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of Germany, extending even to Frankfort, Munich, Dresden, and Leipsig, is entirely in female hands. Madame de Schaden is the proprietor, and the responsible editor of the paper; she has the printing apparatus and offices under her own roof, and though advanced in years, conducts the whole concern with a degree of activity, spirit, and talent, which delighted me. The circulation of this paper amounts to about four thousand; a trifling number compared to our papers, but a large number in this economical country, where the same paper is generally read by fifty or sixty persons at least.

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All travellers agree that benevolence and integrity are the national characteristics of the Germans. Of their honesty I had daily proofs : I do not consider that I was ever imposed upon or overcharged during my journey, except once, and then it was by a Frenchman. Their benevolence is displayed in the treatment of animals, particularly of their horses. It was somewhere between Nuremberg and Hof, that, for the first and only time, I saw a postillion flog his horse unmercifully or at least unreasonably. The Germans very seldom beat their horses: they talk to them, remonstrate, encourage, or upbraid them. I have frequently known a voiturier, or a postillion, go a whole stage-which is seldom less than fifteen English miles—at a very fair pace, without once even raising the whip; and have often witnessed, not without amusement, long coversations between a driver and his steed—the man with his arm thrown over the animal's neck, discoursing in a strange jargon, and the intelligent brute turning his eye on his master with such a responsive expression! In this part of Germany there is a popular verse repeated by the postillions, which may be called the German rule of the road. It is the horse who speaks

Berg auf, ubertrieb mich nicht;
Berg ab, ubereil mich nicht;
Auf ebenen Weg, vershöne mich nicht;
Im Stahl, vergiss mich nicht.

which is, literally,

Up bill, overdrive me not;
Down hill, hurry me not;
On level ground, spare me not;
In the stable, forget me not.

The German postillions form a very numerous and distinct class; they wear a half-military costumema laced or embroidered jacket, across which is invariably slung the bugle-horn, with its parti-coloured cord and tassels : huge jack-boots, and a smart glazed hat, not unfrequently surmounted with a feather (as in Hesse Cassel and Saxe Weimer) complete their appearance. They are in the direct service and pay of the government; they must have an excellent character for fidelity and good conduct before they are engaged, and the slightest failing in duty or punctuality, subjects them to severe punishment; thus they enjoy some degree of respectability as a body, and Marschner thought it not unworthy of his talents to compose a fine piece of music, which he called The Postillion's “Morgen-lied,” or morning song.

I found them generally a good-humoured, honest set of men ; obliging, but not servile or cringing; they are not allowed to smoke without the express leave of the traveller, nor to stop or delay on the road on any pretence whatever. In short, though the burly German postillions do not present the neat compact turnout of an English post-boy, nor the horses any

thing like the speed of “Newman's greys," or the Brighton Age, and though the traveller must now and then submit to arbitrary laws and individual inconvenience; still the travelling regulations all over Germany, more especially in Prussia, are so precise, so admirable, and so strictly enforced, that no where could an unprotected female journey with more complete comfort and security. This I have proved by experience, after having tried every different mode of conveyance in Prussia, Bavaria, Baden, Saxony, and Hesse. My road expenses, for myself and an attendant, seldom exceeded a napoleon a-day.

III.

MEMORANDA AT DRESDEN. *

BEAUTIFUL, stately Dresden! if not the queen, the fine lady of the German cities ! Surrounded with what is most enchanting in nature, and

* The description of Dresden and its environs, in Russel's Tour in Germany, is one of the best written passages in that amusing bookso admirably graphic and faithful, that nothing can be added to it as a description, therefore I have effaced those notes which it has rendered superfluous. It must, however, be remembered by those who refer to Mr. Russel's work, that a revolution bas taken place by which the king, now fallen into absolute dotage, has been removed from the direct administration of the government, and a much more popu• lar and liberal tone prevails in the Estates: the two princes, nephews of the king, whom Mr. Russel mentions as “ persons of whom scarcely any body thinks of speaking at all,” have since made themselves extremely conspicuous ;-Prince Frederic has been declared regent, and is apparently much respected and beloved ; and Prince Jobn has distinguished himself as a speaker in the Assembly of the States, and takes the liberal side on most occasions. A spirit of amelioration is at work in Dresden, as elsewhere, and the ten or twelve

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