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instance, or which, in other words, is | these feelings, and desires, and appejust a wish for the gratification of some tites, are not occasioned by impresinclination, for the indulgence of some sions communicated from the sentient pleasure, is often as strongly excited extremities of the spinal nerves, were by impressions on the one set of such even distinct from the spinal nerves as on the other. Thus, when marrow, either by means of this supan object of exquisite beauty appears posed nervous fluid, or vibratory mo. to the view of our bodily vision, we tion, or by any other means whatever ; behold it with the mingled feeling of for the substantial reason, that it is wonder and delight. It excites in us not the spinal marrow, nor yet the an indescribable pleasure which we brain, as we have already demonwish to indulge. Though we may strated, that is the seat of sensation, gaze upon it a thousand and a thou. --but the extreme filaments of the sand times, still the desire to take nerves, situated in the different organs another and another look, is as eager of sense. We have seen that the five as ever ; "for the eye is not satisfied external senses of animals, as we shall with seeing.” And the same is appli- call them, are excited by impressions cable to our sense of hearing. Pour of objects not interior, but exterior, to into that fascinating organ the strains the various organs of these senses. of melody! strike the harp and the We have also seen a seven-fold phelyre! In proportion as you raise your nomenon of the animal faculties, pro. notes, in like proportion do you kindle duced in living animals by means of the fire within. As you proceed, you these external senses. But we fan it into a flame, which time will now speaking of what may be called not extinguish; * for neither is the the internal senses. Let it then be ear satisfied with hearing." It will remembered, that the terms external be all obedience to your masterly and internal are merely relative ; for hand. It will hear as for eternity." that may be external to this, yet this, It will cast the body into that attitude though internal to that, may be external which will occasion least fatigue to to another thing --Apply, therefore, the unwearied and endless indulgence tbis idea of relative situation to exof the delightful passion ; and when plain the doctrine in hand. We conat length it draws to a close, it will ceive that the whole may be explained regret that the scene is soon by the action of the various secretions
on the secretory organs, or ducts of Thus, may desire, and that of the these organs, or receptacles of the most ardent kind, be excited by the secreted quids. Now, as these or. impressions of external objects on the gans, and ducts, &c. are internal comnerves of the cerebrum. Instead, pared with other parts of the body, the therefore, of desires, internal feelings, feelings excited in them by the accuand the like, being the characteris- mulation of their contents, which now tic mark of impressions on the spinal operate upon them as external and nerves; we ought to consider such extraneous bodies in relation to them, sensations as applicable to both kinds will be internal also, considering the in general; for when anatomically ex- system as a whole ; and will produce amined, they are found so to combine internal sensations in these organs, together into various plexuses, that, sensations of various kinds, to which excepting a few arising from the brain, we give the appellations of appetites, and distributed about the head and desires, passions, and so on; varying superior extremities, the one set can according to the nature of the secrenot be traced as affecting certain or- tion, and one kind of sensation pragans more than the other.
dominating over another, in proporHaving traced the subject thus far, tion as the exciting cause operates on it remains still to be explained, how one secretory organ rather than on these internal feelings, desires, and another. appetites, &c. are produced. From
Of the Instincts. what we have said above, I mean in our last paper, respecting the doctrine Having thus accounted for the proof cerebral impressions, by means of a duction of these internal feelings, deacrvous fluid, and the like, it may sires, and appetites, we go on to take naturally.be supposed that our opinion notice of the instincts of animals; as it here will be the same; namely, that seems to be from these various inter
nal sensations, that animal instinct stimulus excited in the newly evolved originates. But what is instinct? Is organs, will the pursuit be ardent or it feeling ? Or is it action? It is nei- cool after a change of its situation in ther the one nor the other. It is nei- life. Should it be excited by the ther feeling simply, nor action simply. first or ardent propensity, its ideas Bat it is feeling producing action ;- will be wholly absorbed with anticileading irresistibly to the obedience pated enjoyments; and now it will of certain laws in the animal economy, direct its actions in quite another train without obedience to which, it could from that to which it had been accusnot exist.
tomed; namely, to the obtaining for Instinct being thus a child of sensa- itself a partner, a help-mate for it. tion, we may conclude à priori, that As for the foolish animal, man, the all animated nature capable of feeling, greater proportion of his youthful will be subjects of instinct; and that days are passed in a round of the deinstinct is something all have in com- lusive reveries of such expected enmon, which, through the medium of joyments. Nor at any time will the sensation, operates by some general young and inexperienced, who follow but irresistible laws; since, without up the train in after ages, listen to the obeying their dictates, the animal cre- lessons of such as have acquired wisation could not subsist.
dom by their former folly ; but giving The first instinct of a creature newly vent to the baneful fire of their animal introduced into this world from the passions, they will form a train of the belly of its mother, or incubated egg, most extravagant projects ; supposing is the instinct for food; for the infant real dignity to consist in acting the will suck the moment it is born, and part of the hero of a romance, and in the chick newly hatched will pick up dazzling the object of the affections, the shell out of which it has escaped. falsely so called, with the gaudy and Hence the first sensation or feeling it unnatural trappings of extravagance, experiences, though it be unable to folly, and madness. express it, is the sensation of appe- The second Law of Nature, we thus tite or hunger. And, is it not admi- perceive, is the Propagation of the rable to behold, how the animal Species ; and the second instinct which instinct founded on this feeling, so leads to the observance of this law, wonderfully connects itself with the is the evolution of certain organs, and primary law of its nature, which is the excitement of certain stimuli in Self-PRESERVATION?
these organs, when the animal has Self-Preservation, I say, is the first arrived at maturity, by which the Law of Nature; and the first instinct sexes are attracted towards each other which leads to the observance of this by a reciprocal affection. law, is the desire for food, fear of The mutual consent of the parties danger, painful sensations, &c. being obtained, animal instinct now
Tracing the various actions of the proceeds to operate in a variety of animal, from the period of its birth ways. In numberless instances, anitill it arrives at maturity, there ap- mals assort themselves in pairs, bepears no stage in this period of its come mutual companions to each existence particularly remarkable for other, cheerfully assisting and belpany phenomena, except those of self-ing one another in all their little conpreservation, which is the chief; and cerns, and mutually preparing for abundance of frolic and enjoyment, themselves a habitation. And thus both in man and other animals. But the various tribes go on in the most now, by the evolution of certain or- delightful harmony, till such time as it gans, which lay concealed and dor- pleases a kind Providence, by a bounmant in the body before, certain sti- teous hand, to crown their innocent muli are excited, which give rise to labours, by adding an increase to the development of another instinct ; their family. Here they arrive at the and this second instinct is connected very summit of mere animal enjoy. with a second great Law of Nature, ment; but it is enjoyment connected which is the PROPAGATION OF THE with care, which gives rise to a third Species.
train of animal instinct, namely, that Upon this, a new revolution of of regard for their young. And this ideas takes place in the animal mind; third instinct is connected with the and in proportion to the degree of third and last great Law of their Nas ture, which is the PRESERVATION or vestige, so to speak, of moral good ; THE OFFSPRING,
it seems to leave nothing, nothing of We have termed this third, the last the good principle of morality remainLaw of Nature, in regard to the life ing; but contaminates the whole with of animals; for in fact, we see it in the opposite principle of moral evil, Nature carried no further ; there be- and degrades the man beneath the ing no provision here for the sick, the brute. aged, or the infirm; mere nature Man, viewed as a mere apimal, placaffording no beneficial associations of ed under the direction of the three great the kind,-no asylum by which the Laws of Nature, as above described, benevolence of the many might minis- is far from being as faithful to tbe ter to the necessities of the few; but dictates of these laws as the brutes, each having been trained under the Now what can be the cause of such auspices of its own parents till it could disparity of obedience in creatures shift for itself, is sent into the wide placed under the same laws, particuworld, friendless and alone, to be larly on the side of the most enlightever afterwards its own conductor, ened of the two; on the side of man, and the sole supporter, by means of who is wiser than the beasts of the the first law of its nature, of its own field ; of man, who, exalted as he is existence.
in the scale of being, and constituted Now, that the conduct of the brute lord of the lower creation,-naturally, creation, as matter of course, should on his part, expects obedience from be conformed to this law, i ot to the creatures; why is he bimself more be wondered at; but that man should deficient in conformity to those very in this resemble the brute, notwith laws he would enforce upon others, standing he is endowed with a moral than any other part of the creation principle, in addition to these laws besides ? The infection of his mind of his mere animal nature; a principle with moral evil, is the only answer to the very essence of which is love, not this question. that self-love which belongs to the first But, not only are the innumerable law of his animal nature, but the deficiencies to Nature's Laws to be love of others; and which, according accounted for ; but the great and to the great moral Law which should sweeping characters of the most dreadregulate the mind, as the other does ful perversion of these primary Laws the body, is to be cherished and exer- of his Nature, as may be seen in the cised frequently at the expense of whole history of man, a summary of mere self-love ; that he should lose which we have in the first chapter of sight of this principle, a principle Paul's epistle to the Romans ; laws which of itself stamps the highest too, connected with correspondent dignity on his nature; that he should instincts, the very object of which is to become darkened to such an obvious secure obedience to them; how comes truth, as that of moral feeling naturally it to pass that they are so shockingly leading him to devise means to promote perverted by the animal man? the good of others,-to care for the sick, If man were merely an animal, such --to supply the wants of the poor,—to phenomena could not be accounted attend to the aged and infirm; that he for; as there is nothing similar to be should abandon his own flesh and met with in the rest of the creation. blood, at the period they most require But man is more than mere animal. his assistance; that he should leave He is endowed with rational faculties the wretched to perish in their wretch- of mind, as well as animal instincts edness,-expose the necessitous to of body. He is a creature subjected starve,-and turn the venerable and to the direction of a moral principle of the aged, to whom he owed his very spirit, as well as a living principle of existence, out of doors,—banishing matter; which, first, none of the them to distant islands, as has been brutes possess, even the most sagaoften done in heathen countries,- cious; but which, he possessing, hath this, I say, is matter of astonishment! perverted, by the voluntary disobediA moral phenomenon this, for which ence of bis Creator's will; and hence, nothing but the most dire depravity of ever since the first transgression, the human heart can account.
which gave a kick to the balance of Here we perceive, too, how moral moral and animal equilibrium, -raising evil operates. It extirpates every the former to the very pinnacle of
moral perversion, which consists in the human character, of which we can
1. Nature's Laws, which are,
3 Self-Preservation, Propagation of the Species, Preservation of the Offspring,
2. Nature's Instincts, wbich are, 1
3 Hunger or desire for food, Natural love between Parental care or fear of danger, &c.
Affection. 3. Nature's Perversions, or Human gradation. 1. First, To a level with the brute, in the repression of moral feeling, and not attending to the cases of the destitute and the needy.
2. Second, To a step beneath the brute, in not obeying Nature's Laws in the manner which brutes even do.
3. Third, To a degree which is anomalous and without a parallel, in the perversion of Nature's Laws, by which the human species would create new sources of happiness to themselves; but every attempt of which kind, is always attended with directly opposite effects,-Nature's Laws, as well as Nature's God, being unchangeable.
There should follow in this place, a physiological analysis and explanation of some of the foregoing particulars; as also the Scale of Intelligence, Di. vine, Angelic, and Human; but as the discussions of these would occupy too much room in this brief abstract, we shall dispense with them at present, and in our next paper enter upon the illustration of the last of these, namely, the Human Intellectual faculties.
(To be continued.) OF THE MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE tion, the researches of many are neWEST OF ENGLAND.
cessary to the improvements of sci
This will explain the intention From the first moment that the atten- of the following paper. It is not to tion of men was directed to the study give a complete account of all that of nature, the migration of certain has been written on the migration of species of birds must have attracted birds, but to furnish materials towards particular notice, and the subject has their history, by the detail of observanot lost its interest to the present day; tions made in a particular district:for though sufficient motives for the not despising the observations of change of place are apparent in some others, but using these for the purinstances, in others both these and the pose of confirming or disproving them. circumstances of the change itself are if persons, residing in different parts very obscure:--thereby evidencing the of the united kingdom, or of the world, justice of that remark, which was would follow this plan, as applied to made long since, that while the inat- all the divisions of the kingdoms of tentive and superficial can discover nature, I believe many facts would something of the wisdom of God, the be elicited, hitherto unknown, and wisest fall very short of perceiving the science be proportionally benefited. whole. Science is the knowledge of For the attainment of the object in the works of God, and of God as the view, it appears best to arrange miauthor of them. These works can gratory birds into classes, according only be known by personal examina- to the seasons of their migrations; tion ; and as the best naturalists are which will present them to the wind able to make but a partial examina-1 with circumstances the least confused, There are some whose visits are irre- year; the latest first arrival was on gular; and others which come only at the 21st of the same month, 1816. very distant periods; these will form The Sand Martin, Hirundo Riparia; a distinct class.
I have never met with. Birds of this Birds which make their Annual Visits genus reach the land near the shore, in the West of England during the Sum- and in misty weather seem to have a mer Months:--Cuckoo, Cuculus Ca- difficulty in making it, for I have been norus; Wryneck, Yunx Torquilla; assured by intelligent fishermen, that White - throat, Motacilla Sylvia; when the weather is hazy, Swallows, Wheat-ear, Motacilla Enanthe; Wil- Martins, Swifts, Wheat-ears, and a low Wren ; Motacilla Arundinacea ; bird which they denominate a Miller's Reed Wren, Motacilla Salicaria; Thumb, and which is, I believe, the Swallow, Hirundo Rustica; Martin, Reed Wren, will alight on their boats Hirundo Urbica; Swift, Hirundo when three or four leagues from land, Apus; Goatsucker, Caprimulgus Eu- either singly or in small flocks; and ropæus ; Turtle Dove, Columba Tur- they appear so much fatigued, that tur; Quail, Tetrao Coturvix; Rail, even the strong-winged Swallow is Rallus Crex ; Spotted Rail, Rallas sometimes able only to fly from one Porzana ; Foolish Guillemot, Colym- end of the boat to another, when they bus Troile; Puffin, Alea Arctica. attempt to seize it. Wheat-ears are
The general habits of the Cuckoo often so worn out as to drop dead in are well known. This bird reaches the boat, without being able to proCornwall towards the end of April. ceed further. The Swallow tribe I do not recollect having heard its note come in small parties, and soon pass before the 21st of that month. It is on to their accustuned haunts; so first heard at that part of the land that after two or three have been seen, which ships usually make when they it may be perhaps a fortnight before approach from the channel ; about others make their appearance. two or three miles from the sea coast, The extraordinary confidence which and at a good height, which seems to these birds repose in man, in placing imply that they fly at a considerable their nests in the midst of bis dwelelevation. Before they depart they lings, whilst most other birds seek congregate in companies of from five the most secret places, is worthy of to ten in solitary places ; where they notice ; and serves to explain a cir. are employed in pursuing and chatter- cumstance, which is singular in the ing at each other; a circumstance feathered race; I allude to the fact of which has given rise to the idea that their singing when in their nests ; before their migration they alter their which can only take place where there note :
is no desire of concealment. The " In April, the kookoo can sing her song by tribe that is found in Britain, disap
Swift, the strongest winged of this, rote, In June oft times she cannot sing a note :
pears the first.
It usually departs At first koocoo, koocoo, sing still can she do, before the 10th of August, while the At last kooke, kooke, kooke ; six kooke's to temperature of the air is above what it one koo."
was at the time of its arrival, and The Swallow tribe appear about the when its food has suffered no diminusame time. The earliest Swallow Ition. And in warm summers it is not have ever known, was seen on the found to remain so late even as this ; 10th of April, 1808; the latest first usually departing, in such seasons, arrival was on the second of May, both about the first or second of the month. in 1812 and 1815. Martins come a The same remark applies to the Swallittle later. The first I have known low and Martin, and perhaps to all was on the 20th of April, 1816; the our summer birds; they appear to go latest, May 3d, 1817; but in 1819, I off earliest in the warmest years. This have reason to believe that Martins seems to be a very mysterious circumreached this country before the Swal- stance; but I think it may be explainlow; and perhaps this circumstance ed without difficulty, by a reference to may not be uncommon. Swifts make the constitution of the birds alluded their appearance later than the others; to. It is well known that a certain but I have seen a pair so early as the temperature is necessary for hatching 2d of May, 1820, the same day on
of birds; and that if this be which Martins first arrived in that I exceeded, the death of the young ones