have a high opinion of the literary character of our native place, we wish well to it, and to our many noble institutions. The spirit and object of

Much less should we inflict it under these circumstances, upon children, which, though insisted upon so strenuously by Solomon, nowhere receives the higher sanction and autho

them, like the architecture, is, upon the whole, conceived in good taste, but the form is better than the materials of which they are composed. They are like good houses badly occupied, or treasures foolishly husband-rity of Christ. On the contrary, if we ed, and really unpossessed. In fact, in regard to literature and taste, we have to do that which persons or societies have so seldom to do, to bring ourselves to a level or equality with the greatness and utility of the institutions we possess, and not, like poor Italy and France, to ask in vain for social edifices, suitable to the vigour and intelligence of their spirit. We are misers, and walk abroad starved and raggedly, surrounded by the riches of art and science, which we put any where but into our heads. In this sense, to be sure, we may say with Petrarch,

“ Nuda e neglelta và filosofia.”

Now our business is really to give our literary character "a local habitation and a name," by transferring it from our book stalls, libraries, and public buildings, in as much as in us lies, into the spirit and object of our pursuits. We might then merit that high reputation in the eyes of strangers and of foreigners, which is now only granted to the liberality of our Institutions.

We should not then see our private or public libraries deserted, while our billiard and news rooms are perpetually full. We should not always perceive our dapper clerks and apprentices mounted upon some stumbling jade, and apeing their masters with a couple of mongrel curs at their heelsinstead of sometimes seeking the quiet and pleasant banks of the Mersey, to indulge a moment's reflection, or enjoy friendship, or the muse. We should neither worry cats, fight cocks and dogs, torture animals, and, with a merry ruffianism, duel with and insult one another. No, nor should we then retrograde, instead of advancing, in the scale of society, of arts, of literature, and of towns. We should not make good laws only to repeal them, nor put on a face of liberality and kindness to the world that we did not mean to preserve. We should not adopt moral methods to prevent crime, and then resort to physical force again, without trying them, for this is to be more barbarous than our ancestors.

are to believe that he carried that sweetness of disposition and heavenly mindedness which dictated every word he uttered, into action, of which we cannot doubt, then we must allow as a beautiful reproach to his disciples, and he never did more than reproach man on earth-when in their mistaken respect they were about to chide them from his presence, this saying, “Suffer little children to come unto me, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." Can we believe, that, under any provocation, this personage would have flogged a child? that our great Master would have treated his disciples,however young, with this indignity, with this paltry and base exercise of brute power, an equal disgrace to him who receives as to him who inflicts it. We think not: it was neither in his doctrine, nor in his heart; the law is only to be found in the schoolmaster's note book, or Latin Grammar. But our Saviour was both too wise and too humane, to indulge such a thought. We shall no farther insist upon this childish question, which every man of sense must see will finally be settled like the slave-trade, in favour of the little slaves-than just to observe, that it is a proof, among others, of our want of spirit, to avail ourselves of those advantages we boast of, and to act up to the spirit and laws of our Institations.

The honour of doing this, however, is, we hope, reserved for the rising generation; if those who are now flogged, will have sufficient generosity to forego their rights upon the next, and to them we address ourselves, and to such as are capable of reasoning for themselves.

In a town like Liverpool, whose young men are necessarily occupied the greatest part of their time in the low details of commerce, and the pursuit of gain, it is of the highest importance that the little leisure they are possessed of should be turned to the best account. It is desirable, if they merely wish to be agreeable members of society, that they should at least be acquainted with the general literature of the age. It is a current coin

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