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him to increase his supply of putrid water, Mr. Overton, of Chelsea, has in the Press, which he did by enlarging the reservoir, and an entire new View of the Apocalyptic Namconducting into it hollow drains from bis sta- bers, shewing the 666 years of the Babylobles, ox-stalls, kitchen, &c.; besides which nian beast, followed by his 42 months' power, he ordered vegetable refuse from the garden to reach from the third of Cyrus to the final desolabe thrown into it, and emptied the privy into tion in Judea, A. D. 136, which Daniel's vision it once a year. From all these resources he extended to; then after a thousand years apobtained a large quantity, which was ased peared in Rome against the Waldenses, &c. with a water-cart, having a trough behind as whose souls rest with Christ the present thoufor watering roads; and this mode of manuring sand; after which, infidel Gog in the last effort was found greatly preferable to the “common will perish with the beast for ever, and the one for hay and pasture land.
endless sabbath of rest begin. New Musket.-A curious invention in fire- Preparing for Publication, in 2 vols. 12mo. arms has lately been accomplished by an inge- elegantly printed, The Domestic Guide to Linious mechanic of New York. It is a single terature and the Sciences, by the Rev. H. C. barrel and lock, stocked in the usual manner, O'Donnaghue, A.M. late of St. John's Coland is perfectly simple, safe, and convenient. lege, Cambridge; and Domestic Chaplain to The number of charges may be extended to the Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven. fifteen or even twenty, each charge being un- A Plan for Translating Languages without der as complete control as a single charge in Study, or any previous acquaintance therewith, an ordinary gun; and may be fired in the by Henry Mathews. space of two seconds to a charge, or at longer intervals, at the option of the possessor, with the same accaracy and force as any other gun. Average Price of Grain per Quarter, for the 12 The principle can be applied to any musket,
Districts, from the Gazette. rifle, fowling-piece, or pistol, and can be made Wheat. Barley. Oats. Rye.Beans. Peas. to fire from two to twelve times, without add
s. d. s. d. S. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. ing any thing to the incumbrance of the piece, July 20.43 8 19 5 18 10 18 4 26 4 25 9 except five or six oances to its weight. - This 27.43 21 18 4 18 720 525 2 26 9 gan has been shown to many of our officers of Aug. 3.42 5 18 2 18 518 0 24 8 25 7 the army and navy, and has been highly ap- 10.42 11 18 118 419 324 8 27 1 proved of.
17.43 31 19 1118 018 4124 6 126 1 Size and Shape of the Globules of Blood in different Animals.- A number of very interesting results bave recently been obtained by Average Prices of Sugar| Number of Bankrupts. J. L. Prevost, M. D. and J. A. Dumas, July 24, 31s. 4id. cwt. July 27, 30, - 17 respecting the form of the globules of blood of 31, 31 0 Aug. 3, 6, 14 different animals. The following are their Aug. 7, 28 101
10, 13, 16 measures of the diameters of the globules :
14, 28 11
17, 20, 12 Man, Dog, Rabbit, Hedgehog, Guinea Pig, 21, 27 64
24, 11 Muscarden, the 3750th part of an English inch
70 -Ass, the 4175th ditto-Cat, Grey Mouse, White Mouse, the 4275th ditto — Sheep, Horse, Mule, Ox, the 5000th ditto-Chamois,
Price of Stocks, London, August 26. Stag, the 5450th ditto-She-Goat, the 7200th Bank Stock, 251% Impl. 3 per Ct. 80% ditto.
3 per Ct. Rd. 817 81 South Sea Stock, 904 Bat while the globules of blood in different 3 per Ct. Cons.804 1 | Ex. Bills, 2d. £1000 animals vary in size, they also vary in form. 3. per Cent. 91.1 In the mammalia they are all spherical, wbile 4 per Cent. 911
Do. £500,8 5 pm. in birds they are elliptical, and vary only in New 4 per Ct. 994 ) Do. small, 5 8 6 pm. the lengths of their greater axes. They are Long An. 20 15-16ths Cons. for Acc. 803 likewise elliptical in all cold-blooded animals. 21 They found also, that the colourless globule which exists in the centre of the particles of Price of Irish Stocks, August 20. blood, has the constant diameter of the 7500th Gov. Deb. 3} per Cent. 927 3. of an inch in all animals, and whatever be the Gov. Stock, 3) per Cent. 913fi form of the globale which contains it.
Do. Stock, 4 per Cent. $.
City Deb. 5 per cent. 23
Prices of Foreign Stock in London, August 23.
New Ditto 867 7 A Collection of Birth-day Odes, written Columbian 6 per Cent. Bonds 86 and published in Botany Bay.
Spanish 5 per Cent. Bonds 654 64 5} The Protestant Historical Catechism, being Ditto New Ditto 64 a Concise View of Christianity, with the Rise Danish 5 per Cent. Bonds 89 and Establishment of the Reformation under Neapolitan 5 per Cent. Bonds 757. Martin Luther, by Josiah H. Walker.
Russian 5 per cent. (Metallic) 80% A brief Sketch of the Life of Thuanus, with Ditto New Bonds 85 copious Notes to the Dedication of his History Austrian 5 per cent. (Metallic) 80. of France, by Josiah H. Walker.
Chilian 6 per Cent. Bonds 83.
QUERIES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
3. On Sermons.
M. J. also asks, Are written or ex1. On Terror and Love. tempore sermons calculated to produce M. J. asks, Which is the more cal- the greater good? culated to restrain the sinful passions, 4. Mahometan Superstitions. and promote grateful devotion; a con- Ardelio would be obliged to any templation of the terrors of judgment, correspondent who will furnish a conor a believing view of the love and cise, yet pointed, exposure of Mahograce of the Saviour?
metan superstitions. 2. Cesar and Alexander.
5. On the term “ Reverend.” M.J. likewise asks, Are the record- A correspondent asks, What is the ed actions of Julius Cæsar more enti- origin of the term “ Reverend ?" when tled to our respect and esteem, than was it first used ? and to whom is it those of Alexander the Great?
exclusively applicable ?
COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 24th AUGUST, 1822. IN times like the present, the reporter has little else to do, than to place before his readers the mere details of transactions which have come to his notice. The actual state of commerce in this port offers few incidents besides those of daily occurrence. It cannot be denied that the trade of this port is still carried forward on a large scale, yet it is problematical whether there are sufficient remunerating profits to the merchant; and a glance at the subsequent quotations will evince the propriety of the remark.
During the last month, the imports of Cotton have been upwards of 36,000 packages—the sales, about 32,000. The market is now lower than at any period daring the present season, and still there is a tendency to decline. During the week, an unusual degree of ffatness has prevailed, the holders have been anxious sellers. At the public sales yesterday, there was a thin attendance of buyers, and but little disposition to purchase, consequently a great proportion of the Cotton was withdrawn. The sales which were effected went off at lower rates. The transactions by private and public, amount to 5363 bags-by private treaty, the transactions consist of d. d.
d. d. 2277 Bags of Bowed, from 6 to 8 373 Bags of Maranhams,
to 9 413 Tennessees, 64 to 7 295
to 9 70
71 212 Sea Island,
11 to 20
81 to 94 449 Pernams, 97 to 101 30
71 to 7 Of the future currency of the market generally, nothing favourable can be stated.
Muscovado Sugar.-Brown descriptions continue still very dull. Dry Brown Jamaica brought 49s.; good 74s.; dry Brown Demerara 48s. 6d. to 49s. ; and good 70s. to 71s. 6d. The quantity sold this week is 900 casks.
In Coffee, there is little alteration. The only sales are in good and fine middling Jamaica, at 131s. to 135s. per cwt.
Rum.The sales this week are 190 puncheons of fine Jamaica, at 2s. 3d. to 25.5d. per gallon, for 16 O. P.; and 20 puncheons of Demarara, at 25.3d. per gallon.
The demand for Tobacco is languid, and our stocks are very ill assorted.
The market is nearly cleared of Rice : about 100 casks have been disposed of at 15s. 6d. for good old, and 18s. per cwt. for fine.
Dye Woods. Some parcels of Logwood have been sold from £8. to £8. 2s. 6d. for Jamaica ; and €9. for Campeachy. 100 tons of Cuba Fastic were sold off the Quay, at £8. 15s. to £8. 17s. 6d. per ton. Solid Nicaragna Wood being scarce, brought £35. to £40. and is now held at higher rates. There have been no sales of Buenos Ayres Hides; the cargoes of three vessels just arrived, not being landed. High prices are expected, as heavy leather has actually advanced from its scarcity, since the duty was diminished. Foreign Oak Bark comes forward very freely, and sells readily at £6. 10s. per ton for German, and £7. 10s. per ton for Dutch.
Yellow-Candle Tallow sells at 398. Fish Oils are dall. For Rape and Linseed Oils there is a fair demand. Small sales continue to be made in Palm Oil, at £25. per ton.
The import of Timber from British America thus far, exceeds l} millions of feet; so great a supply arriving altogether, has thrown dowu the market, and sales can scarcely be effected on any terms. Several public sales have been attempted, at which 19d. and 19 d, were the highest rates obtainable for Mirimachi. Deals go off' more readily: Memel at £18. and Quebec at £13. 10s. to £14. per standard hundred.
Our Corn market is greatly depressed; there is little possibility of effecting sales on any terms, and the nominal prices still continue to give way. On the 20th, 18,000 bushels of Irish Wheat, of the growth of 1820-21, were brought to auction: of the former a part was sold at 4s. 6d. to 5s. per bushel of 70 lb.; and of the latter 6000 bushels of inferior quality at 3s. 2d. to 4s. per bushel. In Bonded Flour and Grain, there have been no sales.
LONDON : PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY H. FISHER.
OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
"social REFINEMENT HAS NO EXISTENCE WHERE LITERATURE is unknown.” (1822.
THE PHYSICAL AND MORAL WORLD.
or principle of right and wrong, in the
more general sense, as it applies to No. 10.-Of the Passions, and of Moral taste, or matters of mere fancy or Evil.
opinion, predominates in the mind at
the time. Having in the three preceding num- As we formerly said of instinct, so bers completed, as briefly as we could, may we now say of passion. “ Instinct our account of the animal and intellec- being thus a child of sensation, we tual faculties, we are aware it may may conclude, a priori, that all anistill be asked, “ But the passions! the mated nature capable of feeling, will passions! What do you make of the be subjects of instinct; and that inpassions ? Man, it is admitted, is a stinct is something all animals have in being that can think, and reason, and common, which, through the medium contrive, and imitate; but is this all of sensation, operates by some genethe account you would give of him? ral, but irresistible laws in their sysThe passions, the passions, what is tem, since without obeying their dicbecome of the passions ?
tates, the animal creation could not Well, as we formerly remarked, subsist.” In like manner here, pasWhat is instinct ? so we now resume sion being thus a child, partly of senthe question, and ask, What is pas- sation, and partly of reason, we may sion? And, as formerly, of instinct, conclude, a priori, that all animated we asked, “Is it feeling, or is it and rational being capable of feeling action?” so now, of passion, we put a and reasoning, will be subjects of similar question, “Is it thought, or is passion; and that passion is someit reason ?”. And as we formerly ob- thing all have in common, which, served of instinct, that it is neither through the medium of sensation and feeling simply, nor action simply; so reason, operates by some general, but now we observe in like manner of irresistible laws in their system, since passion, that it is neither_thought without obeying their dictates, the alone, nor
reason alone. But, on rational creation could not subsist in account of man, in whom the passions its rational state. And accordingly reside, being a compound of the ani- we perceive, that wherever passion mal and rational faculties, passion directed by reason has no existence at seems to be a combination made up of all, the man is more stupid than the the whole four; and answers the same brute; and on the other hand, wherpurposes in man, considered as a ever passion is allowed to gain the rational being, which instinct does in ascendency over reason, the actions brutes. So that it may with propriety of that person, so long, and in as far be said, that it is feeling producing as he is under its influence, are not action, and thought producing a kind the actions of a man, strictly speakof ratiocination; but ratiocination only | ing, neither are they the actions of a of a certain kind,--leading irresistibly brute ; but they are those of a kind of to the obedience of certain laws, or demon, firebrands and fury being exrather to the obtaining of certain ob- haled with every breath. jects, which every man passionately Thus is nature, in all her operapursues as his chief good.
tions, most pointedly scrupulous to This seems to be the province of the keep every order of beings in its own passions, and, according to this view, sphere. Nor is it possible for her to it is evident that the whole class of be more pointed in this respect than the passions, whether good or bad, are the sacred oracles; many thoumay be constantly, alternately, and sand instances of which we could adreciprocally, called into action accord-duce, were it necessary. ing as the moral or immoral principle, The reader will now observe, that, No. 45.- VOL. IV.
as our doctrine of sensation and in- that the state of Eternity is widely stinct, formerly stated, renders the different from any thing apparent in external and internal modes of anima- the visible universe ; for the alternation, maintained amidst a cloud of tion of light and darkness must obdarkness, by our author and the phy- tain, wherever planetary worlds are siologists, altogether unnecessary and revolving. “ But there shall be no abortive; so in like manner does our night there. And the city had no need doctrine of the passions, now laid of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine down, render what he styles the ac- in it; for the glory of God did lighten tive and passive mode of intelligence, it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. and all the mighty fabric he so indus- And the nations of them that are saved triously builds upon it, without any shall walk in the light of it; and they solidity or foundation.
need no candle, neither light of the sun; Thus have we finished, in the most for the Lord God giveth them light ; succinct and perspicuous manner we and they shall reign for ever and were able, the grand scale of Intelli- ever." gence, in its three* most wonderful As light and darkness belong to the steps, as it respects the Intelligence first step of the scale of the universe, of God himself-of angels--and of so do attraction and repulsion to the men. Far be it from us, however, to second ; which, by contrast, produce pretend that we have exhausted the the centripetal and centrifugal forces subject. If we have only afforded in the laws of motion, by which means some additional glimmerings, and the revolving orbs are made to approxopened a new method, through the imate nearer to, or to recede to a instrumentality of our author, to ren- greater distance from, their centre of der further approximations easy-this gravity. And even where the motions is all that we lay claim to.
are exactly circular, there must needs The six steps of the great scale be an alternate proximity and disbeing thus finished, we are now pre- tance, relative to the sun, in every pared to enter on the seventh and last spot of a planet's surface, as it turns step, which is the great Moral scale; on its axis; and where the orbits are or scale of Physical and Moral Good elliptical, a vicissitude of Aphelion and Evil.
and Perihelion, and many other irreAnd in order to treat this step in as gularities, must needs be produced. perspicuous a manner as possible, it Now, all these are inconsistent with will be necessary to take a glance, in the figurative imagery of the eternal the first place, of what the scripture state; so that the visible universe says of the invisible state of eternity. must be temporal and transitory; Our author, all at once enters deeply
“heaven and earth shall pass away.” into this subject; plunging, as it were,
What a luininous view of this subinto this boundless ocean. Here he lime subject does this admirable hint beholds a state, from the various suggest ? We have heard it often adumbrations of scripture, 2 Cor. xii. spoken of; and many pious and well2, 4. Rev. xxi. 3, 10, 18, 22, &c. at meaning people have spent their once marked with ideas of perfect strength in telling us, " That there beauty, symmetry, regularity, harmony, shall be a new heaven and a new splendour, glory, centrical position, ex- earth;" but never one till this moaltation, commanding influence, stability, ment has been able as it were to radiation of light, limitation or fenc- demonstrate the point, from the clear ing in.
and perspicuous allegorical represenThese allegorical representations, tations of scripture, which now appear he observes, are connected in figure as evident as the sun at noon-day. with the central step of the great scale This great discovery, shall we call it, or seven-fold mystery of nature, by the has been reserved for Mr. Macnab vegetation of the Tree of Life, and and we think it indeed somewhat reParadise illuminated by the Divine markable, that all the bodies of this Glory.
visible universe, which constitute that These allegories sufficiently prove, heaven and earth which shall pass away,
are, in their very figure or form, to * For brevity's sake, we have had to pass say nothing of their restless motion, over unnoticed two of these steps. See No. 8, so essentially different from that which for August, conclusion.
is stationary and eternal. All these, as if made for motion, and motion, as | slept while yet in perfect innocence if indicative of their end, appear in a and happiness, Gen ii. 21. spherical shape. But not so the New But it may be remarked, that sleep heaven and New earth, for which we is not only that which distinguishes look according to his promise. This is the state of probation from the state connected with the type or representa- of eternity, but that it is a symbol of tion, not of the circle, but of the square. death, while death itself is yet unThe figure of the New Jerusalem, known. Thus it was to Adam in Pawhich John saw descending from God radise. It is a temporary victory of out of heaven, was not that of a the left or physical, over the right or sphere or globe, but of a cube or spiritual side of the scale. Sleep square; denoting at once, that it is seems to be a physical phenomenon designed not for motion, or for a tem- designed to prevail universally over porary and transitory state, like all all the systems of the universe, which the bodies of this visible universe ; are visited with an alternation of light but for a state fixed and permanent, and darkness. Hence, says the Aposand built upon the immoveable foun- tle, as a kind of proverbial expression, dation which God hath laid in Zion. “They that sleep, sleep in the night.”
The vicissitudes observed in the first Many, if not all the different species and second of the scale, throughout of vegetables, obey this law, and althe visible universe, suggest, by ana- most all the brute creation ;--and as logy, corresponding vicissitudes in the for the beasts of prey, which roam the sixth and seventh. Thus, in the phy- desarts in the dark, and turn day into sical side of the scale, step first, the night, or the midnight balls and intensity of light shed upon a body, bacchanalian revels among the human may be diminished by elongation of species; such phenomena, whether the distance, or intercepted by the among men or brutes, are by no means chemical nature of the body itself; natural, nor had they the smallest that is to say, it may be diminished by place in the original constitution of phenomena belonging to the second, or God's universe. For throughout the intercepted by phenomena belonging to universe, in its original state, it is the third of the scale. Even so, in proverbially true, “They that sleep, the spiritual side of the scale, the sleep in the night.” This is the agreeeffulgence of divine light or glory, able period which nature has allotted which is emblematically represented to recruit their exhausted spirit; and by the natural light, on the soul of a where innocence exists, to follow Nabeing like man, may be diminished by ture's laws is the grand concern. ignorance, or intercepted by the animal Our author proceeds to give a beaunature of an imbodied spirit ; that is tiful delineation of sleep and dreamto say, it may be diminished by pheno- ing ;* but in this we shall not follow mena belonging to the sixth or intellec- him, but rather attend to what he tual, or intercepted by phenomena be- says in the next article, as being more longing to the fifth or animal steps of connected with our subject. the scale. But this diminution or “Thus, anterior to his transgresinterception of the divine light or sion, we see that man was figuratively glory, through the unavoidable igno- admonished of death; and the samo
or weakness of the animal admonition is given once a day to the nature, of the creature on whom it is inhabitants of every other world in shed, argues no degree of wrong in the the universe, wherever the rays of moral, of falsehood in the intellectual, light are intercepted by opaque masses.' or of pain in the animal part of its | Art. 261. constitution. All this might take He bad formerly remarked, Art. place in a state of perfect innocence 94, that in this world, the seven steps and purity. For the state of diminu- of the great scale of the universe, as tion and interception alluded to, is already laid down, are distinguished that of sleep, or any thing analogous by certain analogous vicissitudes or to it among perfect beings ; for Adam contrarieties. Thus, there are,
In the first or Elemental, Light and Darkness.
* Theory, Art. 256-260.