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1. Presuming that the reader, there the imagination, to solid practical fore, bears in mind the definitions of judgment, must be obvious at first the scale of the animal faculties, he sight. will perceive that Sentimeniality in the 5. Practical Judgment, in the rarational scale, is analogous to sensa- tional scale, corresponds with memory tion or feeling in the irrational; in as in the irrational, as it is a kind of much as, though it be excited by voluntary memory, whereby we external abstract truths, it gives us efforts to recollect whatever abstract no information regarding the formal truths have been impressed upon the nature of these truths ; but merely mind, whether by the faculty of sentithat we think of them; which faculty ment, taste, or fancy; and our success of thinking distinguishes us from the in thus recollecting such abstract brutes.
truths previously impressed upon our 2. Taste or Tact, in the rational mind, will always be in proportion to scale, corresponds with perception in the degree of consideration which we the irrational, in as much as it con- bestowed upon them when they actuveys, through the medium of senti ally occurred. But the suggestions of ment, a distinct knowledge of the practical judgment can have no place necessary or formal natures of those where there has been no previous conexternal abstract truths, about which sideration. Without consideration, it was excited to think, as above. the truths about which practical judg
3. Fancy, in the rational scale, cor- ment is exercised, must remain in the responds with conception in the irra- condition of mere visions of fancy, tional; but it will be recollected that like its correspondent third step. our definition of this step differed And, alas! in what a great propormaterially from that of our author, on tion of the human kind, does truth account of our different views respect- never get further hold of the inteling cerebral impressions. By turning lect? Unstable, dissipated, and vito the place, it will be seen, that we sionary, are they, therefore, in all considered conception as implying only their plans, and advanced but a few an inferior kind of memory, relating removes from the brute. But as we to objects which had been perceived; discover by this arrangement, that their and that in this sense it corresponds error lies in the want of consideration, better than our author's definition, they ought, by all the means in their with the fifth of the scale, which is power, to cultivate this faculty ; withmemory in a more perfect sense. out which, we will venture to predict,
For the same reason, we would though no prophets, that all the painhere eradicate the picture of those ful experience it is possible for them abstract ideas which were formerly to meet witb, will never teach them selected by taste, supposed to be in wisdom. the intellect; and we would consider 6. Speculation or ratiocination, in fancy as only an inferior kind of prac- the rational scale, corresponds with tical judgment, relating to the ideas association of ideas in the irrational ; which had been selected by taste ; but and being the sixth of the scale, it which, in fancy, float only in the mind harmonizes with taste or tact, which is in a state too copfused and weak to the second. Speculation or reasonlead to any practical results, and ing, therefore, which is the sixth of which, therefore, require the exercise the scale, consists in a continual train of consideration, which is the next step of thought arising from the second, of the scale, before the visions of fancy founded on the relations of cause and can be turned to any practical ac-effect, means and end, promises and count.
conclusion, beauty and deformity, 4. Consideration, therefore, in the symmetry and disproportion, &c. &c. rational scale, corresponds with atten- which goes on in the intellect during tion in the irrational; and is that fa- our lifetime, at least wbile awake, culty whereby we fix our thoughts without intermission. And in proporupon any particular abstract truth, tion to the degree of the distinguishing whether that truth relate to sentiment, faculty of taste we may possess, as taste, or funcy, to the exclusion of all applied to abstract truths, will be our other truths with which it stands con- degree of success in reasoning them nected. And its importance in lead-out; or, as applied to the fine arts, in ing from mere fancy the creature of executing our designs; for the mind of the artist constantly reasons about, and is distinguished by many pomthese, as well as that of the philoso- pous names, such as emulation, hopher about abstract truths.—By means nour, renown, fame, magnanimity, heroof this faculty, the occurrence of any ism, the mens conscia recti,'" &c. In particular truth constantly suggests a consequence of the perversion, therepractical judgment concerning others, fore, this seventh faculty of the intelwith wbich it appears to be related in lect, instead of being that ornamental causation or necessary connection; grace, humility, is the light and the and we draw a speculative conclusion, fire which illuminate and excite all as if the causes and consequences carpal minds, the primum mobile of all were also before our eyes, hereby ex- their actions, in short, the “god hibiting the faculty of abstract reason whom they worship instead of the ing, which is the distinguisbing faculty Eternal.” of man.
Here then, comes the grand point Thus have we briefly sketched six of difference between the children of of the rational faculties, and have God, and the children of this world. shewn the manner of their operation. It hangs entirely upon the different Hitherto, however, we have advanced use and application of this seventh no further in the scale of the rational faculty of the human intellect. Here faculties, than that which constitutes commences faith, and here commences merely what may be called unfeeling apostasy.. Proceeding from one and the intelligence; that which rather tends to same principle in the soul, the one puff up the mind with exalted ideas of takes the right hand, and the other its own abilities, than leads it directly the left; the one, through much preto the discovery of truth for its own sent abasement, proceeds in the sure sake.
but rugged path, to true glory, honBut as there is in the irrational our, and immortality, in the world to scale the faculty of imitation, and as come; the other, through the deceitthis faculty is strikingly analogous to ful allurements of present gratificaour ideas of morality, on account of tions, proceeds in the equally sure, moral principle exciting in us feelings but often delusively pleasant path, and sentiments of which we can give to everlasting shame and contempt, no account, except that we feel them, the very reverse of glory and hoand that they unaccountably dispose nour. us to imitate or affect some things, and The doctrine of Him “who spake as to dislike and abhor others; so the never man spake,” is most explicit on analogy in the rational scale leads us this point. As if the natural and proto docility or humility, as the corre- per exercise of all the other faculties spondent faculty of imitation in the of the soul would be secured by natuirrational.
ral self-love; as if this were the very 7. Docility or humility, therefore, turning point between the operations being the highest of the intellectual of mere intellect and faith; as if this faculties, would, in the original con- were the critical spot, from whence, if stitution of man, necessarily arise out we proceed either to the right or to of the speculative or reasoning princi. the left, it must terminate in our wellple; as in truth it does among the being or ruin,—the first lesson which perfect in heaven,-every view that is this unparallelled instructor inculcates given of their character, being that of on mankind, is founded on this faculty, the profoundest humility, connected Matt. xviii. 1-4. The first lesson, I with the greatest powers of intelli- say, which this great teacher come gence; but among men on earth, true from God inculcates, is docility and humility is now found only in those humility. And this he enforces, not who have in some measure been made only by precept, but by example. Nor conformed to the original “ image of does he select his emblem from among God,” which was lost by the first the great, or the wise, or the most actransgression. Docility or imitation, in complished in the scale of intellithe natural man, is far from proceed- gence, but from a class of beings who ing from genuine humility ; it is rather exhibit, without guile, this highest a kind of docility or imitation, as Mr. faculty of the human intellect.
" He Macnab remarks, “ of the author of all took a little child, and set him in the evil ; consisting in pride, or, wbat is midst,” not merely of his disciples, callod in the world, the desire of glory; but as it were of all mankind, “and
said, Verily I say unto you, Except ye1 the first, we would say, that not few be converted, and become as little chil- but many, even all shall be saved, dren, ye shall not enter into the kingdom who humbly and cordially receive the of heaven. Whosoever, therefore, shall truth in the love of it. And in answer humble himself as this little child, the to the second, the rich, whatever his same is greatest in the kingdom of hea- riches may consist of, must become
poor; he must, in his own apprehenSuch is the doctrine which our sion, have no more to recommend bim Saviour taught. And it presents us, to a place in that kingdom, than the when spiritual and natural things are meanest, the most ignorant,
the connected together, with the following most vile and worthless that ever beautiful threefold gradation. 1. In breathed. the mere animal scale, there is a gra- But ah! exclaim pride and obstidual procedure from simple sensation nacy, what a hard saying is this? It or feeling, in the first step, to some- may
but wherein, pray, does thing which leads to imitation in the the difficulty lie? Thou callest thyself last. 2. In the intellectual scale, a pbilosopher, that is to say, a lover there is likewise a gradual procedure of wisdom, an investigator into the from the mere consciousness that we reason and cause of things; now what think, and can distinguish, and reason, is the cause, and what will be the till we arrive at a point that strongly consequence,of thy spurning at princiinclines us to pursue something as a ples which are founded, not only on chief end. But here we stop, and, by the revelation of God, but on the nathe effort of our natural faculties, can ture of things ? proceed no further; for never was What is there then, in the nature of there a question which agitated and things, that startles men so much at divided mankind more than this, the reception of this doctrine? Is it “What constitutes the chief end of hu- because these profound investigators man actions?” 3. Here, therefore, in bave discovered it to be founded in the children of the regeneration, who are error ? This, we may be certain, is to be considered as yet a higher order not the cause ; for the difference here of beings than mere men as they are between the philosopher and the born into the world, the twilight of Christian, is not a difference that refaith begins. And, as in the first spects truth and error, but a reality scale, animation was necessary in or- and its counterfeit. Upon the princider to sensation; and in the second, ple itself, they may be said to meet thought in order to reason ; so in the each other half way; for though the third, is docility and humility in order grace of humility neither does nor can to faith.
exist in the mind of an unregenerate This last, therefore, of all the intel- philosopher, yet it is always counterlectual faculties, is the most impor- feited by him ; though swelling with tant to mankind; not indeed in re- the pride of exalted talents, he affects spect of genius, or depth of the rea- a modest humility, as if retiring from soning faculty, but in respect of its the applause of the world. Now, being the point that connects pre- philosopher as he is, had he only that sent actions with eternal consequen- principle existing in him in reality,
which he pretends to have ; there is It thus places all mankind, as the nothing in the world that would keep creatures of God, on the same level; him from being a Christian ; for then demanding the same thing of them all, he would be in the state of a little namely, humility and docility, which child, sitting at the feet of a divine is as much as to say, that nothing but teacher, drinking in his instructions, their opposites, that is, pride and obsti- without any pretensions to the smallnacy, can disqualify any from having est superiority above others. a part among this more glorious order To such a line of conduct would of beings of the regeneration.
this last and highest faculty of our It was, therefore, a natural ques- intellect lead, were it only true and tion which the disciples proposed, genuine; but, alas! this is what it is “Lord, are there few that shall be not, in consequence of the perversion saved ?" And again, “ How hard is It therefore, on the contrary, leads to it for a rich man to enter into the pride and false glory; and disputes kingdom of heaven?"--In answer to every principle, though founded in
RELIGION IN DEMERARA.
the nature of things, which gives the Creator à right over the creature ; so that it comes ultimately to this, as a 'The following opinion entertained in dictate both of scripture and reason, Demerara, respecting the missions whether men will hear or forbear, established among the negroes, is " that they must be born again,”—“ that taken from the Guiana Chronicle or they must be converted, and become as Demerara Gazette. little children,” otherwise it is impos
“We have had occasion repeatedly sible they can enter into the kingdom to express our opinion of the Sectarian of heaven.
Propagandists, who send forth their To conclude. To such a pitch of missionaries to our colonies out of superiority does this method of treat- pure zeal for the salvation of souls. ing the philosophy of the mind, raise In respect of their wild jargon, their the person who avails himself of it, that capricious interpretations of the Bible, it is impossible for him to imitate the and the doctrines they inculcate; mere philosopher, who plods on in the although in themselves they are to bé path of nature's darkness, surrounded despised and slighted, yet in point of with his doubts and his difficulties, his the pernicious tendency they may obscurities, contradictions, and his have upon the minds of their hearers, dissatisfaction with his own system. we do think that no caution can be too It is, on the contrary, as a light shin- great to be used against them, no diliing in a dark place; making manifest gence too strict. objects which would never otherwise
“ The influence they possess over appear.
It affords a firm and im- the negroes is more widely ramified moveable footing on which to rest; a than would be readily believed. It is basis which has existed from the very no longer proper to say they are insigbeginning, but has been woefully nificant. In the common acceptation overlooked ; and which can never be of the word, they are truly so; but overturned by any future system what- from their calling and canting, they
For it is a system, which, of have acquired a degree of importance itself, bears characters of perfection; in this colony, not attainable otherand explains all the phenomena of the wise. Let them be looked after now human intellect as they exist in real more strictly than ever; and we pledge life. It seems to be involved in no ourselves to do for them in proper doubt; but dissipates all the doubts colours, whenever we may be furwhich hang over all other systems. nished with the authentic particulars Nor is it founded upon phantoms of of any immoral or illegal wanderings the imagination, supported by a train from the paths of their duty.” of abstruse and subtle reasoning, How frequently does wickedness which only pretended adepts can com- defeat its own purposes ! With all this prehend; but
upon facts which must tide of invective, the writer of the be apparent to all, and adapted to preceding paragraphs virtually dethe meanest capacity. Nor does it, clares, that the missionaries, against as all other systems do, regard man whom this venom is discharged, bave merely as a creature of this world, but not been charged with any immoral or as a being destined for a future state. illegal wanderings, because his threat To say all in one word, What is it to do for them, is suspended upon his that essentially concerns him, that it making the discovery. Should this does not include, and account for, and remark ever reach this Guiana Chrourge upon him, by motives the most nicler, we would ask-In what do the powerful that can be conceived ? In- crimes of those men consist, who stead of addressing him in the feeble have not been guilty of any immoral language of, Thus saith this and the or illegal wanderings? other philosopher,-its language is, Thus saith God, and thus saith NATURE, that things are and must be so ESSAYS MORAL AND LITERARY. and so ; and that it is his bounden duty, and the highest interest of his No. 4.-On Literary Pretenders. being, to listen to what these infallible instructors say.
It is to be regretted, that in every
profession in which the intellect is ( To be continued.)
concerned, there should exist so many silly pretenders to knowledge which treat his essays as dull compositions, they do not possess. In the science of he nevertheless lowers not his good medicine, for instance, this fact is opinion of himself, and, as a salvo to notorious; and the influence which his own sorrows, very truly concludes unqualified men have upon society, is, that mankind have not as yet sufficient in this art, always dangerous. The penetration to discover his excellences. mere name of surgeon or physician is, You would be as likely to succeed in with the majority, synonymous with deterring him from going onwards, by knowledge, and acts as a passport for telling him that what he writes will the power of working evil. Literature never be read, as you would in conalso has its pretenders, and it may be, vincing a certain foolish lord of his perhaps, not an unamusing specula- mistake, when he affirmed that Cowtion to notice some of them, although per was no poet. the limits of this article will not per- The next I shall notice, is a sort of mit many. I shall therefore instance literary quack, one who deals in all a few of those that are the least objec. things in the heavens above, and in tionable, who, if they cannot perform the earth beneath ;-a dabbler in poany thing good, bave not the power to etry, politics, and religion, a kind of do much harm.
prating harlequin-an eternal arguer The first, and certainly the most about subjects of which he really inoffensive of this class, is the dull re- knows nothing, and one upon whose tailer of tedious commonplace. He brain, as some one says, a ray of true will scribble you over half-a-dozen reason never shines, but through a crack pages upon any given subject, and of the skull. He walks along the streets think no more of it than he would of with pens and paper in his hand, and walking so many yards. While others a proof sheet dangling out of his rack their brains for a few sentences, pocket ;-his name is puffed in newshe goes smoothly on, and is never papers, and on the covers of magadelayed by an obstacle, for this plain zines; he thinks himself a man of reason, that he never meets with one. genius, and expects others to do the He delights to write pieces upon Love, same. This is a creature too, who, Hope, Friendship, &c. and to think like the foolish bird which put feathers that they will be read by the learned in its tail, has always charity enough and the wise. He is the most com- to become sponsor for the thoughts of fortable of all authors, for you cannot others. If he is a poet, he will feed give him a subject but he will begin upon all of that motley tribe who and finish it entirely to his own satis- have gone before him ;-if he has a faction. He will shew you his port- church benefice, he will give bis hearfolio-it is filled with Sonnets to the ers a weekly portion of that “spiritual Moon, with Elegies over dead Bul- food” which Saurin or Blair have finches, and with Songs to Julia, be- | left; and if he be a regular maker op sides a goodly number of Essays, of books, he will gain admittance to Sketches, and Fragments, all ready the library in the British Museum, for publication the instant be requires and, provided with all “appliances them. He knows by heart all the and means to boot,” will pocket the most approved lines from the poets, remains of half-a-dozen authors. He and these be scatters so sweetly and holds up his head gaily, and goes on profusely amongst his eloquent prose, seizing upon all original thoughts, or that any one who does not instantly new turns of expression, and hunts perceive their effect, must be dull them down until the writers to whom indeed. You cannot quarrel with his they belong, as the only excuse for ideas, for in reality there is nothing their staleness, are compelled to say, you ought to quarrel about;-besides, as Goldsmith did of his Essays, that he tells you all be knows, and it is a they were new when he wrote them. species of injustice in you to call for He is the miserable counterpart of an
He gives you as much in four echo. sentences as in four pages-he tells A very different character, and one you that happiness is not misery, that who perhaps ought not to be classed virtue is not vice, and that the sole with literary pretenders, yet who is as reason why a man does right, is simply useless to literature as the foregoing, because he does not do wrong. If he is, the learned pedant. This man will be an author by trade, and the world tolerate no writer who is unacquainted