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Ropes, Spars, and Sails of a Cutter, Yawl and Schooner.

CUTTER'S SPARS AND ROPES. 1. Lower mast and hoops.

22. Fore halliards. 2. Topmast.

23. Jib sheets. 3. Bowsprit.

24. Fore sheet. 4. Main boom.

25. Bowsprit shrouds. 5. Gaff.

Whiskers. 6. Topsail yard.

27. Jib topsail sheet. 7. Spinnaker boom.

28. Spinnaker boom topping lift. 8. Tiller.

29. Spinnaker boom brace. 9. Shrouds.

30. Maintopmast backstay. 10. Topmast shrouds.

31, Reef Pennant. 11. Crosstrees.

32. Main outhaul. 12. - Peak halliards.

33. Gaff topsail clew line. 13. Throat or Main halliards,

34. Gaff topsail sheet. 14. Boom Topping lift.

35. Jib topsail halliards. 15. Runners and tackles,

36.

Burgee 16. Forestay.

37. Gaff topsail halliards. 17. Topmast stay.

38. Channels. 18. Bobstay.

39. Main sheet. 19. Bobstay fall.

40. Fore sheet. 20. Jib traveller.

41. Spinnaker boom guy. 21. Jib halliards.

42. Ensign.

CUTTER'S SAILS, &c. A. Mainsail.

E, Jib topsail.

| H, Forecastle. B. Foresail. C. Jib. F. The quarter,

I. Stem, Cutwater. D. Gaff topsail. G. Midships.

K. Truck. YAWL'S MIZEN. A. The sail, or mizen. 4. Main yard. 1 8. Mizen halliards. 1. Mast. 5. Stays.

9. Mizen sheet. 2. Bumpkin, 6. Brails.

10. Bumpkin shrouds. 3. Mizen boom. 7. Shrouds.

11. Mizen tack, SCHOONER'S SPARS AND ROPES. 1. Mainmast.

23. Jib sheet, 2. Foremast,

24. Bobstay. 3. Bowsprit.

25. Fore peak halliards. 4. Main boom.

26. Main peak halliards. 5. Maintopmast,

27. Main throat halliards, 6. Foretopmast,

28. Fore throat halliards, 7. Main Gaff.

29. Forestaysail sheet. 8. Fore Gaff.

30, Fore crosstrees. 9. Maintopsail yard.

31. Main crosstrees, 10. Foretopsail yard.

32. Jib halliards, 11. Squaresail boom.

33. Jib traveller. 12. Main toppinglifts.

34. Triatic stay. 13. Squaresail yard lifts.

35. Maintopmast stay. 14. Squaresail yard guys.

36. Main Gaff topsail tack, 15, Squaresail yard brace.

Fore channels. 16. Davit falls.

Main channels. 17. Davits.

39. Tiller, 18. Main shrouds.

40. Main Sheet. 19. Fore shrouds.

41. Reef pennant. 20. Forestay.

42. Reef cringles. 21. Bowsprit shrouds.

43. Maintopsail sheet. 22. Foretopmast stay.

SCHOONER'S SAILS, &c. A. Mainsail. 1 D. Jib.

1 G.) B. Foresail. E. Maintopsail.

H. Reef points. C. Fore staysail.

F. Foretopsail. Note.-In Sails, the lower fore corners are called the tacks, and the after corners the clows; of the sides, the upper part is the head; the lower, the foot; the fore part, the luft;

the after part, the leach.

37. 38.

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Signal Stations have been established at many conspicuous places along the coast of Great Britain and Ireland, and similar stations, as well as Semaphores, have been erected on the coasts of many of the maritime nations of Europe; these stations havi wherever practicable, means of inter-communication by telegraph wires with eacl other, and with the chief Telegraphic Stations of the Continent and Great Britain No other Signals than those of the International Code are recognised.

The Colonies and India also use the International Code to the exclusion of al others.

A homeward bound ship passing another ship should hoist B PW," do you wisl to be reported"; and report the Distinguishing Signals given in reply.

SIGNALS OF DISTRESS.

In the day-time, whether used or displayed together or separately. 1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 2. The International Code signal of distress indicated by NO 3. The distance signal, consisting of a square flag, having either above or below it a ball, or anything rescunbling a ball.

At night, whether used or displayed together or separately. 1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 2. Flames on the ship, (as from a burning tar-barrel, oil-barrel, &c.) 3. Rockets or shells, of any colour or description, fired one at a time at short

intervals. “Any Master of a vessel who uses or displays, or causes or permits any person under his authority to use or display any of the said signals, except in the case of a vessel being in distress, shall be liable to pay compensation for any labour undertaken, risk incurred, or loss sustained in consequence of such signal having been supposed to be a signal of distress, and such coin pensation may, without prejudice to any other remedy, be recovered in the same manner in which salvage is recoverable.”—(Merchant Shipping Act, 1873.)

SIGNALS FOR PILOT.

In the day-time, whether used or displayed together or sepirately. 1. The Jack or other national flag usually worn by merchant ships, liaving round it

a white border one-fifth of the breadth of the flag, to be hoisted at the fore : or 2. The International Code pilotage signal indicated by PT

At night, whether used or displayed together or separately. 1. The Pyrotechnic light, commonly known as a blue light, every fifteen minutes ; or 2. A bright white light flashed or shown at short or frequent intervals just above

the bulwarks, for about a minute at a time. “ Any Master of a vessel who uses or displays, or causes or permits any person under his authority to use or display, any of the said signals for any other purpose than that of summoning a pilot, or uses or causes or permits any person under bis authority to use any other signal for a pilot, shall incur a penalty not exceeding twenty pounds."--(Merchant Shipping Act, 1873.)

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

IN FORE AND AFT SEA MANSHIP.

mm

CUTTER OR YAWL RIG. ! What is a Cutter Rig? 1. One mast, bowsprit fitted to run out and in, and jib set flying; the chief

sails are fore-and-aft mainsail, gaff-topsail, foresail, and jib. b. What is a Sloop Rig? . 1. One mast and fore-and-aft sails like a cutter, but a standing bowsprit ;

the foresail is set on a stay leading to the bowsprit, she sometimes sets

a flying jib on a small jibboom. 2. What is a Yawl or Dandy Rig? L. A fore-and-aft mainsail, gaff topsail, foresail, and jib, are carried as in a

Cutter; in addition there is a small mizenmast stepped in the stern, upon which is set either a lug or spritsail called the mizen, the sheet of which is led to the end of a horizontal spar projecting over the stern; the foot of the mainsail is shorter to allow the boom to traverse clear of the mizenmast. The Dandy is a similar rig, but should strictly have a jib-headed mizen and no boom to the mainsail, that it may be easily

brailed up by a rope passing round it. 2. How many shrouds on a side are usually fitted in these Rigs ? 1. Three or four in large craft, two in small vessels. 8. Any other gear? , 1. Yes, a runner and tackle with pennant on each side abaft the rigging. 2. What are they used for? 1. They act as backstays for the lower mast, and are also used for hoisting a

boat or other heavy weight out or in. 2. To what portion of the hull is the fore stay secured ? 1. To. the stemhead in à Cutter. In a sloop the forestay generally leads

to the end of the bowsprit. 2. Do fore and aft vessels often house and send up their topmasts ? 1. Yes; and for this purpose a mast or heel rope is kept rove in readiness. 2. What precautions are generally taken to prevent the mast from falling

when housed, in addition to keeping the mast-rope rove? The bight of a rope (about two or three fathoms long, with an eye spliced

in each end) is seized on to an eye bolt, on the heel of the topmast; the ends of the rope are seized on to the foremast shroud of the rigging, one on each side, so that when the mast is housed, the legs form an angle of about 45° with the heel of the topmast. This is generally a fixture, sufficient drift being allowed for the mast to be housed or sent aloft, without taking the scizings off, a lashing round the heel of topmast and lower mast dues just as well.

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Q. How is a Cutter's topmast rigging fitted ?
A. It is cut short so that it can be set up when the topmast is lowered withor

putting a sheepshank in it. Q. Describe it. A. It is led from the topmast head through a score in the outer arm of th

cross trees, kelow which, and in the end, a thimble is spliced. Froi this to the channels of the rigging it is set up with a tackle. Shoi lengths, called legs, fitted with clip-hooks, or shackles are used to giv

the required length when the topmast is sent aloft.
Q. How is the bowsprit supported ?
A. By means of a bobstay and shrouds,

How are they fitted ? '
With two single blocks, or a runner and tackle (the latter in a large vessel

Shrouds have the tackle on the inner end; bobstay, the tackle on th
outer end, with a line on the bight to trice it up with when required
The standing part of a bobstay is generally chain, that of the shroud

wire rope.

How would you reef a Cutter's bowsprit ? A. Slack up all the gear. Reeve a heel rope and heave taut upon it, and tak

out the fid. Slack the bowsprit in to the second or third fid hole, a required, ship the fid, and then set up the gear. Some vessels are fitter with a rack and pinion wheel, with a handle similar to that of a winch

for reefing the bowsprit. Q. What are whiskers ?

Two iron rods placed on each side of the stem to extend the spread of

the bowsprit shrouds in sharp bowed vessels. Q. How are the topping lifts fitted ?

Single or double from the masthead to the boom end (in small vessels).]
Describe them.
The standing part is hooked on to the boom and led through a block on

thé cap at the masthead, from thence on deck, and there set up with
runner and tackle. Double ones are fitted with the standing part on
the cap, and led thence through a single block at the boom end and back
to a block at the cap, thence to the deck. In large Cutters a single one
is fitted on each side of the boom, and rove through a block under the
eyes of the rigging.. The lee one is overhauled slack, or unhooked, to

keep the chafe off the sail when set. Q. How are the peak halliards rove? A. Through two blocks on the gaff, and three at the masthead. The standing

part has a tackle on it with about 3 to 4 fathoms drift between the blocks when overhauled, which tackle is hooked on to an eye bolt abaf the rigging and called the peak purchase. The hauling part is led from

the lower block at the masthead to the deck. How is the peak line rove, and what is it used for? As a single whip through a small block at the gaff end. Used for hoisting

the ensign or signals, and for hauling the gaff down. How is the luff of the mainsail bent? Bent on to hoops round the mast, or with hanks from the throat down to

the third rcef, from thence there is sometimes a lacing. Q. Why?

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