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metamorphosed, into a mountain and sat to teach. But who supposes that in these instances "into" is proof of submersion. Cattle generally go down into water to drink, and myriads of children every year go down from the cliffs, take off their boots and stockings, and walk into the sea. To orientals who do not use these articles, and whose feet often need washing, walking into water would be a most agreeable practice.
But did Philip go into the water? Is the language used so exclusively definite as to allow of nothing else? We will again give examples, and then the result of a careful reading of the book of Acts, for the sake of the words in question. And in truth, the case for immersion is altogether one of particles. Those who plunge have nothing so clear to show with reference to mode as the baptism with the Spirit, who was sent down, poured out, and shed forth, on the people. For even if any one wish to press into his service, the expression, "buried by baptism into his death," to say nothing of the strong rhetoric of the phrase, nor of the impossibility of plunging into the form of Christ's death, he must forget the Jewish mode of burial, and remember only the English, before the expression can render him any assistance.
But with pleasure we approach the two prepositions made famous by their connection with Philip and the Eunuch. Having unexpectedly found water by the roadside in the desert, the treasurer of Candace commanded his chariot to stand. "And they both went down "into" (EIS) the water, and he baptised him. And when they came up "out of" (EK) the water, the Spirit caught away Philip.
Eis, like every other Greek preposition, is rendered by a variety of English prepositions. Indeed, to a person who for the first time takes hold of a work in Greek, the particles are almost as puzzling as the inflexions of the verbs.
EIS is frequently rendered on. In the various passages of this nature, "Dost thou believe on the Son of God? "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved," the preposition is, EIS. "They shall look on (EIS) him whom they pierced. "For (EIS) what, or wherefore didst thou doubt." "Here is a lad with five barley loaves, and two small fishes; but what are these among (EIS) so many? These words spake Jesus, and lifted his eyes toward (EIS) heaven." "Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, she fell at (EIS) his feet." "I am not sent but unto (EIS) the lost sheep of the house of Israel." "We all fell to (EIS) the earth."
With reference to EK, we need not select so many examples of variation, for unless EIS carry Philip and the Eunuch "into" the water, EK cannot bring them "out of" it.
"Many good works have I shown you from (EK) my Father." EK NEKRON is a phrase that occurs in the New Testament about
fifty times,* dead," and it is always rendered, "from the dead." Jesus rose from (EK, scarcely out of) the supper." "The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene unto (EIS) the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from (EK) the sepuchre.' Here in one verse
both the prepositions connected with the baptism of the Eunuch are found, and they are translated unto and from. If they had been so rendered in the narrative of that event, the best part of the evidence for immersion would have been wanting.
The Acts of the Apostles consist of twenty-eight chapters. In those chapters EIS is found 283 times. Of those 283 times it is rendered 66 before," once; "by," once; once; "throughout," once; "wherein," once; "concerning," once; "among," twice; " upon, five times; "toward," six times; "on," seven times; "for," nine times; "at," eleven times; "in," seventeen times; "into," eightyseven times; and "TO," with "UNTO," one hundred and twentytwo times. So that there are 122 evidences in the Book in which the narrative is found that Philip and the Eunuch went "to" the water, against 87 that they went "into" the water.
EK, the other preposition, is found in the Acts of the Apostles 89 times, and it is rendered "by," once; "with," three times; "on," five times; out of," eighteen times; and "FROM,” THIRTY times. Here then it is stated thirty times that those famous brethren came "from" the water, against eighteen that they came. "out of " it.
As time† does not permit us to notice other allusions and narratives, we conclude by stating, that we have shown that children were made members when the Church was organised, that the Church has never been reconstructed, and that infant membership has never been abolished; that as when circumcision was the initiatory rite of the Church, children were made members by that rite, so now baptism being the rite of introduction, that children should be declared members by baptism.
We have shown, secondly, that in both Testaments BAPTO sometimes means to sprinkle; we have referred to the diversity of signification connected with BAPTIZO as relating to the washing of hands, of pots, of brass pans, and of couches; as relating to the double sprinkling of the Hebrew nation in the cloud and in the sea; as relating to affusion in the baptism of the early Christians by the Spirit; we have shown that baptism in water is a phrase unknown to the New Testament, that the element was always applied to the people, that much water in the wilderness of Judea would be a very small quantity, and that the much would be necessary for other purposes than baptism; that EIS is generally
Forty-eight times" from the dead," and once "of the dead."
† Only fifty minutes were allowed for the reading of the Essay.
rendered "to," and that EK and APO are almost always rendered "from;" and from all these, and other things which might be alluded to, we have an undoubted right to state that that baptism is valid, irrespective of mode, in connection with which water is used, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
ART. VI. THE NATURE AND NECESSITY OF
I. THE NATURE OF REGENERATION.
"regenerate" is to reproduce, or to produce anew; hence "regeneration" is that mighty change whereby a natural man is made a spiritual or new man; and he that was a child of the devil becomes by grace a child of God. For, as by our natural birth we are made in the likeness of fallen Adam, called the "old man" or the "first man," so by this new or spiritual birth we become new creatures, or "spiritual men," sons of God in Jesus Christ the second Adam.
In treating thus specially of "regeneration," we do not ignore or set aside the other essential parts in the great work included in the comprehensive term salvation; for that important term includes regeneration, pardon, adoption, justification, and sanctification, all of which are requisite to our happiness here and our glorification hereafter. Nor do we set forth regeneration as a separate and distinct work, wrought in the human heart at some undefined period, either anterior or posterior to the parts of this great work: but we consider it both possible and probable for the whole of these different operations to be going on at one and the same time.
1. Regeneration is a spiritual change. As set forth in the New Testament, it is a new creation, a resurrection from a state of spiritual death to a state of spiritual life; placing its subject in an entirely new position and thoroughly changing his mode of existence. It is not merely something done for a man, but is a
* The substance of an address delivered in Portland Place Chapel, Lincoln, on Thursday Evening, September 7th, 1865, before the members of the "Nottingham District Association of Primitive Methodist Ministers."
radical change wrought within him. In this important respect regeneration differs very materially from the pardon and justification of the sinner; these have been done for him, and done far away in the court of heaven, and he is dependent on the Spirit's testimony for his knowledge of their being done. With regeneration it is far otherwise; he is conscious of it; he feels it; the marks and signs are upon him; and he has something to show as evidence thereof.
Not that it is a mere change in a man's physical and outward being, producing a corresponding change in his external habits and conduct, as taught by some theologians. Personal cleanliness, neatness of attire, comfortable dwellings, domestic economy, uprightness of conduct, Sabbath observance, and attendance on religious ordinances, are not regeneration, but may be the consequent fruits of it. The regenerating influence acts upon the inner man, and proceeds through and by it to reduce the outer man to order. But these external reformations, when accompanied by some religious dispositions, must not be taken for regeneration; for it is quite possible for a man to be the subject of strong religious emotion, and under the influence of such emotion to change his manner of life, and yet remain unregenerate and unsaved. He must be "born again," must be created anew in righteousness and true holiness by the power of the Holy Spirit.
2. In regeneration the mind is divinely illluminated. This is entirely the work of the Holy Spirit, although he may employ a variety of agencies, instrumentalities, and means. The entrance of the word giveth light; and hence its public ministration is the usual instrumentality employed for this end. This invests the messenger of truth with great authority, and lays him under solemn responsibilities. But the minister is not the only agent nor the word the only instrument thus employed; all regenerated persons, by their christian and earnest prayers, may be co-workers with the Spirit, and the varied events of a mysterious providence may be sanctified to this end.
But this divine illumination is not direct inspiration, as some have supposed; neither is it the bestowment of new attributes of mind, as others have asserted. If a man be an intellectual dwarf before his regeneration, he will be so after it, for regeneration will not add one cubit to his stature. Or, if a man be uneducated and ignorant before his regeneration, he will remain so after it has taken place, unless he applies himself to mental culture and the acquisition of knowledge; for divine illumination does not supersede the right and vigorous exercise of those mental powers with which he may be endowed. A man must work, and work diligently and continuously, if he means to occupy a dignified position with honour to himself; for mere religious attainment and enjoyment,
however rich and abundant, will never supply the lack of intellectual industry. He may become an enthusiast, or he may become a holy and earnest man, but he will never become a great man. On the other hand, we do not wish to convey the idea that a man must be learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, or possess knowledge to understand all mysteries, in order that he may be wise unto salvation; but what we are anxious to establish is this-that it is through an enlightened understanding the heart is changed, and whilst the intellectual powers are the medium through which the regenerating light is communicated, they continue in their former condition. "For although there have been cases consequent on regeneration, where the varied powers of the mind have improved in a most remarkable, and almost miraculous manner, yet this does not prove that the invigorating of the mental faculties is immediately and directly a part of the regenerating process. It rather proves that these powers were possessed before, but lay dormant through the absence of a proper incentive, and that that incentive was regeneration, with its vigorous life and motive power. Foster has very truly said, 'that religion is a marvellous improver of the sense of uneducated persons, by creating in them a habit of serious thought."" We may also add, that the glorious objects of the christian faith, the sublime imagery of the inspired book, the great realities of the divine life, and the transporting prospects of future glory, have a powerful tendency to whet and invigorate the mind.
The illumination of which we speak as being directly associated with regeneration, is the illumination of the Holy Spirit employing the divine, or other suited instrumentality, and acting on the human understanding, turning the person thus operated upon, from nature's darkness to God's most marvellous light. This act is sometimes spoken of as the removal of a veil, which had both obscured the vision, and excluded the light; but by this removal the power of vision is restored, and the entrance of light unobstructed.
(1.) This divine illumination makes the recipient acquainted with himself. A man's knowledge of himself is all-important, but most difficult to acquire, and can only be acquired by the assistance of this divine agency. The unregenerate man is naturally averse to this branch of knowledge, and it is one of the last lessons which he is willing to learn; but in regeneration a disposition for learning it is created. In this divine crucible he becomes childlike and docile, places himself at the great Teacher's feet, and anxiously waits to hear his voice. As he listens attentively to this gracious teaching his depravity, estrangement, and helplessness, become more and more apparent to him, until he abhors himself in dust and ashes. The ultimate results of his advancement in this knowledge are, a