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UNITED STATES COAST PILOT

ATLANTIC COAST-SECTION C-SANDY HOOK TO CAPE HENRY

GENERAL INFORMATION

The information contained in this volume relates to the coast from Sandy Hook to Cape Henry, including Delaware and Chesapeake Bays and tributaries, and the inside route from New York to Nors: folk, and embraces the coast of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and a part of Virginia.

The general character of the coast is low and saúdy, backed by woods, except in the vicinity of Navesink Highlands, where the land reaches a height of 180 feet (55 m.). The coast of New Jersey is distinguished by the large number of summer resorts, and the coast southward has few landmarks except the lighthouses and Coast Guard stations. The depths along the coast are irregular, there being many outlying sand shoals, and the lead is of little assistance to the navigator.

The coast is broken by two important entrances, Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, having broad and deep channels leading into them, and all of the other entrances are narrow inlets, subject to frequent change in depth and position. Inside the entrances there is generally little natural change in the shore, shoals, and other features, except in the more open parts of Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. The only rocky areas within the limits of this volume are a few scattered spots in Delaware River, in Chesapeake Bay above Patapsco River, and near the heads of the larger tributaries on the western side of 'Chesapeake Bay.

Harbors and ports.—The most important places, either commercially or as harbors of refuge, are Delaware Breakwater, Wilmington, Chester, Philadelphia, Camden, Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Newport News, and Baltimore.

The only anchorage between New York Harbor and Chesapeake Bay entrance available for vessels bound along the coast is Delaware Breakwater, used by vessels of all classes. Small local craft often seek shelter inside the inlets, but they can not be entered in safety during heavy weather, and are often difficult for strangers even in good weather. Hampton Roads is the most important anchorage in the southern part of Chesapeake Bay, though vessels entering the bay for shelter often anchor in Lynnhaven Roads in southerly weather. The principal anchorages in Delware Bay and River are described on page 45, and those in Chesapeake Bay on

page 103.

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Aids to navigation.—The lighthouses, lightships, and other aids to navigation are the principal guides and mark the approaches and channels to the important ports. The buoyage accords with the system adopted in United States waters which is described below. The principal coast lights are described in the text of this volume. Descriptions of all aids to navigation will be found in the following publications of the United States Lighthouse Service.

The Light List, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States (price $0.50), contains complete descriptions of all lighted aids along the coasts mentioned.

Local Light List, Narragansett Bay to Cape May (price $0.20), and Local Light List, Cape May to Cape Lookout, including Delaware and Chesapeake Bays (price $0.30), contain descriptions of all lighted aids, buoys, and daymarks in the sections mentioned.

These publications may be obtained from the Division of Publications, Department of Commerce, and from agents in various ..ports. A list of agents is published in the first notice each month of the Weekly Notice to Mariners.

All lightships and some light stations in the region covered by this volume: are equipped to transmit radio fog signals, and there áre numerous radiocompass stations located along the coast, and particularly in the vicinity of the entrances to the principal ports. (See Radio service, p. 12).

System of buoyage.--In conformity with section 4678 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, the following order is observed in coloring and numbering buoys in United States waters, viz:

In approaching the channel, etc., from seaward, red buoys, with even numbers, will be found on the starboard side.

In approaching the channel, etc., from seaward, black buoys, with odd numbers, will be found on the port side.

Buoys painted with red and black horizontal stripes will be found on obstructions, with channel ways on either side of them, and may be left on either hand in passing in.

Buoys painted with white and black perpendicular stripes will be found in midchannel, and must be passed close-to to avoid dạnger.

All other distinguishing marks to buoys will be in addition to the foregoing and may be employed to mark particular spots.

Perches, with balls, cages, etc., will, when placed on buoys, be at turning points, the color and number indicating on what side they shall be passed.

Nun buoys, properly colored and numbered, are usually placed on the starboard side and can buoys on the port side of channels.

Day beacons (except such as are on the sides of channels, which will be colored like buoys) are constructed and distinguished with special reference to each locality, and particularly in regard to the background upon which they are projected.

Buoys maintained by the United States Army Engineers for dredging purposes are painted white with the top, for a distance of 2 feet, painted dark

green.

Bridge regulations.-Regulations for lighting bridges over navigable waters, also for lights on sheer booms, piers, dams, and similar obstructions to navigation are prescribed by the Department of Commerce. A copy of these regulations will be sent free of charge to any shipmaster, pilot, or bridge owner on application to the Division of Publications, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. The lighthouse superintendents have immediate authority over lighting of structures in their respective districts and are charged with the enforcement of the regulations.

Regulations for the operation of drawbridges are prescribed by the Secretary of War and are included in the War Department publication Rules and Regulations relating to the Navigable Waters of the United States (price $0.50), which may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Extracts from these regulations are given in this volume in connection with descriptions of various localities where the regulations apply.

Fish weirs are numerous along the outside coast and in Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. The stakes often become broken off and form a danger to navigation, especially at night. Regulations limiting the areas within which fish weirs may be established have been prescribed by the Secretary of War, and the supervision of the fishing structures is controlled by the Chief of Engineers, United States Army. Strangers should proceed with caution when crossing areas of possible fish weirs, and should avoid crossing such areas at night, whenever possible. The areas within which fish weirs are allowed along the coast from Cape Henlopen to Cape Charles are described on page 87; further information concerning fish weirs in Chesapeake Bay is given on page 104. As a general rule, fish-trap limits are shown on the charts.

Fishing structures and appliances in navigable waters of the United States shall be lighted for the safety of navigation as follows:

The lights shall be displayed between sunset and sunrise. They shall be placed at each end of the structure excepting where the inner end terminates in such situation that there is no practicable navigation between it and the highwater line of the adjacent coast, in which case no inner light shall be displayed. The outer light shall be white and the inner light shall be red. The size, capacity, and manner of maintenance of the lights shall be such as may be specified in the War Department permit authorizing the erection of the structure or appliance. When several structures or appliances are placed on one line with no navigable passage between them, they will be considered, for lighting purposes, as one structure.

Regulations for passing dredges are prescribed by the Secretary of War for many channels and are given under the descriptions of the channels.

Signals for surveying vessels. The following special signals for surveying vessels of the United States employed in hydrographic surveying have been prescribed :

A surveying vessel of the United States, under way or at anchor in a fairway and employed in hydrographic surveying, may carry where they can best be seen, but in any case well above the running lights prescribed by law for preventing collisions, three lights in a vertical line one over the other and not less than 6 feet apart. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be green, and the middle light shall be white, and they shall be of such a character as to be visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles. In the case of a small vessel the distance between the lights of such private code may be reduced to 3 feet if necessary.

By day such surveying vessel may carry in a vertical line, not less than 6 feet apart, where they can best be seen, three shapes of not

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less than 2 feet in diameter, of which the highest and lowest shall be globular in shape and green in color, and the middle one diamond in shape and white.

Lighthouse tenders when working on buoys in channels or other frequented waters may display a red flag (international signal-code letter B) and a black ball at the fore as a warning to other vessels to slow down in passing.

The wire drags, some of which are over 2 miles long, used by the Coast and Geodetic Survey in sweeping for dangers to navigation, may be crossed by vessels without danger of fouling at any point except between the towing launches and the large buoys near them, where the towline approaches the surface of the water. passing over the drag are requested not to pass close to the towing launch; also to change course so as to cross the drag approximately at right angles, as a diagonal course may cause the propeller to foul the supporting buoys and attached wires.

Supplies.-Coal, fuel oil, gasoline, fresh water, and supplies of all kinds are obtainable at Wilmington, Philadelphia, Norfolk, Newport News, Richmond, Washington, and Baltimore. Coal in limited quantities can also be obtained at the other cities and many of the larger towns. Gasoline, provisions, and water are obtainable at practically all of the towns and villages. Further information is given under the different headings.

Repairs.-Philadelphia, Camden, Wilmington, Chester, Norfolk, Newport News, and Baltimore are the principal places at which exextensive repairs to the hulls and machinery of vessels can be made. Small vessels and motor boats can be hauled out and minor repairs to machinery can be made at many other places, as mentioned under the descriptions of the towns.

The following table lists the largest dry docks and marine railways at the places mentioned:

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Bayhead.
Forked River
Atlantic City.
Cape May Harbor.

Delaware Bay and River
Bivalve..
Dorchester.
Greenwich Piers.
Wilmington

Do..
Chester
Essington.
Camden.

Do..
Philadelphia

Do.
Philadelphia (navy yard).

Cape Henlopen to Cape Charles
Chincoteague.--

Railway.

...do.
---do.

do..
Dry dock.
Floating dock
Railway.

do.
Floating dock

do. RailwayDry dock

120 120 225 344 1 550

120 300 230 250

270 1,011

7 12

9 13 12 40

12 11, 16

12

16 13, 17

43

1,000 4,000 11,000

125 2,000 2,000 3,500 2, 500

1 Length of vessel that can be hauled,

Railway.

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Holidays observed by stevedores.-Holidays observed by stevedores at a number of ports in the region covered by this volume are listed in the following table. As a general rule, Sundays are observed as holidays and, when another holiday falls on Sunday, the following Monday is observed.

Unless otherwise noted, stevedores are not prohibited from working ships on holidays by law, union rules, or other regulations, and it is possible to make arrangements in advance for work on such days. For work on holidays Stevedores usually receive extra pay in accordance with rates fixed by agreement between the labor unions and ship operators.

Holidays observed

Port

Remarks

Jan. 1
| Jan. 19
Feb. 12

Feb. 22
Al Good

Friday
| Thanksgiving Daya

1 May 30
> | Labor Dayı

Election day
| July 4
Oct. 12

Nov. 11
MA | Dec. 25

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Baltimore, Md.

XX Overtime for work on Saturday afternoons.

Only mail and baggage handled on July 4, Labor Day, and Dec. 25 except by spe

cial agreement. Newport News, Va.---XX X--XXX X XX Only mail, baggage, and ships in distress

can be worked on July 4, Labor Day,

and Dec. 25. Norfolk, Va.

XX X XXX X XX Do. Philadelphia, Pa.. x XPXP XXX XPXX Half-day on Saturdays. Work done on

holidays only when extremely necessary.

Sunday work prohibited by law. Trenton, N.J.

No holidays observed. Special arrange

ments necessary for Sunday work. Wilmington, Del X X X XXXX XX X X X Half-day on Saturdays.

1 First Monday in September.
? Last Thursday in November.
X indicates day observed as holiday; XP indicates day observed as partial holiday,

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