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ELLEN TATE, AGED 110. It is a characteristic of civilized nations, to venerate age, and of none more so than the English, whether the individuals
“ Flaunt in rags, or flutter in brocade.” On this account we hope the following instance of longevity will not prove unacceptable to our readers.
Ellen Tate, now an inhabitant of the work-house in Liverpool, was born in the parish of Killede, in the county of Antrim, Ireland. Her maiden name was Craig; but of her family, her connections, and early life, very little is known, and of that little, scarcely any thing can be considered as interesting to the public. Having attained a state of maturity, she was married to a schoolmaster, whose name was Tate, by whom she had four children, two of wbom died at an early age.
Of the two that survived, one frequented the seas; and, in the course of events, sailing regularly from Liverpool, he considered that place as his home. His mother at this time being left a widow, he took a house in this town, and sending for her to inspect and manage his affairs, she bade a final adieu to Ireland, and fixed her abode in Liverpool. In this situation she remained until his death, which happened about 50 years ago, at which time he was unfortunately drowned, while pursuing bis common avocation.
Being thus berest of her only friend, she supported herself for a short time as a common carrier in the market; but this failing, she travelled through the streets with a basket, containing religious tracts, tape, laces, &c. which she continued to sell, until the profits were insufficient for her maintenance, when she applied to the parish as her last resource.
She has now been in the work house about sixteen years, but during the last seven months she has not visited the town. This, however, rather arises from disinclination than inability, as her strength is great, when compared with her age, and she enjoys perfectly good health. Her memory is highly retentive. In her present situation she is quite happy and contented, and is a favourite with the governor, who is a worthy man. In consequence of her advanced age, she has an extra allowance of tea, some ale, and other comforts. Strangers and gentry who occasionally visit the workhouse, view her with veneration, and frequently give her money. She seems to have outlived the tempests of life.
COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 24th JULY, 1822. The attention of the mercantile public has been of late so much directed to purchases in the various descriptions of foreign funds, now on sale, that the commerce of the country has been disregarded in an unusual degree. This remark particularly applies to the colonial trade, wbich is also much contracted by the circumstance of many merchants directing the returns of shipments to the East and West Indies, to be sent to the continental ports for sale, so that the importation of colonial produce will shortly be reduced to the supply of the wants for the home consumption of the country. Wbilst this state of things naturally tends to narrow many branches of trade, formerly flourishing, it is pleasing to know that the manufacturing districts are in a comparative state of prosperity, and the artisan is now at fall work, with all the necessaries of life attainable at reduced rates. The late heavy arrivals of Cottons have, in a great measure, checked the demand which had arisen, and which had produced sales, during the last 14 days, to the amount of 29,638 bags.-The sales of the last week, exclasive of 2000 bags taken on speculation, were :d. d.
d. d. 6614 Bags of Bowed, from 7 to 9 69 Bags of Paras,
go to 9 1543 Orleans,
8} to 11
9to 12 374 Tennessee & Alabama 7
8 to 81 713 Sea Island, 13 to 19 102 Carthagenas,
71 to 7 1094 Pernambucco, 10 to 11 70
6 to 7 2219 Bahias, 9. to 10% 290 Bengal,
64 to 6 2464 Maranhams,
84 to 93 With so great a weight of business, it was to be hoped that the market would have closed with a general amendment on the prices of the previous week, but such expectation bas not been borne out by the result. The holders appear more disposed to meet the buyers; and the abundant arrivals now pouring in, tend to increase the reluctance of the buyers.
No variation of price can be noted in British Plantation Sugars ;—the sales of the last week were, 1500 casks, which went off at full prices.
Coffee. The pablic sales of this article have gone off irregularly: ordinary and five ordinary qualities of Jamaica have realized 102s. to 110s. per cwt.; middling to good middling, 122s. to 128s.; and fine middling, as bigh as 130s. 9d.
For Rum there has been more demand by the dealers. An entire import of 85 pancheons of good flavoured Jamaica sold at 2s. Id. to 35. 3d. for 30 to 45 0. P. 20 puncheons, averaging 16 O.P. 2s. 30 puncheons strong Demeraras, sold at 2s. ld. for 25 O. P. A small parcel of Berbice at Is. 6d. per gallon: the holders evince more firmness.
There has been less inquiry for Rice, but no change in the market : 100 casks have been sold at 15s. to 16s. 3d. per cwt. in bond; little now remains in the importers' hands. For 200 bags white Bengal, 11s. 6d. per cwt. has been obtained.
The sales of Hides have been limited, awaiting the discharging of the vessels lately arrived. Bnenos Ayres hides of good quality maintain full prices, and are scarce.
Dry Salteries.- Fresh New York Pot Ashes have sold briskly, at 45s. to 458. 6d. The stock of Pearls is reduced into a very narrow compass; but several ships have arrived from the river St. Lawrence, which will replenish our market with this article.
Dyewoods are less inquired after : 200 tons of Campeachy Logwood were offered by pablio sale on the 15th inst. and withdrawn at £9. 12s. 6d. but small parcels of this import have subsequently been sold at £10. to £10. 10s. per ton. Solid Nicaragua Wood fetches £31. 10s. per ton. Sicily Sumac brings 18s. to 18s.6d. per cwt. Brimstone £22. 10s. per ton. 50 tons of Turkey Velonia have been disposed of at £21 per ton. A public sale of 460 chests of Bengal Indigo will take place to-morrow.
In Naval Stores, considerable business is doing. The supplies of Tar exceed the demand.Of Tarpentine, the import barely keeps pace with the consumption; and the advance on Spirits of Turpentine in London, has caused the raw article in our market materially to stiffen. Nothing has been done in Whale Oil to arrive; the reports of the success in the fishery are discouraging. Seed Oils have improved in price and demand.
The demand for Timber continues very limited, but the supplies are so superabundant as to deter purchasers from venturing, yet the wants of the country are very great.
There has been some little improvement in Grain; the fluctuations in the weather at this season will have a corresponding influence on the Corn market. The late rainy weather has enabled holders to realize an advance. Oats and Barley are steady. For Linseed there has been more demand, and the crushers are willing to pay some advance on the late very low rates obtained here. ERRATA.-Col. 511, line 30, for Nitrogen Gas read Nitrous Gas. Col. 515, line
3, for Dr. Menzils read Dr. Menzies. Col. 628, line 23, for Alev read Alev, After the mottoes insert Dec. 3, 1821 ; line 53, for corruscations read corus: cations. Col. 629, line 21, for gentlemen read gentleman. Col. 631, line 46, for Coliban read Caliban. Col. 636, line 44, for created read erected ; line 51, for Hospital read Hôpital. Col. 642, line 5, for spientiæ parim read sapientiæ parum; and line 26, for pathos read bathos. Col. 645, line 36, for principle read principal. Col. 647, line 30, for breathless read deathless; and line 39, for ωαντων read παντων.
LONDON : PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY H, FISHER.
OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
“SOCIAL REFINEMENT HAS NO EXISTENCE WHERE LITERATURE is unknown.” [1822.
THE PHYSICAL AND MORAL WORLD.
No. 9.-Of Intellectual Being.
It will be recollected, that in the April number, we laid down the Scale of
Angelic Intelligence. For the reason mentioned in the nations even of the wisest of mankind; conclusion of our last paper, we omit for this cannot be naturally reasoned treating of the Divine and Angelic out.” Whether this truth can be Intelligence in this place; and as this “naturally reasoned out,” or not, is a omission does not interrupt the course matter of small importance, as we of our investigations, we shall proceed know by observation, in the remarkwith the examination of the Human able case of Mitchell,* who was born Faculties, which stands on the left of blind and deaf, that there was somethe Scale of Intelligence. And we thing essentially different in him, and shall give a general view of Man as a of course in every other human being, compound of animal and rational na- though deprived of two of his most ture.
important senses, from what there is It will be recollected, that, when even in the most sagacious of mere treating of animated being in general, animals, though possessed of the whole it was remarked that the illustrations five. there given, (No. 7) regarded only However, what follows is a truth : the sentient feelings in the animal eco- “ It is only through belief in the word nomy, and not those which relate to of God, that we are infallibly assured mind; for that mind seemed to be of the fact, that the spirit which animore the result of the animating prin- mates the human frame was inspired ciple infused into man by the breath by the Almighty, in a way different of the Almighty at his original crea- from that of the brutes. The human tion, than of the sentient feeling of being was animated by an emanation, the animal frame he possesses in com- proceeding, as it were, from the last mon with the brutes. Yet does there of the scale, (or rather, we may say, exist such a close analogy between the from the centre of the great scale of two, that, as Mr. Macnab observes, intelligence,) and producing, if the “the principle of imitation, which is expression may be allowed, a creathe perfection of the mere animal, ture balanced between the natural and rises, by insensible gradation, into the moral world.” earliest twilight of reason in the hu- We here pass over all his nonsense man infant.” art. 147.
respecting the cerebral digestion, as Yet we cannot agree with him in his that which only darkens counsel by nextremark, “That intelligence seems words without knowledge ; and as of to arise 'naturally from mere anima- no more use in illustrating the phenotion;" unless he restrict this to the mena of mind, than the penial gland human species; for the brate creation of Des Cartes being the seat of the are indeed animated, but not intelli- rational soul. gent beings.
The above observations, advanced on As little can we agree with his remarks which follow ; “That the sons
* See the interesting account of this case, as of men are essentially different from drawn up by the celebrated Dagald Stewart, brutes, is a truth beyond the ratioci- | Esq. No. 44. --VOL. IV.
this subject, in our two last numbers, the perversion of his nature, man has we conceive to be more rational than been deprived of some, or rather we this theory of our author and others, and should say, of all his spiritual senses better calculated to explain the pheno- of discernment; so that now it is a mena of sensation in animals ; and it truth, The natural man receiveth not is highly probable, that by a modus the things of the Spirit of God; for they operandus of the same nature, the mind are foolishness unto him; neither can he is affected througb the instrumentality know them, in his present state of of the sentient extremities of the spiritual darkness, because they are
But this effect, so far as it spiritually discerned.”. 1 Cor. ii. 14. regards mind, must furnish it only Nor does this subject apply less with a certain class of ideas; these, aptly to others of the human race, who however, being admitted, they will have assumed a profession of Christiserve as materials on which the mind anity, and who value themselves much can now exercise itself in all that vari- on account of their clear and speculaety of abstract ratiocination of which tive notions of its doctrines and facts, it is capable.
but are strangers to any spiritual We are not certain how far the change having been produced upon · mind, by means of some of the senses, their character, through the cordial while deprived of the use of others, reception and belief of the gospel of may be able to penetrate, in the way of truth. Such may speculate, it is true, speculation, into subjects, a knowledge about every fact contained in the of the elements of which properly be- word of God; they may bring forth longs to other senses, of which they the evidence on which its high authoare deprived; as, for example, a blind rity rests, in a manner so forcible, person may expatiate on colours, or on that it cannot be overturned; they the motions and phenomena of the hea- may even demonstrate the great and venly bodies, though he had never wonderful things of God's law, to the possessed any other means of acquir- astonishment and wonder of their ing the knowledge he has attained on hearers; and yet be all the while these subjects, excepting the sense of working in the dark, and in the very hearing. And thus we perceive how state of the blind speculator on colours, one sense may supply, in a measure, and on other phenomena which require the want of another, at least in the for obtaining proper ideas, even of way of speculation, by furnishing the their very first principles, the exercise mind, yet possessed of all its facul- of an organ he wants. But the mind ties, with materials on which to exer- that has been spiritually illuminated, cise itself.
though a babe in knowledge in other And it is very possible, that the respects, knows more of real, subperson who thus acquires his know-stantial, enduring, and soul-reviving ledge of these subjects, may, by the truths, than either the philosopher or dint of application, come to know a merely speculative Christian, who as great deal more of them in a specula- yet wants that spiritual discernment tive sense, than many others who en- which the other has obtained, and by joy the exercise of those organs of means of which he can say, I have which he is deprived ; and hence be seen them. may be puffed up with high and mighty But without dwelling longer on geconceptions of his own acquirements, nerals, let us descend to particuwhile, in reality, his knowledge is lars. only.a mere semblance ; for when ex- “ The first act of the faculty of abamined more narrowly respecting the straction,” or the act of separating very first principles of colours, or of ideas, as our author judiciously rethe motions and real phenomena of the marks, “is to analyze those combinaheavenly bodies, he is found to be in tions which the animal faculties present an egregious mistake, and really in a concrete state to the understandmore ignorant than the child who ing. Objects of thought being thus knows nothing more of them, than in a manner dissected, and stript of that he can say, I have seen them. their coverings, accidents, properties,
And, humiliating as it is to the and qualities, &c. we can attend to pride of the philosopher and the mere the naked abstract truth, perceiving, disputer of this world, thus it is in at one glance of the intellect, the nespiritual matters. In consequence of cessary conditions by which things are
798 ...orrisos circumscribed. This we accomplish Brutes being unable to discriminate by means of language or symbols, ex- what is necessary from what is accidenpressed or understood, for language tal, are, in the strictest sense of the or speech is a process of abstraction,* word, “void of reason.” They have which is the instrument made use of by no choice, but must necessarily act the intellect.
according to the impressions made “Abstraction is, therefore, the faculty upon their senses, whether it be towards which distinguishes the man from the docility or ferocity. Properly speakbrute. By means of it, the most ing, they are mere creatures of sensastupid savage, when two objects of tion ; which sensation excites passion : sense are before him--the piece of but in both are they devoid of reason ; gold, for example, which he wears as for the brute is incapable of regret for an ornament, and the glittering baw. the actions to which his passions may ble exhibited by the stranger, will propel him. abstract or separate what is common to The conscience, or thinking principle both, (viz. the pleasure of beholding in man, therefore, at once marks his it,) and perceiving the quantum of the superiority to the brute ; and forms á one to exceed, as he thinks, the quan- basis on which to build a system of tum of the other,-he will barter or human intellectual phenomena. exchange that which belongs to him-' But it is reasonable to think, that self, for that which belongs to the as man is a compound being, and stranger."
allied, as it respects his body, to the But, has the principle of novelty no various laws by which the mere aniconcern in this transaction? If the mal is governed,--that the phenomena stupid savage be like the inexpe- of his intellectual faculties will form rienced youngsters among ourselves, a scale analagous to the scale of the I should suppose it must be concern- animal faculties. This, accordingly, ed, and that this, as well as the quan- is the great point which our author tum, disposes him to make the ex- proposes ; though it is evident that, change. For a child, without any from the difficulty of the subject, his regard to value, or any thing else, work is laboured to make it out. See for the will let it go without con art. 167-180. cern, for something new.
To render such an abstruse subject, However, as our author justly rea- therefore, as perspicuous as possible, sons, there is nothing like this to be we here again, first represent the scale seen among the brutes ; art. 162, &c. of the animal faculties, and afterwards The truth is, they have no idea what those of the intellectual, in that order ever of property, excepting that of in which they correspond. We wish, their offspring, and sometimes their however, the original work particuhabitations, and the food they are in larly to be consulted here, as it conthe act of devouring it all which phe- tains many important observations, at nomena arise from the instincts of which it is impossible to hint. their nature,
variously modified : As a compound being, the scale of whereas in man, the idea of property the animal or irrational facultie is a very different thing, and has well as of the rational, are applicable given rise to almost all the feuds and to man. As to his animal nature, he contentions that have existed in the is susceptible, in common with the world.
7 Sensation Perception, Conception, Attention, Memory, Association Imitation. or feeling,
of ideas, As to his intellectual nature, man has a set of faculties peculiar to bimself, corresponding each respectively with the above faculties. As an intellectual being, he has 1 2 3
7 Sentimen- Taste Fancy, Consideration, Practical Speculation or Docility or tality, or Tact,
judgment, ratiocination, humility.
Our definitions of the animal or irra. *Stewart's Philosophy of the Mind. Chap. IV. tional scale, it will be recollected,
+ These particulars are all discussed in a regular manner, in the portion we have had to
were given two numbers ago, which suppress, in this investigation, for brevity's it will be necessary to consult, and sake.
comparewith the definitions that follow.