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the publication in question his apo- for which we cannot help thinking he logy is satisfactory.

was ill qualified ; not certainly from a “In my youth,” he observes, want of ability, but of that minute “when my stock of knowledge con- information, which is essential to do sisted of such an acquaintance with justice to professional and religious Greek and Roman History, as is ac- biography.

We should hardly pay quired in the course of a regular scho- much respect to the man, however lastic education, when my heart was clever, who should undertake the Life full of poetry and romance, and Lucan of Locke, Descartes, or Newton, and Akenside were at my tongue's without being deeply conversant in end, I fell into the political opinions modern metaphysics and mathematics; which the French Revolution was then nor can we conceive that one whose scattering throughout Europe; and reading has been desultory, and following these opinions with ardour whose religious principles have never wherever they led, I soon perceived been very steady, is the sort of person that inequalities of rank were a light in whose bands so extraordinary a evil compared to the inequalities of character as John Wesley is likely to property, and those more fearful dis- be drawn with advantage or impar-, tinctions which the want of inoral and tiality. It is easy enough to give the intellectual culture occasions between details of such a history, but the diffiman and man. At that time, and culty lies in developing the springs of with these opinions, or rather feelings, action, the internal as well as the ex(for their root was in the heart, and ternal causes which led to the religious not in the understanding,). I wrote revolution effected, withoat violence, Wat Tyler, as one who was impatient by that wonderful man. In all this of “ all the oppressions that are done Mr. Southey has failed; and he could under the sun.” The subject was in- | not do otherwise, for it required somejudiciously chosen, and it was treated, thing beyond an acquaintance with as might be expected by a youth of mere books, to delineate the conceptwenty, in such times, who regarded |tions and progress of a mind working only one side of the question. There against prejudice, and from a sole is no other misrepresentation. The sense of duty acting for the general sentiments of the historical characters good. are correctly stated. Were I now to The biography, however, excited dramatize the same story, there would notice, and so far it may

be supposed be much to add, but little to alter to have answered the writer's purpose, I should not express those sentiments for it is no want of charity to ascribe less strongly, but I should oppose to his multifarious labours to the printhem more enlarged views of the pa- ciple honestly avowed by Johnson, ture of men, and the progress of soci- when congratulated upon the success ety. I should set forth with equal of his literary labours : “ It is all force, the oppressions of the feudal work ; and my inducement to it is not system, the excesses of the insur- love or desire of fame, but that of gents, and the treachery of the govern- money, which is the only motive to ment, and hold up the errors and writing that I know of.”. crimes, which were then committed, Soon after this publication, the as a warning for this and for future author received the degree of Doctor ages. I should write as a man, and of Laws, from the University of Oxnot as a stripling; with the same ford; a distinction the more remarkbeart, and the same desires, but with able, as the sister seat of learning had a ripened understanding, and compe- just before refused to suffer another tent stores of knowledge.”

Unitarian to read lectures on botany This ingenious sophistry might have in any of her colleges. been effectually answered, by quoting On the death of the late king, the some of the author's subsequent Poet Laureate thinking bimself bound works, particularly the Notes to Ma- by his office to hang his wreath on the doc, and the Letters of Espriella, funeral urn, determined to execute where the same opinions are amplified his task in such a manner as should in plain prose, that Wat Tyler and raise wonder, if it did not produce John Ball expressed in the play. admiration. The heathen nations of

The next appearance of Mr. Southey antiquity made it a practiee to deify before the public, was in a capacity departed beroes and monarehs; but

the apotheosis of a Christian sovereign of our author, replied, that “they was a novelty reserved for the nine- would be read when Homer and teenth century. It was well for the Virgil were forgotten-but not be. poet that the virtues of George the fore." Third were sterling, and universally acknowledged; but for that very reason there was the less occasion to OBSERVATIONS ON AIR BALLOONS. celebrate them in a way that makes

BY J. KM. the reader of “the Vision of Judgment” turn pale and shudder at the

( Concluded from col. 30.) temerarious boldness of the eulogist in attempting to lift up the awful veil To give at pleasure a progressive that hangs between mortal and immor- | motion to air balloons, in any required tal things.

direction, is a problem of great imporTo complete the extravagance of tance in this newly discovered art of this daring flight, the author chose to penetrating into the superior regions write it in English hexameters, as of the atmosphere. Many wild and best suited to the solemnity of the absurd schemes for this purpose, subject; but in this he erred most have been offered to the consideration grossly, for though the lines are mar- of the public; and some that have shalled out and arranged as verse, been carried into effect, have served acoording to rule and measure, they only to evince the ignorance of their are, to all intents and purposes, no- projectors. Little, however, of real thing more than pompous prose; and value, has yet been done, towards it is impossible, either by a silent or accomplishing this purpose. The audible recitation, to render them grand difficulty of the attempt coneuphonic. In the preface, the author sists in the large surface of resistance made an attack upon Lord Byron and exposed to the surrounding fluid, his imitators, who are described by which has hitherto been such, that the him as forming a “Satanic School” quantity of air required to be displacof poetry. This roused his lordship ed is so great, that the strength of the to reply, and he did it with asperity voyagers cannot accomplish it with enough ; but it must be confessed that any considerable velocity; that is to the provocation was his own, for he say, when they bave given a small had some time before drawn an odious degree of velocity to the machine, the picture of the Laureate, in bis licen- resistance of the air becomes such, tious tale of Don Juan. Mr. Southey that their whole strength will be emfollowed up the blow with great vi-ployed in overcoming it, instead of gour, and more passion, in a letter, adding to the velocity. which was inserted in all the news- The principal object, therefore, papers; and here the angry dispute must be to construct the balloon of ended, unless some occasion may such a figure, that it may move through arise to rekindle the smothered flame the air without displacing any consiof resentment.

derable quantity of it. As to the In private life, all who know the application of strength, it may be Laureate speak honourably of him, as done by a variety of methods. It is a husband, a father, and a friend. required that it should be exerted on His morals are altogether irreproach- the air in the opposite direction to able, and in his writings, whether in that intended to be produced in the prose or verse, he has uniformly balloon; and as no mechanism can avoided all indecency of language. bestow or create strength, the simplest Other pieces, besides those we have machine will be the best, because the mentioned, are ascribed to his pen ; loss by friction will be least. and it is no secret that he takes a The uses to which machines of this regalar and considerable part in the kind may be applied are numerous, Quarterly Review. The severest re- and will easily occur to any ingenious mark ever made upon his poetical person. It will probably be long, character came from Porson, and before the experiment will be perthat at a time when Mr. Southey had formed in a sufficiently cheap way, to not offended his old political friends admit of its being applied to the ordiby supporting government. The critic nary purposes of travellers. Its use, being asked his opinion of the epics on extraordinary occasions, for pene

aerial voyage ever per

trating into places inaccessible by and no signs of life were perceived in other means, or for making philoso- him ; but his companion is said to phical observations on the superior have uttered an exclamation before regions of the atmosphere, are suffi- he expired. ever, boast of any addition having formed in England, was by Vincent been made to the stock of atmosphe- Lunardi, an Italian, who made his rical knowledge, though very many ascent from the Artillery Ground, aerial voyages have been performed. London, on the 15th of September,

The probable causes of this are, 1784. His balloon was made of oiled that balloons have seldom ascended silk, striped alternately with blue and above two miles high;—that the no- red. Its diameter was 33 feet. Mr. velty and grandeur of the scene beheld Lunardi took with him on this expefrom a balloon has prevented a strict dition, a dog, a cat, and a pigeon, attention to the phenomena that may and ascended to such a considerable have presented themselves;—and more heigbt, that on returning to the especially, that most of the experi- ground, after an absence of about an ments were performed by ignorant hour and half, his cat was nearly dead and mercenary imitators, who have with the excessive cold to which it been more desirous of taking the ad- had been exposed. The thermometer vantage of the credulity of the vulgar, which he carried with him siood, durthan of making valuable observations, ing the course of bis voyage, so low or relating them with fidelity.

as 29°, and the drops of water collected The invention of the heated air round the balloon were converted into balloon is the undoubted right of the solid ice. Brothers Mess. Stephen and Joseph From that period to the present, Montgolfier, who made the first expe- balloons have been so common, both riment at Avignon, in November, 1782. in England and in other countries, The first balloon raised in the atmo- that, except in the vicinity of their sphere by means of inflammable air, immediate ascent, they half cease to wasconstructed by public subscription, excite astonishment. On most public opened by M. Faujas St. Fond, at occasions, the ascent of a balloon is Paris : it was prevented from escaping an item in the list of amusements; by ropes. The first aerial voyage was and the huzzas and admiration of the performed with the same balloon by gazing throng, are, perhaps, the prinM. Pilatre de Rozier, and the Mar- cipal recompence with wbich the adquis d'Arlandes, who passed over the venturer is rewarded. city of Paris November 21, 1783. During the experiments which have They were carried about twenty-seven been made, many melancholy disasmiles in one hour and three quarters. ters have occurred, attended with cirThe great rarity of inflammable aircumstances almost too shocking to be was first ascertained in 1766, by Mr. recorded. But these have been insufCavendish, and the idea of its appli- ficient to deter others from making cation to the purpose of floating a bag experiments in the aerial regions; and in the atmosphere, was explained by perhaps the inducements to daring Dr. Black in his lectures next follow- adventurers have increased in proing that period. Several philosophers portion to the dangers which awaited made attempts to carry this into them, and the hazards they must eneffect, previous to June, 1782, and counter. succeeded so far as to inflate soap There can be little doubt, that on bubbles with inflammable air, which certain occasions, balloons may be rapidly ascended to the ceiling of the applied to purposes, for which no

On the 14th of June, 1785, the other vehicle can be adapted; and intrepid Pilatre de Rozier fell a vic- with a wind that is favourable, a jourtim to the new art, of which he was ney may be accomplished with a dethe first adventurer. He attempted to gree of rapidity that bids defiance to cross the British Channel, in company | every other mode of conveyance. But with a gentleman whose name was when we contrast with these solitary Romain; but when they were about six advantages, the expense of construcithousand toises high, the upper balloon ing the machine, the uncertainty of took fire, and burst; Pilatre de Rozier the state of the atmosphere, and the was the first who came to the ground, I deficiency of art to guide it in such directions as shall suit the purposes of into great misery, have shewn a great the voyager, we may view it as a and anxious fear of God; and hence, scientific companion to the discovery Zeno was accustomed to say, that it of the north-west passage, should that seemed to him a more substantial proof great object ever be accomplished. of this matter to hear an atheist, when As imposing spectacles, they may he drew near to death, preach God, gratify the ambition of speculators, (when he asked God and all the world amuse the idle, and add new trophies forgiveness,) than it was to hear all to the honours of ingenious intrepi- the philosophers in the world disputdity, without being of much advan- ing of the point; for at this instant of tage to commerce, or of any substan- misery and death, it appears, that tial benefit to mankind.


such men display an earnestness and sobriety of spirit, who before denied the Divinity through wantonness, and

for greater facility of sinning. This GOD'S ARROW AGAINST ATHEISM AND was exemplified in the Emperor CaliIRRELIGION.”

gula, who, though a notorious scorner and contemner of the gods, was accus

tomed, when he heard terrible thunThe following tract was published dering and lightning, to creep under early in the seventeenth century, and a bed to hide himself. And the being the style in which it is written par- of a God may also be concluded, from takes of that tedious prolixity which that sense of shame, which is felt by was common to most of the writers of all men after the commission of an that period. Yet the arguments are offence; for though different nations in general of great weight; and the may differ as to the particular nature subjects here treated of have not lost of certain actions, an impression that any of their importance in the present some are good and others evil, is writday. An abridged republication of ten in the heart of every man; and the work, it is hoped, will be no unac- whence this conviction should proceed, ceptable present to the readers of the except from God, it is impossible to Imperial Magazine: I have ventured conceive. to add a few explanatory sentences As the being of a God is felt in to the work itself.

every man's conscience, so is he seen J. Couch. in all the works of his material crea

tion. That this world had a begin

ning, has been taught by the most CHAPTER FIRST.

excellent philosophers; and though There is a God,—who ought to be wor- have been from eternity, yet in his

Aristotle, for a time, supposed it to shipped.

old age he believed the contrary, as There is something within the human we find from his treatise “ of the mind, which accords with the idea World,” a work which Justin Martyr that there is a God ; and Cicero forci- calls the epitome of all Aristotle's true bly observes, that this impression is philosophy. If this world be confessed found to exist among those, who, in to have had a beginning, it could not regard to civilization, are the most have been its own creator; nor could savage and barbarous.

Among che any thing which forms a part of it, more refined heathens, atheism and create the whole ; for such ideas are irreligion were ever odious, insomuch plainly absurd. So then we perceive that Protagoras, for that he doubted the force of that sentence quoted by whether there were any God, was, by St. Paul from Aratus, “we are bis offthe Athenians, banished from their spring ;" and as it is confessedly a nacountry. That this idea is a natural tural duty, that we should honour those one, is shewn by the instinctive lifting who have begotten us, our duty to the up of the mind to heaven, which is eternal Creator of all things flows imfelt by all in cases of sudden or severe mediately from this conclusion. And distress; and it has been proved by the daily benefits and blessings of life the experience of all ages, that such teach the same things ; they are too as have in health and prosperity pro- well adapted to our real wants to professed themselves to be atheists, when ceed from mere accident; and that they have come to die, or have fallen they are a proof, both of the existence No. 45.–Vol. IV.


and goodness of God, appears from it strangely happens, that our first St. Paul, who argues that God left argument to prove the truth of the not himself without witness, in that he Messiahship of Jesus, is the same did good, and gave us rain from hea- which the Jews use to prove the conven, and fruitful seasons, filling our trary. They allege that his rejection' hearts with food and gladness, even by the Sanhedrim, who were by law in times of the grossest ignorance. If appointed to be the proper judges of the consideration of the blessings thus the validity of the claim of any one to received have no effect upon us in be a prophet or the Messias, is a suffimoving us to acknowledge him, in the cient proof that he was not the anointjudgment of Isaiah we fall far short of ed one. But we urge, contrary to the brute creation, who, led by this this, on the authority of Psalm xxii. motive, know and acknowledge their -Isai. vi. 53—Dan. ix. that for the masters, and perform the service ex- fulfilment of prophecy it was necespected from them. And the judg- sary that he should be rejected and cut ments which are continually abroad in off by this very council; and that such the world, 'both among nations and was the case, is a complete proof of individuals, speak the same language. the truth of his mission being divine. Whoever will look into history with It was further foretold that he should this object chiefly in view, will find be born of a virgin, Isai. vii. 14.that the judgments of God are in pro. at Bethlehem, Micah v. 1.—that all the portion, not only to the degree of infants round about the place should wickedness of those who are the vic- be slain for his sake, Jer. xxxi. 15.tims of it, but to the light and oppor- that the kings of the earth should come tunities which the nations had of in- and offer gold and other gifts to him, struction in what was right; and that Psalm lxxi. 10.—that he should be the kind of judgment bears a relation presented in the second temple at to the nature of the offences of which Jerusalem, Mal. iii. 1.-that he shoald they had been guilty. The history of fly into Egypt, and be brought from the Jews, Chaldeans, Babylonians, thence again, Hos. xi. 2.--that a star Greeks and Romans, the French and should appear at his birth, Num. xxiv. Spaniards, the nations of Germany --that a prophet in the spirit of Elias and Russia, in regard to their treat- should appear before him, Mal. iii. 7. ment of Poland-will all testify to and iv. i. Isai. xl. 3.—that his own this truth.

preaching should be in humility, quietness, and clemency of spirit, 'Isai. xlii. 2.-that he should be poor, ab

ject, and of no reputation in this Christianity is the only religion with world, Isai. lii. Dan. ix. Zach. ix.

which God is well pleased. Jer. xiv.--should perform miracles, In regard to the opponents of the and heal diseases, Isai. Ixi.-should Christian religion, the whole world is be slain for the sins of the people, divided into Jews and Gentiles; and Dan. ix. Isai. liii.-be betrayed by as the truth of Christian doctrine must his own disciple, Psalm xli. and lv. be proved in different ways, in oppo- be sold for thirty pieces of silver, sition to these different classes, we Zach. xi.—with which money a potshall begin with the Jews, between ter's field should be purchased, Jer. whom and us the chief article of con- xxx.-should enter Jerusalem on an troversy is the appearance or non-ap- ass, Zach. ix.—have his face buffeted pearance of the Messiah, or Anointed and spit upon by the Jews, Isai. 1.One of God. From the earliest times his body whipped, Isai. liii. Psalm a series of prophecies have been deli- xxxvii.-should be punished among vered to this selected people, in order thieves, Isai. liii.-some of his garthat when the promised seed of the ments should be divided, another part woman should come, the sincere in- not divided, but cast lots for, Psalm quirers after truth might be able to xxii.-his death should be by cruci. recognize him. It is by a comparison fixion, Psalm xxii. Zach. xii.-his of these (for the authenticity of which side should be pierced, Zach. xii.the Jews themselves are the vouchers) he should arise from the dead the third with the history of Jesus, as given by day, Psalm xvi. Hos. vi.ascend to his immediate followers, that our con- heaven triumphantly, Psalm cx.-clusions are to be guided. And here with an abundance of other more mi


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