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THE TREAD MILL, LATE!.Y INTRODUCED are also so contrived, that the joint INTO PRISON DISCIPLINE. force of the prisoners is expended, in
giving motion to a regulating fly, (Copied chietly from a Pamphlet, published wbich, by expanding in proportion to by the Committee of the Society for the the power applied, will accommodate Improvement of Prison Discipline. 1822.) itself to any number of men, from
twenty to three hundred and twenty, Tuis dreadful piece of machinery, has, giving to each the same degree of hard ever since its invention, been the ter- labour. ror of all the rogues for whom the The engraving, which is prefised, turnkeys have had the honour of pro- exhibits a gang of culprits, in the act viding lodgings. It is an instrument of working one of these discipline of labour, at which scoundrels trem- mills, as it actually appears in the ble, and honest men rejoice. For the House of Correction, at Brixton, in discovery of this moveable supporter the county of Surrey. The view is of villany, the community are indebt- presumed to bave been taken from a ed to Mr. Cubitt, of Ipswich, whose corner of one of the ten airing yards name will be immortalized by the of the prison, all of which radiate from plaudits of the virtuous, and the exe- the governor's house in the centre, so cration of knaves.
that from the window of his rooni he In several of our public gaols, these commands a complete view of all the treading mills have already been in- yards. troduced, with considerable success. A building behind the tread-wheel T'hat recently erected at Lewes, is shed, is the mill-house, containing the daily effecting a diminution of crime, necessary machinery for grinding corn particularly of vagrancy, throughout and dressing the flour, also rooms for the county ; and, perbaps, the magis- storing it, &c. : on the right side of trates would not think the cost of this building, a pipe passes up to the erection badly bestowed, even though roof, on which is a large cast-iron re, they could not procure a sufficient servoir, capable of holding some thouweight of delinquency to turn the sand gallons of water, for the use of wheel.
the prison. This reservoir is filled by Those which have been fixed in the means of forcing-pump machinery beHouse of Correction, at Coldbath- low, connected with the principal axis fields, are calculated on an extensive which works the machinery of the scale, each being adapted to furnish mill:- this axis, or shaft, passes forty, or a greater number of persons, under the pavement of the several with full employment. These wheels yards, and, working by means of uni
versal joints at every turn, commu- 1 hour of labour. Again, by varying nicates with the tread-wheel of each the number of men upon the wbeel, or class.
the work inside the mill, so as to inThis wheel, which is represented crease or diminish its velocity, the in the centre of the engraving, is ex- degree of hard labour or exercise to actly similar to a common water- the prisoner may also be regulated. wheel; the tread-boards upon its cir- | At Brixton, the diameter of the wheel cumference are, however, of consider- being five feet, and revolving twice able length, so as to allow a sufficient in a minute, the space stepped over standing room for a given number of by each man is 2193 feet, or 731 yards persons upon the wheel. Their weight, per hour. the first moving power of the machine, To provide regular and suitable produces the greatest effect when ap- employment for prisoners sentenced plied upon the circumference of the to hard labour, has been attended with wheel, at or near the level of its axle; considerable difficulty in many parts to secure, therefore, this mechanical of the kingdom : the invention of the advantage, a screen of boards is fixed discipline mill has removed the diffiup in an inclined position above the culty, and it is confidently hoped, that wheel, in order to prevent the prison- as its advantages and effects become ers- from climbing or stepping up better known, the introduction of the higher than the level required, Amill will be universal in houses of hand-rail is seen fixed upon this correction. As a species of prison screen, by holding which they retain labour, it is remarkable for its simtheir upright position upon the revolv- plicity. It requires no previous ining wheel ; the nearest side of which struction ; no taskmaster is necessary is exposed to view in the plate, in to watch over the work of the prisonorder to represent its cylindrical form ers; neither are materials or instrumuch more distinctly than could other- ments put into their hands that are wise have been done. In the original, liable to waste or misapplication, or however, both sides are closely board- subject to wear and tear. The intered up, so that the prisoners have no nal machinery of the mill, being inacaccess to the interior of the wheel, cessible to the prisoners, is placed and all risk of injury whatever is pre- under the management of skilful and vented.
proper persons, one or two at most By means of steps, the gang of pri- being required to attend a process, soners ascend at one end, and when which keeps in steady and constant the requisite number range themselves employment from ten to two hunupon the wheel, it commences its re- dred or more prisoners at one and volution. The effort, then, to every the same time; which can be susindividual, is simply that of ascending pended and renewed as often as the an endless flight of steps, their com- regulations of the prison render it nebined weight acting upon every successary; and wbich imposes equality cessive stepping-board, precisely as a of labour on every individual employstream of water upon the float-boards ed, no one upon the wheel being able, of a water-wheel.
in the least degree, to avoid his proDuring this operation, each prisoner portion. gradually advances from the end at The arrangement of the wheels in which he mounted towards the oppo- the yards, radiating from the goversite end of the wheel, from whence the nor's central residence, places the last man taking his turn descends for prisoners thus employed under very rest (see the plate,) another prisoner good inspection, an object known to immediately mounting, as before, to be of the utmost importance in prison fill up the number required, without management. At the Brixton house stopping the machine. The interval of correction, with the exception of of rest may then be portioned to each the very few confined by the casualman, by regulating the number of ties of sickness or debility, all the prithose required to work the wheel soners are steadily employed under the with the whole number of the gang ;- eye of the governor, during a consithus if twenty out of twenty-four are derable part of the day. obliged to be upon the wheel, it will The classification also of the prisongive to each man intervals of rest, ers according to offences, &c. may be amounting to twelve minutes in every adhered to in the adoption of these dis
DISCOVERY BY CAPTAIN SCORESBY.
cipline wheels ; the same wheel, or the value of, those branches of prison same connected shafts, can be easily regulation wbich provide for the moral made to pass into distinct compart- and religious improvement of the criments, in which the several classes minal. may work in separate parties. In the There is also another admirable prison from which the annexed draw- contrivance, by which the mill is made ing is taken, a tread-wheel is erected to give information, if those who work in each of the six yards, by which it are idle. the inconvenience and risk of remov- “When the machinery of the mill ing a set of prisoners from one part has attained its proper speed, certain of the prison to another is obviated. balls rise by their centrifugal force, so
As the mechanism of these tread as to draw a box below the reach of a mills is not of a complicated nature, bell-handle, which will then cease to the regular employment they afford is ring a bell, placed in some convenient not likely to be frequently suspended situation for the purpose. But should for want of repairs in the machinery; the men at the wheels cease to keep and should the supply of corn, &c. at up the requisite speed in the millany time fall off, it is not necessary work, the balls will descend, and a that the labour of the prisoners should projecting pin on the box, striking the be suspended, nor can they be aware handle, placed in the proper situation of the circumstance: the supply of for that purpose, will continue to ring hard labour may therefore be consi- the bell, till they go on again properly; dered as almost unfailing.
and by this means, a certain check With regard to the expense of these will be kept on the labourers, and the machines, it may be observed, that governor or task-master be apprised, although their original cost may, in even at a distance, that the full work some instances, appear heavy, the is not performed.” subsequent advantage from their adoption, in point of economy, is by no means inconsiderable, and it is derived in a manner which must be most satisfactory to those who have the CAPTAIN William Scoresby, comimportant charge and responsible mander of the Baflin, a large whale control of these public establishments, ship from Liverpool, has long been viz. from the diminution in the num- known to the public as a scientific her of persons committed. Such have navigator, and especially as a gentlebeen the results already experienced man intimately acquainted with variat those prisons, where this species of ous peculiarities belonging to the corrective discipline is enforced. The arctic regions. Of this enterprising saving to the county, (in consequence individual, we gave a correct likeness of the reduction in the number of in the Imperial Magazine for 1821, criminals,) in the public charges for accompanied with a memoir of his their apprehension, committal, con- life, which was inserted in col. 1229, viction, and maintenance, cannot but for the above year. During the sunbe considerable.
mer of 1822, he again visited the It is unnecessary to occupy much Greenland seas, from which voyage he time in proving the advantage which has just returned to Liverpool, with a the invention of the stepping mill cargo of whale blubber, bringing with presents as a species of preventive him some important information, of punishment. Although but very re- which the following paragraph concently introduced, and hitherto but tains the substance : sparingly brought into action, the ef- • The ship Baffin, Captain Scoresby, fects of its discipline have, in every jun. arrived at Liverpool, on Thursinstance, proved eminently useful in day, September 19th, from Greenland, decreasing the number of commit- with 195 tops blubber, the produce of ments. As a corrective punishment, 9 whales. During the intervals of the the discipline of the stepping mill has fishery, Captain S. employed himself had a most salutary effect upon the in making observations on the geoprisoners, which is not likely to be graphy and natural history of the long easily forgotten ; while it is an occu- lost eastern coast of Greenland, which pation which by no means interferes was within sight for three months. with, nor is calculated to lessen the The result, we understand, is a survey of the eastern coast of that almost un- wooden wick, for 160lbs. of candles. Another known country, from lat. 75, N. to 69, great advantage in using the wooden wick is, comprising an extent of coast, reckon that the candle will pot fall in warm weather,
nor will it be so easily affected by the air. ing its numerous indentations, of
On the Existence of Mercury in Sea Water. about 800 miles. Captain S. discovered M. Proust has remarked, that marine salt consome extensive inlets, from the num- tains mercury; he has found it in every kind ber of which he is induced to consider of muriatic acid that he has tried, and also in the whole country a large assemblage of ascertaining the existence of mercury in sea
rock salt. He suggests to navigators a method of islands. He landed on various water, by attaching a plate of gold, of two or parts of the coast, and on each visit to three inches' surface, to some part of the ship, the shore discovered recent traces of so as to be constantly plunged in the water. inhabitants, and obtained fragments Half an ounce of gold laminated, he conceives, of their implements.
would be sufficient for the purpose of ascer
It is important to geography, to know that the form taining if it is amalgamated after a long
voyage. of this land surveyed by Captain S. is Oxygen in Rock-crystal.—Sir H. Davy has extremely unlike whatitis represented ascertained by experiment, that the water in our best charts, and that the error in contained in vesicular cavities in rock-crystal, longitude, in most cases, was not less than in some springs, and that the superincumbent
is impregnated with oxygen, like that observed fifteen degrees. We understand that air is azote. he has made large collections of plants Remarkable Formation of Ice.-While exaand minerals, particularly of geologi- mining some subterraneous excavations in a cal specimens.”
bed of lava, near Niedermendig, M. Pictet of the observations, remarks, and by drop on the floor, or against the sides of
observed, in some places, water falling drop calculations, made by Captain Scores- the cavern. Whenever this happened, there was by, during his visits to these unfre- beneath, a mass of ice, of a certain thickness, quented shores, we hope the public although the temperature of the air never exwill be soon gratified with the details; ceeded 39° 8, and at no time descended to
32°. the particulars of which, we doubt not, will prove not less interesting, communicated to the Royal Society, a process
Damaged Grain.--A scientific gentleman bas than those which he has already com- for sweetening musty corn, by simply immersmunicated with his pen.
ing it in boiling water, and letting it remain till cold. The quantity of water should double that of the corn to be purified. He bas
found that the musty quality rarely penetrates GLEANINGS FROM LITERATURE, through the husk of the wheat, and that in the science, &c.
very worst cases it does not extend beyond the amylaceous matter immediately under the skin.
In the hot water all the decayed or rotten grain Wooden-wick'd Candles. The following is swims on the surface, so that the remaining the result of an experiment made in the use of wheat is efl'ectually cleansed from all impuricandles; one of which was made with a wooden ties, and without any material loss. The wick, and the other in the usual way, with wheat must afterwards be dried, and occasioncotton. The candles were made at the same ally stirred on the kiln, when it will be found time, moulded in the same-sized moulds, ex- improved to a degree scarcely credible, withactly equal in weight, both set on fire at the out actual experiment. same moment, and placed upon the same table. Proper State of Prussic Acid for Medicinal That which was made with a wooden wick Use.--A series of experiments have been unlasted seven hours, the other tive; affording dertaken by a company of associated physiequal light. The size of the candles was cians, surgeons, and naturalists, at Florence, about six to the pound, the wood used was to determine the best state of the bydrocyanic a part of a cypress shingle, and prepared after or prussic acid, for medicinal purposes. The the following manner :
experiments were made with great care, and The wood was split to the size of a rye varied several ways. Different preparations straw, and made round, so that the coat of of the substance were used, rabbits being the cotton which was applied might be more easily animals on which they were tried. Their joint put on by rolling the stick upon a card which opinion is expressed as follows :-"We may contained the cotton, and which had been pre-conclude, from our researches, that the essenviously well carded. The stick was then roll- tial oil of the Prunus lauracerasus is to be preed upon a table, to cause the cotton to adhere ferred, in medical practice, to all other preparaclosely, and then was about the size of a com- tions which contain the hydrocyanic acid ; for, mon quill : it was then placed in the mould, and unlike the distilled water of the plant, and the tallow poured in. The stick most be some pure prussic acid, it contains the same proporwhat longer than the mould, as the candle must tion of the acid, and is of the same power, be drawn with piacers. Agreeably to the whether recently prepared, or old; when made foregoing experiment, a pound of candles will in one place, or another; after exposure to the last forty-two hours, when they would only air, to light, or to heat. We think, also, that last thirty made after the usual way. One the oil of olives, or of almonds, is the most pound of raw cotton is sufficient, with the proper vehicle, in the proportion of an ounce
to 12 drops of essence, or in a smaller dose cated, the use of which is now become very when employed by friction externally." considerable among us, although the invention
Crystallized Gold.-When a solution of gold is of a very recent date. in ether is left for a considerable length of Damp in Walls.-An easy and efficacioas time, the gold is gradually reduced, and depo- way of preventing the effects of damp walls sited in the metallic form, and crystal- upon paper in rooms has lately been used with lized.
success. It consists of lining the wall, or the Intensity of the Magnetic Force in different damp, part of it, with sheet lead, purposely Parts of the World. The following table is the rolled very thin; this is fastened up with small result of Professor Hanstein's laborious ob- copper nails, which, not being subject to rust, servations :
are very durable, and the whole may be immePlaces.
Diff. Intensities. diately covered with paper. The lead is not Pera
0° 0 1.0000 thicker than that which is used in the chests in Mexico
42 10 1.3155 which tea is imported, and is made in sheets, Paris
1.3482 of which the width is about that of common London
70 33 1.4142 paper-hangings. Christiana
72 30 1.4959 Arendahl
72 45 1.4756 Brassa
74 21 1.4941
ANSWER TO A QUERY ON BOOKS. Hare Island
82 49 1.6939 Davis's Straits
83 08 1.6900 Baffin's Bay
84 25 1.6685
MR. EDITOR. Weavers Reeds.-Agentleman of Manchester Sir,- In turning over the pages of has taken oat a patent for a very ingenious your instructive and interesting mismachine for making weavers' reeds, of either cellany, for the month of January, steel or brass. It puts in and finishes no less col. 101, I observe a Query on Books, than 160 dents per minute, and the workmanship is greatly superior to any thing of the kind by Ignoramus; to which I transmit done by hand, particularly in fine reeds, for you the following reply,; and am, every part is mathematically true; added to
Sir, your's respectfully, which, there is a considerable reduction of
E. USHER. price. The patentee is now erecting a large
Grove-House Academy, Tottenham, manufactory. His invention is highly approv
July 14th, 1822. ed of, especially by the silk-weavers.
Oil for Watch and Clock Work.-Good oil has long been a desideratum among.watchmakers.
“What books contain, at the smallCol. Beaufoy remarks, that if olive oil be ex- est expense, the greatest quantity of posed the rays of the sun for a considerable useful knowledge, with which a poor length of time, it becomes colourless, limpid, man ought to be acquainted, in refefree from mucilage, and not easily congealable. rence both to this world and the He exposed two eight-ounce phials, nearly next?” Without staying to inquire, filled with this oil, to the solar beams for one or two years, and found this effect produced. whether Ignoramus is humble and inThe bottles should be opened occasionally, to genuous, or affected and clamorous, in allow the gas to escape, or the cork may be his inquiry, I remark, that, first of taken out. We believe, however, that Oil of all, he ought to seek a thorough acrior to any olive oil whatever, for machinery quaintance with the “Scriptures of of clocks and watches; oil of almonds never truth;” the book received among congealing in the coldest temperature of this Christians as divine, and, by way of country:
eminence, denominated “ The Bible." oi Gas.-Mr. Wilson proposes obtaining The Bible is the best interpreter of this gas in countries where the oil is chiefly the Bible; and the Holy Spirit is, in vegetable, by introducing the seeds themselves into the retorts, much in the manner that coals all cases, an infallible expositor. are used here. Besides saving the expense of “ Search the Scriptures, (said Jesus preparing the oil, it is supposed that the char- Christ,) for in them ye think ye have coal left may be useful and valuable. New Method of weaving Mats. This method eternal life: and they are they which
“ All consists in disposing in a cheap and coarse kind testify of me,” John v. 39. of loom, a double series of plain and coloared scripture is given by inspiration of lines or longitudinal stripes of twine; the God, and is profitable for doctrine, stripes being at intervals considerably apart for reproof, for correction, for instrucfrom each other. These threads of twine being tion in righteousness; that the man of the treddles and harness of the loom, either God may be perfect, throughly furDutch rushes, or the leaves of the Typha latifo- nished unto all good works,” 2 Tim. lia, or Greater Cat’s-tail, torn into shreds, are iii. 16. 17. to be introdaced, from time to time, with a In addition to this, it may be comwooden needle, having an eye or opening at mendable for him attentively to peone end of it to receive the rushes, to form the shoot, and the twine is closed over them by ruse Paley's or Addison's Evidences the continued action of the loom.
In this man- of Christianity; Horne's Plain Reaner a very cheap and useful matting is fabri- sons for being a Christian; Wesley's