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945
Review... The Triple Aim.

946 appointment without regret. This on the public mind, nor are the numremark, however, we wish to confine bers diminutive of those, who rather to the political complexion judge an author's name, 'not works, which it bears, than to the manner in and then, which it is executed.

Nor praise nor blame the writings, but the Hitherto, we have steered clear of men;" party politics; and it is not our inten- thus furnishing an asylum for a defection at present to enter the boundless tive judgment, and securing a retreat field. These letters, which are twenty from the shafts 'of ridicule, when its in number, chiefly relate to questions decisions are unfortunate. closely connected with the late Queen; The author, however, who conceals but their intrinsic merits can only be his name, deprives his readers of this known to those who have watched the subterfuge; and instances have occurwhole proceedings, and even peeped red, when obvious reasons develop bis behind that curtain, which conceals prudence in thus keeping himself reasons of state from vulgar eyes. within the empire of obscurity. In Hence, nearly all the publications cases like these, the severities of criwhich have issued from the press on ticism fall upon the productions of his this disastrous affair, have either been pen, and he hears the blustering of founded upon partial views, or dic- the storm, without feeling its fatal tated by the strong feelings of a party influence. spirit. On this account, conclusions, But although the author of this that seem to have been legitimately volume has withholden his name, we drawn under given circumstances, do not mean to insinuate that his litefrequently prove to be erroneous, when rary offspring is unworthy of acknownew principles are developed.. In ledgment. His letters, which are these letters, which are written in a sixty in number, contain much imporpointed, clear, and nervous style, the tant matter, incorporating most of the author arraigns her late Majesty be- leading truths of the gospel, inculcatfore his tribunal, with all the autho-ing a system of morals founded upon rity of a judge, and all the partiality evangelical principles, and leading to of a special pleader, if not with all the results which eternity only can fully wisdom of the bar. Throughout the unfold. On the great Christian whole, he displays a bold and daring duty of self-denial, the author thus spirit; and that opponent must have speaks :a large share of presumption, who will charge him with a want of confi- “ There is a great difference between selfdence in his own assertions. His imposed privation, and self-denial. The latviews are local and confined, and it and that we deny ourselves purely from a

ter supposes a desire after the indulgence; will be a task as hopeless to expect sense of duty, arising from the divine interdicimpartiality in his pages, as to search tion. The former, on the contrary, does not for truth in the stories of Jack the go against desire, but rather with it; that is,

with an unnatural and ansanctioned desire. Giant Killer, or Tom Thumb.

It is really, I grant, though erroneously, considered an indulgence. Neither has it any

respect whatever to duty; for if it were daty, Review.—The Triple Aim, or the it could not be self-imposed. It springs, then,

not from conscience, but from caprice ; from Improvement of Leisure, Friendship, a perverted taste, and a misguided, ill-judging and Intellect, attempted in Epistolary self-love. Self denial, in a fallen creature, is, Correspondence. Svo, pp. 445. Lon- in a vast variety of instances, essential to virdon: Gardiner and Sun. 1821. tue. It is to go against some vicious inclina

tion, to renounce some perverse principle, to

resist some constitutional temptation, and to When a new book is presented to the avoid some most easily besetting sin. world, the reader, having made him- “Perhaps we know less of self-denial than self somewhat acquainted with the into the very nature of the Christian conflict.

we ought to do, seeing it is that which enters subjects of which it treats, naturally. It is the first, the last, the constant duty, of a inquires, “ By whom was it written ?" good man, to exercise self-denial. Wherever, and it not unfrequently happens, that and whenever, inclination goes against daty, upon an answer to this question, de- then there is an imperious call for the exercise pends the fate of the composition. It is the first sentence in the first lesson which

of self-denial. Christianity begins with this. The character and celebrity of a is read to the young disciple-Deny thyselfwriter are not without their influence take up thy cross--and follow me.” The man

men.

who cannot deny himself, who cannot silence has traced their operations, that he and subdue the claims of the love of ease, or

has not been a superficial observer of pleasure, or honour, or profit; who cannot every day of his life, even when most consci- wbat passes within the human mind. entiously engaged in the discharge of duty, The following remarks on the univershat his ears against the base, bat insinuating sal dependence of the creature upon flatteries, and steel his heart against the unbal- | God, are judicious and appropriate. lowed and impious pretensions, of a self-righteous spirit; cannot be a disciple. But when

“I have intimated that men of enlarged we can thus deny ourselves, and in the Sa- capacities require more than others to make viour's strength, and in imitation of bis exam- them bappy. They seek better and more ple, carry our cross, having laid it upon our ample provision. They cannot live apon the shoulders at the commencement of disciple- common-place enjoyments of common-place ship, in token of our being, at any hour, will

Did it never occur to you, that the ing and prepared to suffer crucifixion upon it, higher we are raised, I do not mean in our rather than deny him, then may we hope own estimation, but in the scale of existence, to follow bim, not loving our lives onto the

the faster our wants increase upon us, and the death.'

farther we are from independence? It would “And, while self-denial is the first step in pot, perhaps, be correct to say, that one being the Christian course; it is the last which a is more dependent upon God for bappiness hypocrite takes; or, more properly, it is that than another, because all are absolutely depenat which he always stops short; it is that step: that which is absolute. But, if one of two

dent upon him, and there are no degrees in which he never takes. A hypocrite may do many things; he may read, and talk, and make creatures cannot be more dependent than the loud professions, and long prayers; be may other; the highest, the superior of the two, speak with the eloquence of angels; he may will, and must, depend upon God for more give all his goods to the poor, and his body to

than the other. As we possess in ourselves no the flames of martyrdom ; all this he may do, to

source of supply, and as our wants are proporbe seen of men ; but one thing, the first which tioned to the place which we occupy in the is necessary, he cannot do; the first requisi- scale of being, one creature must depend upon tion, — Deny thyself, be either artfully Godfor more than another. A worm wants evades, or boldly rejects. Here he says to nothing, compared with an angel. A sparrow the Saviour, "Pardon thy servant in this

wants more than an oyster ; a man more than thing ;' and I will go with thee to prison and a sparrow; an angel more than a man; and so to death.' Let Achan retain the Babylonishon, as we ascend the scale of rational existgarment and the wedge of gold, let Gehazi ence. Hence, to return nearer to our subject, receive Naaman's gift, let the rich man in the the intelligent and refined want more to make gospel keep his possessions, let Demas par

them happy than the stupid and vulgar; and as sue the world, and Diotrephes have the

each must receive all from God, one must de

preeminence in the church, and all will say, pend upon him for more than the other. Bat • Lord! Lord!' but will not do the things these thoughts, extended already beyond their which be commands. They will acknowledge importance, shall not be pursued. him in words till the day, and at the very day,

* A reverse view of the subject presents a in which it will be made manifest that in work's painful aspect. Whatever capacitates us for they have uniformly denied bim.

higher pleasures, at the same time renders as "I have said that self-denial is necessarily susceptible of deeper sufferings. Those who connected with the maintenance of the Christ- are formed capable of the greatest enjoyment, ian conflict, which must continue till death. and who indulge the highest expectations; if But then they both subside ; here the history they finally perish, must endure the heaviest of self-denial and suffering terminates. How

woe, and drink the deepest draughts of sorbappy that existence does not end at the same

We are, in a variety of respects, 'feartime. How delightful to contemplate a state, fully' as well as 'wonderfully made;' bat, perand to feel that we are preparing for it, in haps, io none more so, than in our immense which inclination shall invariably, and for ever, capacities for enjoyment or suffering, particofollow conscience and judgment, truth and larly as connected with our present probationduty, happiness and God! But here, alas! ary condition, and our future interminable our knowledge of duty, in many cases, very

existence, in which they will be filled with imperfect, and in all, our decision and consis. joy or sorrow, according as we are induced to tency are still more defective. How seldom, improve, or left to neglect, the means with compared with what we might, do we enjoy which we are now furnished for at once escapthe happiness of not baving any reason to con- ing from the wrath to come, and of "laying demn ourselves in things which we allow. hold on eternal life.'.”—p. 84. Nor does the evil arise so much from the imperfection of our knowledge, as from other

We can give but one short extract causes; for, in innumerable instances,

more, which being on the brevity of We see the right, and we approve it too,

human life, becomes universal in its Condemn the wrong, and yet the wrong pur

application.

" How long have I to live?' Not long The preceding extract can hardly for me, at most. I shall soon stand on the fail to place the author's principles in boundaries of life, even if I reach threescore a favourable light; and it must be years and ten. The setting san seems to sink

more rapidly as he is leaving as; time appears obvious, from the manner in which he i to speed his flight as he approaches the goal.

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p. 36.

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949
Review-Baptism Discussed.

950 On my last journey, I was very much strack cated, a pool in which many have by observing, what indeed I knew before, sunk to rise no more. O, baptism ! that the Thames, and other rivers, as they baptism ! thou art an ewer, a font, a approach their common receptacle, increase their magnitade and motion; they run wider, basin, in which multitudes have been and deeper, and faster; they assume the ap- sprinkled by their antagonists, until pearances, and partake of the property, of the they have been wet to the skin ; when, ocean to wbich they are going, more than of having their courage cooled by repeatthe springs from whence they issued. So our few remaining years, and very few remain after ed showers, they bave gladly retreated fifty, are rapidly advancing, and carrying us,

to dry themselves in calmness and to the opening, expanding, boundless ocean sunshine! of eternity. Every thing receives its colour We do not mean by these remarks, and character, not less from its termination, to insinuate that baptism was not orithan its origin. The few remaining sands in the upper part of the hour-glass, while they ginally an ordinance of divine appointseem closely allied to each other, are yet more

ment; but we rather attempt to bring certainly connected with the bulk below, than into disgrace the unamiable spirit, in with themselves. Their present connection is which the various controversies on dissolving, to form another of greater magni- this subject have been carried on, and tude, and longer duration Time is that in which existence is planted, and in which little

to discard those unholy dispositions more than the stem is produced ; from eternity and irritated passions, which a few it derives its growth, and foliage, and fruit; drops of water have swelled into a the poisonous berries of sin, or the fruits of diabolical torrent. Under these cirholiness gathered in eternal life.”.

-p.
103.

cumstances, we shall, perhaps, not In several parts of tbis volume, the bazard much, by asserting it as a proreader is called upon to contemplate bable fact, that the numerous controvarieties in natural scenery; but as

versies which have been agitated rethe letters are without date, and the specting baptism, when taken in the places whence they were written is con- aggregate, have been productive of cealed, we have no means of knowing more mischief in the Christian church, whether the picture contains a natural than would have resulted from all the or an artificial delineation. The book varieties in the administration of the is also destitute of any table of con ordinance, against errors in which, tents, except what is implied in the every writer professes to guard his terms which the title-page includes. readers. This, to ordinary readers, is a disad- But while we admit the divine apvantage. Many would peruse a let. pointment of this institution; we have ter on friendship, for whom intellect no conception that the observance of and leisure will have no charms. But its outward form, either by sprinkling after making due allowances for these or immersion, is essential to the salvadiminutive imperfections, and we are

tion of the soul. In this, nearly all not disposed to hunt with avidity for the combatants concur in opinion; errors of greater magnitude, which do and if some few, in whose minds not immediately strike the eye, the bigotry, illiberality, and ignorance, work appears before us in a truly hold the dominion, admit the conrespectable light, and as such we trary, it is but justice to state, that strongly recommend it to public atten- such is not the view which Mr. Daniel tion.

Isaac takes of this slippery subject.
But on this point he shall speak for

himself. Review.-Baptism Discussed, containing Scripture Principles, Precepts, contend for infant baptism, if children may be

" • But why,' it will be demanded, .do you and Precedents, in favour of the Bap- made pious without it? Do the Friends practism of Infunts and Little Children, tise baptism? I am now pleading for the reliwith a Defence of Sprinkling as the gious training and church-membership of chilmode. By Daniel Isaac. 8vo. pp. that the effect corresponds with the divine

dren, and have given an example, to shew 296.

London: Whittaker, Baynes, promises. I look upon baptism as the appoint: Blanshard. 1822.

ed initiatory rite ; but I do not think it of

essential importance. Though the Friends 0, Baptism! baptism! thou art an

withhold it from their children, God will no ocean in which many a sturdy intel- more withhold bis grace from them, for the lect has been drowned, a river in

fault of their parents, than be would withbold

the Holy Spirit from Cornelius and his family, whicb many have been washed away, on account of the prejudices of the apostlo a well in which many have been suffo- | Peter. As a divine institution, however, it

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--p. 258.

97

ought to be complied with ; but if children Mr. Isaac is an opponent, whose polemust not have both, I think it of much more mical talents are not to be treated consequence to give them membership withont with contempt; and perhaps he will bapiisin, than baptism without membership.” | find it as needful to proceed with

caution to entangle this author in his The author of this treatise has long net, as if he were about been known in the literary world, and several of his publications evince deep

“ To catch the eel of science by the tail.” thinking, and display an acute and a The work before us possesses much comprehensive mind. To subjects of merit. The arguments are numerous, controversy, he has frequently turned strong, and formidable; but as “a dishis attention; and, with the turns, putable point is no man's ground,” and windings, and points, and binges, those only have a right to say they are of many important topics, he has conclusive, who live to see the termirepeatedly shewn himself to be inti- nation of the controversy on baptism; mately acquainted.

and to them Methuselah must yield In prosecuting the discussion now the palm of longevity. under consideration, Mr. Isaac has divided his work into six chapters. The first is on positive institutions, Review.-A Protestant Historical Caand what constitutes a right to them. techism, being a concise View of the The second is on the mode of baptism. Commencement and Decline of ChristThe third is on the qualifications for ianity, with the Rise and Establishbaptism. The fourth is on juvenile ment of the Reformation under Mardiscipleship and holiness, and on the tin Luther, &c. By Josiah H. Christian church being grafted on the Walker, p. 106.

12mo. Baynes, Jewish. The fifth contains and refers London. 1821. to examples of the baptism of belierers' children. The sixth is an inquiry, This work, though diminutive in size, whether there be any thing in the na- is one, before which many ponderous ture and spiritof Christianity opposed quartos, and overgrown folios, might to the baptism of infants, &c.

justly hide their unwieldy heads. If These leading topics, including the value of a book is to be estimated many subordinate branches, Mr. Isaac by its use, this is better deserving a has examined with considerable acute- dress of Russia leather, gilt and letness, and discussed with equal abi- tered, than many volumes that have lity ; but unfortunately, he has taken appeared in these splendid decorain hand a subject to which no conclu- tions. It contains the essence of hissions can be reached, that will pre- torical Christianity, and comprises clude animadversion. And although more information in its humble pages, he has written in a strain that betrays than the student will be able to find in no angry feelings, yet there is a pecu- many a flowery tome, in which his liar vein of sarcastic humour running imagination may be both bewildered through his sentences, calculated to and amused. But from a work like awaken the irritable passions of his his, we shall render the reader more opponents; and more especially so, essential service by giving quotations, when they perceive the difficulty of than by multiplying remarks. discovering tangibility in those ex- Q. Who was the first Bishop or Presbyter pressions which occasion their morti- of Rome? fication.

« A. The Church of Rome has uniformly reIt is not to be expected that this plied, Peter! bat all Protestant Churches have treatise will speedily retire where

promptly denied it. The Scriptures are silent

upon the subject. It would have ill became an “ Scottists and Thomists peaceably remain,

Apostle to become a resident, confining bimAmidst their kindred cobwebs in Duck-lane."

self to the care of one church only, in violation

of his bigh and universal commission, Mark Some deluging antagonist, we have xvi. 15. Besides, the appointment of a Bishop no doubt, will shortly appcar, to op

to any church seems more agreeable to the pose what this author bas attempied asages of Apostolic churches towards the close

of the first century, than during any part of St. to prove, and perhaps he will

Peter's life. It is therefore supposed by Dr. to the fierce contention, bring along

Walsh, that Lenus and Cletus were the first Innumerable force of spirits arm’d."

eminent Pastors, Presbyters, or Bishops, of

Rome, who presided over and edified the JewHe must, liowever, recollect, that ish and Gentile converts."--p.7.

953

Review--A Protestant Historical Catechism.

954

Q. Who was the first Bishop that display- | St. Peter's Church, and maketh the table of ed intolerance and a disposition to persecute the Lord his footstool, and in that position his brethren?

receiveth adoration. Like another Salmoneus “ A. Victor I. Bishop of Rome, who lived (says Newton) he is proud to imitate the state A. D. 192, in excommunicating the Asiatic and thunder of the Almighty; and is styled, churches for refusing to observe the time of and pleased to be styled, our Lord God the keeping Easter, with the western charches; Pope; another God upon earth ; King of the former of which had by council held at kings, and Lord of lords.' The same is the Ephesus, determined to celebrate this festival dominion of God and the Pope. To believe on the 14th day of the Moon, on whatever that our Lord God the Pope might not decree, day of the week this happened: but the as he decreed, it were a matter of heresy. The latter i. e. the Roman and the western power of the Pope is greater than all created churches in general, kept it on the Lord's day power, and extends itself to things celestial, following."-p. 10.

terrestrial, and infernal. The Pope doeth Q. When the Emperor Constantine re- whatsoever he listeth, even things unlawful, nounced paganism in favour of Christianity, and is more than God.”—p. 29. A. D. 312, what were the obvious effects it “Q. What gave rise to the worship of produced ?

Saints ? A. The ten years most severe Dioclesian A. In the early part of the third century, persecution terminated : many churches were the respect paid to the memory of saints and built by Constantine, and endowed, and pagan-martyrs was purely decent and pious; but the ism was forbidden by edict. But the sudden institution of annual festivals to their honour, and pleasing reverse of circumstances into the praying in the coeinetetrises at their sepulwhich the Bishops were brought, became a chres, the translation of their corpse into strong temptation to them to forget their flock, churches, the attributing of miracles to their and to corrupt themselves with a thirst for dead bodies, bones, and other relics ; on the rank and power, and ease, and gold; and by visible decay of vital godliness in the church, the premature admission of an immense num- with the heathen doctrine of demons, disposed ber of pagan Converts into the church, laid the fathers of the fourth and after centuries, the foundation to that, after superstition, and to contribute towards the support of this suprevailing dissolution of manners, which have perstition. since been so just a cause of universal lamen- “Q. Did the worship of Saints lead to any tation.

further result? “ Q. Can you give me an account of Con- “ A. The worship of Images, and impos-' stantine's Donation ?

ture by means of pretended miracles for the “ A. 'Tis probable that this counterfeit purposes of gain, became every where most deed was the work of Pope Stephen, A. D. notorious. 753, on which he successfully argued Pepin's Q. Has the worship of images received grant of the Exarchate of Ravenna. This Do- the sanction of either the Pope or ‘of Counnation became the foundation of Temporal cils ? Papal Empire, as the decretal Epistles which “ A. It was established by the second counwere forged much about the same time, were cil of Nice, A. D. 787, and was introduced into the foundation of its church polity.”—p. 14. England shortly after by the advice of Charles

“ Q. Can ambition be proved against the the Great; the Greek emperor Leo Isaurus, Bishops of Rome?

for the quarrel of image worship, was excom“ A. Beyond a doubt; and nothing less than municated, and his subjects of Italy made to imperious duty can excuse the disclosure revolt from him; the general council of Conthereof.

stantinople, A. D. 869, confirmed the decisions, Q. What were their pretensions before of the council of Nice; and what is still more A. D. 606 ?

remarkable, the second commandment is left A. As St. Peter's successors, they claimed out of their short catechisms and manuals ; and a priority among their brethren in all assem- also from the office of the blessed Virgin, blies; but one of the most essential steps was, printed at Salamanca, A. D. 1588, published the erection of the dignity of Patriarch, which by order of Pope Pius V.”-p. 45. was confirmed in the Nicene council. And Q. What is there peculiarly liable to thus the bierarchy, or government of the objection in the popish doctrine of pargachurch, became modelled according to the tory? constitution of the Roman empire. This being A. As a novelty, it was unknown until the rule, another fundamental principle was about the eighth century; its charity seems admitted to it, that the precedence and autho- excessive and unscriptural, reaching to the rity of Bishops over others, should be deter- relief of undone spirits in perdition; the necesmined by the rank of the cities where they re- sity of the atonement becomes lessened; pracsided. It must, however, be allowed, that tical religion is hereby deprived of one of its the Patriarchs agreed to be upon an equality : most powerful arguments, and a wide door and in the sixth century it continued to be an opened for aniversal licentiousness.”-p.48. article of faith, that the name and idea of an " Q. Upon what occasion were indulgences universal Bishop, was a contradiction, and a instituted ? mark of Antichrist.”-p. 25.

“ A. They were first instituted at the coun“Q. Can you mention an instance or two of cil of Clermont, by Pope Urban II. as a rethe Pope's impiety?

compense for those who went in person upon A. Yes : 'bis sitting in the temple of the glorious enterprize of conquering the Holy God,' plainly implies his having bis seat or Land; and afterwards granted to those who cathedral in the Christian Church ; and at his hired a soldier for that purpose; and in proinauguration, he sitteth upon the high altar in cess of time were given to such as gave money No. 45.-VOL. IV.

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