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for accomplishing ang pious work enjoined by these towering expectations were sethe Pope.

Q. Is it credible that the sacred Roman verely corrected, so that instead of Chancery retains a Tax-book, in which is dis

contemplating tinctly marked the rate of indulgences to com- “ A shoreless ocean rolling round the globe,” mit the most flagitious vice?

“ A. Yes : and duty requires the acknow- we were directed to trace the windings ledgment thereof.

of a neighbouring stream, during its "Q. Was it not Pope Leo X. that drove the greatest traffic in that ridiculous and blas- transient passage from the hills of phemous merchandise ?

Derby to the parent deep. “ A. Yes: and the immense sales of indul- We do not, however, mean to insi. gences which he made under various preten- nuate, that the poem has sunk in our ces, with the greatest scandal to the christian estimation, because we happened to name, by the agency of Tetzel ; the righteous fall into the above mistake. The erroindignation of Europe became roused, and Leo's name immortalized, in producing hereby neous association, produced by an a successful and unexpected excitement to accidental coincidence of names, was wards a general reformation.”-p.50. soon dissolved by the murmuring of

tbe water, which the poet taught us to The passages thus cited, we con-hear, and by the romantic scenery ceive will fully justify our introductory which he invited us to survey; and we ohservations. In the margins of many candidly acknowledge, that with these of his pages, the author has quoted we have been much delighted. But his authorities, unless he refers to confined as this poem is, to isolated facts, the truth of which is universally views, and local description, it is acknowledged. That he espouses the Protestant cause, he openly avows, the varied beauties which decorate its

only by those who are acquainted with and glories in having an opportunity of lifting his voice in favour of the banks, that the Tour of the Dove can

be fully appreciated. doctrines which the reformation incul. cates. Throughout the whole work, such a minute acquaintance with sur

We do not, however, conceive, that the questions which are proposed are rounding objects as might be required uniformly important, and the answers are in general highly satisfactory. If

to accompany the poem through all its all our authors had adopted the plan the following passages intelligible, or

variations, will be necessary to render here pursued by Mr. Walker, the world might have contained fewer to convince the reader that the aubooks, and many of these would be thor knows how to ascend Parnasless in magnitude than they are at present, but the stock of useful infor

“I know thy meadows, Trent, are rich and mation would rather be increased green; than diminished by such a revolu- Thy swelling slopes are gay with lawn and tion.

wood; But couldst thou visit Ilam's sylvan scene, Where grotto, cliff, and groves of various

bud, Review.-The Tour of the Dove, a

O’erhang each rising river's fountain flood, Poem; with Occasional Pieces. By

As cool and crystal-clear it springs to air,

And deeply drinks the light as 'twere lifeJohn Edwards, 8vo. pp. 162. Lon- blood ;-

don: Longman, Hurst, & Co. 1821. It might have seem'd that some enchantThere is something in the title of this Had scoop'd that mountain nook, and pour'd

those river's fair. poem, which, on a superficial glance, would incline the reader to imagine, With them, by Alton Abbey's castle-den, that the author rather intended to pur- The Churnet hither trails her willow locks : sue tbe, flight of a bird, than the mean- 'Twould seem those iron times bad reach'd

this glen, derings of a river. For ourselves, we candidly confess that the ideas sug

When giants play'd at hewing mountain

blocks, gested by it, transported us in an in- So bold and strange the profile of the stant to the Ark and days of Noah, and rocks, in imagination we saw the Dove of Whose hage fantastic figures frown above. that patriarch, hovering over “the

Bat I refrain--for Trent no longer mocks

With cold repulse, but courts with ardent vast abyss,” and awaiting the birth of

love the postdiluvian world. We need not the bright espousals of his own sweet morsay, that on turning to the next page,

muring Dove!

sus.

ment rare

allied:

p. 8.

957
Review Lectures on Physiology.

958 Roll on, bright Pair, in galaxy of light, Review.-- Lectures on Physiology. Through the green meadows tow'rd your

ocean home: My fancy kindles at the flashing sight

( Concluded from col. 772.) of your soft-moving waters, as they come, Reflecting in their depths the clouded dome Mr. Lawrence, from pages 175 to Of that blue heaven to which they seem 181, contrasts the functions of the

brain in man, with those of that organ And oh, ye rivers! from what sacred womb

in other animals; and he states the Of clouds or mountains sprang your fountain result in the following words.

tide, That flows with music light and beauty vivi- "The most striking character of the human fied ?

brain, is the prodigious development of the

cerebral lobes, to which no animal, whatever Wast thou, fair Dove, a stream when Pa- ratio its whole encephalon may bear to its radise

body, affords any parallel.” p. 181. With rivers watered its delightful flow

We would here infer, (if we cau ers ; Before the Peak beheld yon summits rise, rightly comprehend him, for he is not And Dovedale's portal arch high-roof'd with very clear upon this point,) that he

towers? Or when the drowning Deluge pour'd its to depend upon the development of the

supposes the mental powers in man showers Wast thon produc'd? Or later dates thy cerebral lobes. . Uufortunately, howbirth—

ever, for this opinion, they happen to Engender'd where the cavern'd Geyser be the most exposed part of the human lours;

brain; have been oftener injured by And flang in steam condensed through fis- external violence; and great masses

sures forth, The child of fire, apsent to warm and water of their substance have been destroyearth ?"

ed, and lost, without affecting the

reason in the slightest degree: there. The scenes which Mr. Edwards has fore this prodigious development described throughout this poem, are leaves us just as ignorant, with rerather beautiful than sublime. He has spect to the present question, as bedipped his pencil in the variegated fore. Mr. Lawrence felt that his work colourings of nature, and on his poeti- would have been incomplete he had cal landscape has pourtrayed some not attacked the truth of the scripof its richest tints. The notes appen- tures, and his failure in this attempt, ded illustrate many passages, which as it serves to confirm our belief, so it would otherwise remain obscure, and proves the weakuess of the cause he through their assistance the reader is advocates. made acquainted with the local his- • The Mosaic account does not, however, tory of places and objects which pass make it quite clear, that the inhabitants of alí in review before him. His numbers in the world descended from Adam and Eve. general flow with ease and melody; tion of the various writings comprehended in

Moreover, the entire, or even partial, inspirathe language is strong, but not affect the Old Testament, has been, and is doubted ed; intelligible to every reader that by many persons, including learned divines, can appreciate the beauties of his com- and distinguished oriental biblical scholars. position; and corresponding with the The account of the creation, and subsequent ideas which it is calculated to con

events, has the allegorical figurative character

common to eastern compositions; and it is disvey.

tinguished among the cosmogonies by a simple In the minor pieces, the style of grandeur and natural sublimity, as the rest of composition is greatly diversified, and these writings are, by appropriate beauties in the versification assumes a variety of their respective parts, not inferior to those of forms. In some of these pieces there any human compositions.” p. 230. is a considerable degree of playful Now, really, we think the descendhumour, of harmless pleasantry, and ance from Adam and Eve cannot be of captivating wit. From several of more clearly expressed, than where it these, could we find room, we would is told that“ Eve is the mother of all gladly furnish the reader with speci- living.” What other meaning can be mens, especially as the author's senti- ascribed to the passage? There is an ments and productions are in perfect old adage which probably would apply. accordance with those pure morals, to Mr. Lawrence upon many occawhich may be contrasted with the sions, but particularly here,

None filth of Lord Byron, and the miasma so blind as they who will not see.”. of Peter Pindar.

As for the other part of his objection,

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that the scriptures have been doubted “ In the first chapter,” he says, “we by many learned divines; let us take learn God created man, male and feit so, and even then, upon his own male, and this appears to have been principles, the balance will be much previously to the formation Eve." against him. For one who has doubt- With all due submission, we take the ed, one hundred thousand have be- first chapter to be a general account lieved, in the truth of the scriptures; 1 of those circumstances, of which the and yet Mr. Lawrence, upon such subsequent chapters give a more dedata, would have them discredited. tailed and particular history. We His conclusion is at variance with all ask Mr. Lawrence-Would it invalilogical rules of argument, for the date the testimony of a man, that he grounds of probability are in favour should say his wife had two children of the opposite side of the question to at a birth, but afterwards acknowthat which he has adopted.

ledged that they being male and feIn fine, Has the matter been fairly male, the male was born first? Anstated ? Has Mr. Lawrence candidly other formidable objection in the eyes informed his pupils of the facts? He of Mr. Lawrence, is, the representadid not address them thus :—“Gentle- tion of the animals being brought men, a few solitary individuals, men before Adam, in the first instance, to of reason, talents, judgment, and good be named; and subsequently being sense, and among whom I include collected in the Ark together; this myself, have doubted the truth of the he holds to be zoologically imposscriptures; but on the other hand, sible. they have received universal assent;

" But when we extend our survey, to the their truth has been generally acknowledged, during ages of ages, by all rest of the mammalia, we find at all points

abundant proofs, of animals being confined to ranks and classes—from the most particular situations, and being so completely learned to the most illiterate; and, adapted, by their structure and functions, by moreover, they still continue to re- their whole organization, economy, and habits, ceive implicit faith from the great bulk

to the local peculiarities of temperature, soil, of civilized society-from the monarch food, &c. that they cannot subsist where these

are no longer found.” p. 231. on his throne, to the beggar in his hovel — and, notwithstanding occa- Agreeably to the principles upon sional attempts are made to shake which he would support this objection, their credit, and confute their doc- the actual existence of man might be trines, their immediate refutation disproved, being, according to them, gives them additional splendour, and both physiologically and zoologically strengthens the grounds of their truth. impossible. The physiological history Such, gentlemen, are the arguments of man proves, that his existence has pro and con; such are the facts upon a beginning, and we can trace the which I would have you embrace my means by which this end is accomcreed, and assent to my doctrines.” plished-but how did the first man

Such a statement, though it might obtain existence ? how was he pronot have answered Mr. Lawrence's duced ? By the interposition of an expurpose, would yet have had the me- traordinary power,.but this is conrit of candour and honesty. As to the trary to all observation-to all the allegorical figurative character, com- observable phenomena in the history mon to eastern compositions, and of human existence. What would which resemble the scripture writings, Mr. Lawrence say to any one who we can only observe, that his statement would, upon such grounds, deny exis rather too comprehensive for us; istence, either animal or material ? and as Mr. Lawrence has not been so But Mr. Lawrence would have us obliging as to direct our attention par- concede to him, the extraordinary ticularly to them, we have only the exercise of an almighty power, to acalternative to accept the fact upon his count for the production of the first own assertion; and the usual limita- man; nay, not only for that of the tion, that “assertion is no proof,” first man, but also for that of the first must have its full force in this in- of each of those varieties, into whieh stance.

he has thought proper to divide the In a note to this paragraph, Mr. race; and yet he will not grant the Lawrence endeavours to point out an same to have any weight against his inconsistency in the Book of Genesis, 1 zoological impossibility. But after 961

Review-Lectures on Physiology.

962

come

all, for what would he have this con- hood of his doctrines to be a matter of cession ?-that he may thus be enabled great moment in a pathological view, to infer that man's origin is not de- We grant the establishing of the falserived from a first parent-and that the hood as of great importance, so far as Mosaic account of the creation is a respects those diseases, termed menmere fairy tale. But how does Mr. tal : but if this truth were fully provLawrence know that there was that ed, it would lead to the adoption of a variety of season and climate, before practice, which experience has proved the deluge, which now actually exists? to be very often totally inefficient, -2dly. Might not the enmity sown frequently inert, and sometimes injubetween man and savage animals be rious. An appeal to facts will esta. the cause of their present abodes, and blish the truth of these assertions. the consequent peculiarities in their Mr. Lawrence's doctrines would inconstitutions? It is a fact, to be ob- duce us to depend wholly upon active served every day, that as places be- and vigorous medical treatment, in all

more cultivated, and more cases of mental alienation ; but expethickly inhabited, the wild animals rience has shewn, that they, who rely desert them, and seek other babita- upon such a plan, will often be disaptions. There are many ways of recon- pointed; not only in those diseases ciling this anomaly-this zoological which we shall, for distinction sake, impossibility.

term purely mental, but also in many We have now examined the princi- of those deranged organic functions, pal part of Mr. Lawrence's metaphy- which are sometimes the consequence sical opinions, and the arguments he or result of the excessive operations adduces in their support; and we mean of the mind; but surely we shall not to confine our observations to this part henceforward reject the advantages only, as the most interesting to soci- which medical treatment derives from ety in general. We have done our pleasant society, journeys, amusebest to present our readers with the ments, watering places, &c. merely to real state of the arguments, and we revive again old and obsolete hypoleave the further determination upon theses, which have been already ad. this important question to their judg- vanced and confuted, and advanced ment. As a conclusion, however, we and refuted again and again. shall take a cursory view of the conse- We shall now consider these docquences of the doctrines he would trines, with respect to polity and establish,

ethics; and in these points of view, Mr. Lawrence deprecates all ideas the consequences become of the most of sinister motives, and we fully serious moment. According to these acquit him of any such intention : he opinions, in this life consists the sum declares that he has been actuated of human existence; and therefore, only by a love of truth; and indeed all apprehension from transgressing we give him full credit for the best any law, either divine or human, peintentions. We really do not believe rishes in the grave. Then we askhe would willingly misrepresent, that What security has his majesty, or he might wantonly deceive; and we his government, in the oath of alleconsequently regret, that upon such giance? What security does the coroan important question he should have nation oath present to the subject ? been so entirely deserted by his better These ceremonies, instituted with judgment. He qualifies his asser- such views, performed with such sotions, by repeatedly avowing that he lemnity, cannot be defended even as is merely speaking physiologically the follies of matter of form, for they and he only means to say, that “the are actually worse than ridiculous. immaterial soul of man cannot be de- Who is secure from the murderer, tected in the blood and filth of the the robber, the assassin, or the perdissecting room,” we think that would jured? Who is there that will not have been most willingly conceded to assume these characters whenever it him. But if he would assert, that the may promote his objects, or suit bis same proposition can be logically true, purposes? There is no moral responand physiologically false; we reply, sibility-no punishment beyond the that the thing is impossible, and there- grave. It may indeed be said, that fore is not fact. He farther declares, society can punish crimes, and thus the establishing of the truth or false- ! deter from committing them. How many crimes are there, against which | COLOSSAL statue, Erected to COMhuman prudence cannot provide? The MEMORATE THE SPLENDID ACHIEVErich adulterer may destroy the peace MENTS OF ARTHUR, DUKE OF WELof his poorer neighbour, and, by means

LINGTON, of his misapplied wealth, baffle every punishment-all attempts to make him

With an Engraving. responsible. But where is the society to punish? where the individual who There is nothing either new or astois not himself a criminal ? Take away nishing in the simple erection of moall moral responsibility, and man numents to commemorate the exploits instantly sinks below the level of the of heroes, and transmit a nation's brute. Such a state of things cannot gratitude to posterity. These tributes be: it is contrary to the pure dictates of respect, and trophies of victorious of reason and common sense. Who honour, are not confined either to would bear the troubles and disap- creeds or national peculiarities. In pointments, the anxieties and vexa- some form or other they may be found tions of this life, when so easy a re- in every climate, and among all the medy is offered in the grave, when gradations of society, from the rude so effectual a release is presented in barbarian to the polished citizen, who self-destruction. Such are the neces- displays the refinements and elegansary consequences of these opinions. cies of social life. Doctrines which would at once bring Nor has the erection of monuments the noblest on a par with the lowest been confined to any particular age. works of the Creator-which would In following the stream of time, they reduce the master-piece in divine me- may be traced from the most remote chanism—the boast of heaven-the antiquity ; and through every century pride of angels--the glory of provi- we find them scattered on its margin. dence-below the level of the brute. Some periods, indeed, are more thickly

The very consequences—the neces- sown with these silent recorders of sary results of these opinions, are victorious exploits than others, much sufficiently adequate to their refutation. depending on the prevailing taste of Indeed, that such opinions have been the age, and the character of that entertained, is nothing new, and that community, whose deeds of prowess such may continue occasionally to be are to be thus preserved, in these pubentertained, is neither wonderful nor lic archives of national glory. extraordinary. When we reflect that Forming our judgments from the a Berkeley not only doubted the ex- catalogues of works in bronze, and istence, but denied the reality of mat- the various critiques written upon ter; we cannot be surprised that a them, and handed to us by Plutarch, Lawrence should be found, who, be- Pliny, Pausanias, and other writers lieving in its existence, would assign of antiquity, we cannot but conclude to it all the attributes of the divinity. that this art was held in high estima

tion by the Greeks; but at what particular period the casting of statues in

metal began, it is rather difficult to A workman employed in removing the ascertain. In the infancy of this art, foundation of an old house near Mont- the metal was sometimes beaten into pellier, found a glass bottle hermeti- plates of various dimensions, which cally sealed : it was found to contain, were afterwards rivetted together; in an excellent state of preservation, a and occasionally statues were cast in Latin inscription on vellum.-The fol- solid figures; but considerable advanlowing is a translation :-“ Mortal! ces had been made in this latter thou hast found a treasure! Here are branch about four centuries before the placed before thee, FAITH IN CHRIST, Christian era. This art was afterand MODERATION in things terrestrial. wards carried to the highest state of The bottle is neither empty, nor of lit- perfection by Lysippus and his discitle worth, which affords cheerfulness to ples; and so numerous were the the mind, and health to the body. Quaff works produced about this time, ihat off this, and thou shalt imbibe what is notwithstanding the vast quantities more precious than the juice of Faler- transported to Rome in the days of num or Chios. So wrote John Locke, Nero, Pliny asserts, that upwards of Englishman, in the year of our Lord 3000 were to be seen in the island of 1675."

LOCKE.

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