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709 Of the Migratory Birds of the West of England. 710 is the consequence. Instructed of sion of the new plumage. These obthis, the domestic fowl quits her nest servations further give us to see how in warm weather for a copsiderable a warm Summer, by inducing the time, that the eggs may be properly moulting fever early, causes their cooled. The temperature wbich is early departure; a cold season delays fitted to the incubation of most tropi- them by retarding it. cal birds, is too great for the eggs of The Wheat-ear, known in some the Cuckoo and Swallow ; under the parts of Cornwall by the name of direction, therefore, of a guiding Pro- Knacker, divides its time between its vidence, they pass to more northern Summer and Winter residencc into regions, in search of that temperature nearly equal parts. The earliest arriwhich is become congenial to their val, I have found to be the 17th of feelings. When this great object has March, after which they continue been accomplished, the body becomes dropping in, in small companies, and prepared for another service.
passing on to their former places of The birds wbich remain in this residence. Some facts connected with country through the year, require the their middle passage have already warm temperature of Autumn to en- been noticed. I have observed that able them to moult; or, more properly they arrive usually between nine speaking, to force out the new fea- o'clock A. M. and the middle of the thers when the old ones have been day; which, as they do not fly swiftly, thrown off. A certain degree of fever- leads to the conclusion that they take ish action is necessary to this process; wing at an early hour in the morning. and by raising it artificially and pre- The state of exhaustion in which they maturely, bird-catchers are known to sometimes arrive, shews that many accelerate the process of moulting. must perish in the ocean. They beThis fever, as the disorder of the gin to depart about the commencesame name in the human body, is ac- ment of September; but some are to companied with a morbid sensibility be seen a month after that period. that renders highly painful those im- The south of France is believed to be pressions of the air, which before their Winter residence. were pleasing. Instigated by the new The White-throat differs from most train of sensations, they fly towards of our Summer birds, in not being the regions which have now become attached to any one place; so that it grateful; and having there accom- may be questioned whether any thing plished the natural process of renew. beyond accident drives it to the same ing the plumage, again they seek the district in two following years. It cooler air, that is now become as arrives about the same time as the agreeable as the hot was before. In Swallow. The Reed Sparrow is not, many instances the Martin has been with us, a very common bird; it freknown to remain late, for the purpose quents places where willows grow, of feeding the young ones, which (hence its trivial name Salicaria) and from accidental causes have not been builds in a low bush. This bird sings brought to maturity in proper season; through the night most melodiously, and as the moulting fever does not and on that account has been mistaken make its approach until the constitu- for the Nightingale, a songster that, I tion connected with breeding is ended, am convinced, has never yet been this produces no inconvenience ; but heard wild in Cornwall. The time of sometimes the approach of the fever the Goatsucker's arrival I do not well is felt before the young are able to fly; know, but I have witnessed its being and in this case, parental fondness shot on the 27th of November; which gives way to puerile excitement, and seems to imply not only that it someI have known them to be left to perish times remains bere at a very late pein the nest.
riod, but also that it is possible it may It is remarkable that in the few in- not always go at all. The Rail, also, stances in which Summer birds have which is usually considered as a bird been found torpid in concealed places, of passage, I have known killed at mention is made of their being disco- Christmas, long after the cold of Winvered naked; a circumstance which ter bas set in with severity; and it shews both the necessity of the moult-may be questioned whether any Quails ing process, and also the importance depart from us through the year, of a warm temperature to the expul- though usually said to do so.
The birds already enumerated may ture here, as in any part of England be called natives of England, since where they breed. It is not so diffithey are bred in this island; but those cult to account for the disappearance that follow are foreigners, that visit of the others which have been enumeus only by constraint, and depart as rated. In their nature they are exsoon as it is fafe for them to go. ceedingly shy, and consequently re
Birds that regularly visit the West of main in so populous a country as Englund in Winter.-Royston Crow, England, no longer than they can Corvus Cornix; Starling, Sturnus help; added to which, a strong tempVulgaris; Fieldfare, Turdus Pilaris; tation exists for their return to more Redwing, Turdus Iliacus; Bittern, northern regions, not only in the soliArdeu Stellaris; Woodcock, Scolo- tude, but in the abundance of insect pax Rusticola ; Snipe, Scolopax Gal- food which is there to be found through linago ; Jacksnipe, Scolopax Galli- the Summer. nula; Curlew, Scolopax Arquata; Birds whose visits are without reguLapwing, Tringa Vanellus; Wild- larity.-Ringtailed Eagle, Falco Fulgoose, Anas Anser; Wild-duck, Anas vus : a bird which I believe to be of Boschas; Widgeon, Anas Penelope ; this species, was shot a few years Teal, Anas Crecca; Gannet, Pele- since a little way from Fowey. Stormy canus Bassanus; Sea Pie, Hæmato- Petrel, Proullaria Pelageia ; Hoopoe, pus Ostralegus.
Upupa Esops—I have known a pair The Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla Fla- killed in the parish of Lansallos. Wild va) and Bulllinch (Loxia Pyrrhula) Swan, AnasCygnus; Shield-duck, Anas regularly change their quarters ac- Tadorna ; Cross Bill, Loxia Curvisos.cording to the seasons ; few remain tra—this bird is about the size of a near the shores in Summer, but they Bullfinch, but in shape much resemappear again when the Winter birds bles the Greenfinch. It is easily tamreturn from their Summer retreats. | ed, and in a cage has much the manThe Plover also, at this time, quits ners of a Parrot, particularly in rethe downs for more sheltered situa- gard to the use which they make of tions. The Gannet is the first of our their bills in drawing themselves Winter visitants that makes its ap- along. So fond is this bird of biting pearance ; which it has done so carly hard substances, that it soon tears as the 18th of September, though the wood work of the cage to pieces. more commonly its arrival is delayed Bee-eater, Merops Apiaster
this until the beginning of October. Gan- is a very rare bird in England ; and is nets visited the Cornish shores in here inserted on the authority of Drew much greater numbers when Pilchards and Hitchins' History of Cornwall. abounded from October to Christ-Crane, Ardea Grus; (Enanthe Attemas; at that period they would even ra Aldrov.-Ray's Synopsis Avium, darken the sky. Woodcocks . and p. 76. I have never seen this bird Snipes make their appearance early but once. in October ; but the latter are usually. The naturalist may find it interestseen first; for in fact some of them ing to compare this list with the followalways breed in our
The ing of the migratory birds of the other Woodcock is more timid; so that the extremity of the British Islands: it is only authentic account of a Wood- taken from Dr. Edmonson's Account cock's having bred in Cornwall, is of the Zetlands Islands. that recorded by Borlase ; but it is not Migratory Land Birds.-Land Rail, uncommon for a single one to stay Rallus Crex; Heron, Ardea Major; behind its companions-perhaps from Skylark, Alauda Arvensis; Fieldfare, having been rendered by wounds in- Turdus Pilaris; Snowflake, Emberiza capable of distant flight. They fall in Nivalis; Yellowhammer, Emberiza at first in a particular district, and Citrinella; Stone - Chat, Motacilla afterwards scatter themselves bout; Rubicola; Grey Wagtail, Motacilla so that after some time they seem to Boarula-not common. Seapie, Hæbe less numerous than before. Star- matopus Ostraligus. lings come about the same time, but Migratory Water Birds. Eider regularly depart in Spring: for what Duck, Anas Mollissima; Swallowreason I am unable to guess, as it ap- taiļd Shield-duck, Anas Glacialis ; pears that the climate, situation, and Wild Swan, Anas Cygnus; Velvet food, are as well adapted to their na- Duck, Anas Fusca; Wild Goose,
Of the Migratory Birds of the West of England. 714 Anas Anser; Barnacle Goose, Anas | fluid; and then, by means of its ciliaErythropus ; Shielddrake, Anas Ta- ted legs, it passes beneath the water dorna; Puffin, Alea Arctica; Rotche, with rapidity. In order to put its Alea Alle ; Shearwater, Procellaria powers to the test, I enclosed the Puflinus; Fulmar, Procellaria Glaci- insect in a bottle of concentrated salt alis; Gannet, Pelecanus Bassanus; water. Its exertions shewed that the Foolish Guillemot, Colymbus Troile; fluid was not agreeable to it; though Red-throated Diver, Colymbus Sep- it lived in this condition for twentytentrionalis; Speckled Diver, Colym- four hours. The specific gravity of bus Stellatus ; Annett, Larus Rissa; this fluid was so great as to render it Arctic Gull, Larus Cataractes; Pewit very difficult for the Diver to descend Gull, Larus Ridibundus; Common through it; and to do this in any deTern, Sterna Hirundo.
gree, it became necessary to throw Accidental Land Birds.-Carrion out a continued succession of air bub. Crow, Corvus Corone; Rook, Corvus bles: no sooner were its efforts relaxFrugilegus—they formerly bred here. ed, than again it was obliged to Crested Wren, Motacilla Regulus ; ascend to the surface, until, by a new Blackbird, Turdus Merula; Red- discharge, it was again enabled to breast, Motacilla Rubecula; House descend. There can be no doubt that Swallow, Hirundo Rustica ; Crested this secretion of air beneath the ulyHeron, Ardea Garzetta ; Common tra, or case, is for the suspension of Crane, Ardea Grus; Woodcock, Sco- this insect in its native element; and lopax - Rusticola; Redshank, Scolo- scarcely less doubt can be entertained pax Calidris; Lapwing, Tringa Va- that both the secretion and discharge nellus.
of the globules of air are entirely volunAccidental Water Birds.—White and tary in the animal. But the fact inDusky Grebe, Colymbus Obscurus ; volves difficulties which inust for ever Stormy Petrel, Procellaria Pelagica. elude our researches. We can easily
It is observed, however, that the resolve the whole into instinct, which, ornithology of the Orkney Islands though a convenient term, is little betdiffers very considerably from this; ter than a garment to concealignorance. for they are visited by the Wheat-ear, Admirable Butterfly, Papilio Atu. three species of Swallow, (though not lanta.-As butterflies in general are by the Swift,) and even by the Cuc- extremely shy, perhaps the following koo.
instance of extraordinary tameness in
one of this species may be deemed The Diver, Dytiscus Marginalis curious. Sept. 15, 1819, I observed This insect belongs to the class Cole- it fixed on a sunflower, where, as it optera, or those which have hard wing was busily engaged in extracting
The generic character is: an- honey, it suffered me to approach so tennæ setaceous; palpi six filiform ; near, that I was induced to believe it hind feet villous, formed for swim- to be blind. It several times flew to ming, with hardly any claws. It is a considerable distance, and as often about an inch in length. The habits returned, settling either on the sunof this insect are singular, and have power or on a wall that was near: but not been noticed by any observer, so in either case it allowed me to touch far as I have had an opportunity of repeatedly its wings, antennæ, and even knowing. It lives in fresh water, for head, shewing little signs of fear, but making its way through which, its stretching its antenna, and sometimes hinder legs are well adapted; being erecting its head as my finger advanfurnished with filaments of consider- ced to it. When I threatened it by a able length, which, when the creature sudden movement, the little creature rests at the bottom, are left floating. perceived it at the distance of about When the Diver wishes to keep itself three inches, and would start, but at the surface of the water, a bubble not fly away. It seemed to take very of air is secreted beneath the wing intelligent notice of my actions, when cases, which suspends it in the man- very near to it; but except by disconer of a balloon in the air : but when vering the flowers, which it might do the creature has a mind to descend, by its antennæ, I could not discover the bubble is discharged, and perhaps that its sphere of vision extended betwo or three more, in order to render yond about three inches. the body specifically heavier than the
J. Couch No. 43.- Vol. IV.
ON THE NECESSITY OF A DIVINE
arising from a participation of the common privileges of animals, is im
potent to grant that plenitude of feli" 'Tis revelation satisfies all doubts,
city, for which he has the appetite Explains all mysteries, except her own,
and desire. Notwithstanding the abiAnd so illuminates the path of life,
lity of reason to project schemes, in That fools discover it, and stray no more.” which it may eminently display its
superiority over the energies of inOr all the subjects which excite the stinct, still he fails to enjoy so delecattention of mankind, there is not one tably as he wishes, and therefore in which their interests are so deeply seeks some higher theme, which shall involved, as that of religion. Every fully involve the operation of his faculthing else, which is either the object ties, and fix a point and a limit for of the corporeal or the mental facul- their tendencies. In revealed religion ties, only concerns man as a fugitive we find a subject adapted to that meninhabitant of time, and is no further tal insatiety, and behold a theme contributary or detrimental to his whose nature affords dignified and happiness, than as it applies to him exquisitely beautiful topics for conin the immediate character of friend-templation, admiration, and enjoyship or enmity, ease or pain, know- ment. ledge or ignorance. Hence we disco- II. Because the moral nature of ver a universal disposition to consider man requires a standard, by which every thing of an inferior order, and virtue and vice shall be properly disof less consequence, than that which tinguished,—the life regulated, and constitutes theological sentiment, and the fears and hopes of the mind adis employed to direct the conduct, and justed and excited. inspire the hopes or fears which That man has a moral quality of relate to a superior being, and a future mind, is one of those undisputed facts state.
which fow unassailed onward in the We cannot recognize the foregoing tide of sentiment. Referring then to facts without inferring, that, where that fact in our present business, it there is such a prevalence of appetite, must be admitted that this attribute there is an adaptation of capacity, should fully develop itself. To be and that an adaptation of capacity unfettered by ignorance or prejudice, presumes the truth and reality of some it is essential that it he competent at religious system, which is suited to once to recognize the nature of obthe moral feelings and habits of the jects, and discern how and when virmind. A glance at the various theo- tue is distinct from vice, and when ries which have originated in human either is comparative or absolute. It peccability and weakness, is sufficient may be urged-reason itself is equal to discern the fallacy of their princi- to this work, and that, by its operaples, and the incompetency of their tion, all the ends of moral feeling may energies to the end proposed. I shall be accomplished. Not to dispute therefore endeavour, in this paper, to what reason could effect, if it resided evince the necessity of such a system, where there had been no infraction of as should recommend itself to man- moral rights, and no consequent degekind by the divinity of its orign and neracy of principle, it must be replied, its nature.
that reason, as it is now exemplified It will appear,
by faculties all polluted and disorI. From the constitution of the dered by sin, is vastly unequal to it. human soul.
True, there are some lineaments of Not like the beasts which perish, is its primal aspect--some traces of its that being whom the Eternal God has ante-fallen nature, and it is owing to placed at the head of the inferior cre- these, that where revelation is still ation; but invested with faculties of unknown, the distinction between mind, he is as dissimilar in construc- virtue and vice is yet partly preserved. tion as in appearance, and in the fea- | But the immature state in which every tures of his conduct. The union of a ethical system is found, whose parts spiritual with a material substance, have not been framed and united by has conferred an extent of capacity, any super-human help, evinces that not to be filled by all the objects of moral feeling would be very low, and corporeal life ; and the gratification almost intangible, were it not excited
718 by divine energy; and that pure ideas gance and incoherence of that intelliof virtue and vice would be unknown, gence, which is exposed to the barbawere they not revealed by one who ric waste of time, and the confusion cannot err, and memorialized in the and rust of age. literature of successive ages, that the To be acquainted with the existence Divine will might be known to all. of disease, and know neither its origin Void of that knowledge, how ill would nor remedy, is to increase the afllicthe conduct of mortals be regulated, tion, and sadden the sensibilities, of and in what disorder and absurdity the mind. That no investigation would the affairs of society be carried which might be instituted could ever
For a proof of this, we need only obtain the requisite information, is advert to the condition of those who, evident from the circumstances thcmeither through their obstinacy, or the selves, abstractedly considered, and accident of situation, are unacquaint- the nature of that knowledge which ed with divine things; and it will be the records of Divine Truth furnish. seen, that it is far from being other. We here perceive that the origin of wise than what excites the disgust, evil could never be ascertained, and and compassion, and pity, of an en- its consequences no more easily aplightened mind. They have indced prehended, since it would be impostheir peculiar and valued notions, at sible for the mind to penetrate the whose shrine they bow, and by wbose barrier of death, and familiarize itself principles they are actuated; but it with the proceedings of eternity. The must be seen, their hopes and fears means of recovery from the condition are excited falsely, and the energies of sin, if any existed, would likewise of their mind devoted, by consequence, be hidden, as it is the peculiar proto what ends at best in delusion and vince of the being offended to provide disappointment.
both the means, and the knowledge Without a Divine Revelation, there- of those means, if such was his will fore, that which is now (be it said and pleasure; and this would be to with gratitude) only partial, and it is execute what the foregoing is designed hoped temporary, would be found to prove necessary : for if we admit universal ; and anarchy and discord,- that man, remaining in darkness and idolatry and superstition,--strife and deprivation, was deplorably miserarevenge,--would ravage and ruin the ble, and that the Creator possesses noble rational.
the benevolent affections we conceive III. Divine Revelation is necessary to be inherent in his nature, we must in order that men might know to what infer that Divine Revelation is essento attribute their demoralized condi- tial to the melioration of his circumtion, and ascertain if there be any stances. means of recovery.
IV. That the human soul miglit What hourly passes in the human arrive at the greatest possible knowbreast, and is daily witnessed abroad ledge of itself, and be satisfied rein creation, satisfies the mind ad- specting the apprehensions it is wont dicted to inquiry, that human nature to indulge of immortal life. has sustained a severe calamity. Thus The intestine operations of mind, by far is information derived from the an inevitable tendency, convince it posture and influence of facts; but of the dissimilitude of their nature these sources can disclose no more. from all that is corporeal. The ability of the prior causes and ultimate to think, reflect, reason, and anticieffects, the mind is left in ignorance, pate, invincibly prove that the soul -to speculate in theories, and indulge is the wildest notions, or look with apa
"Of subtler essence than the trodden clod.” thy at the question, and with passive but affecting indifference, gaze at the
But its discoveries are so limited, sorry lot of mortals, and wonder they that it fails to educe, from any exershould exist. Tradition might indeed tion of its intellect, what, as a whole, convey to distant ages tidings of the it is. It does indeed comprehend disastrous event; but the ignorance much, but it is obliged to apprehend connected with that event, is calcu- far more. From its spiritual habits, it lated to distort the features of truth, is led to guess, that its duration cannot and obliviate what was most important expire when the material associate of the narrative; hence the extrava- | dissolves; and with that guess and