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To trice the tack up, or take the reefs in with greater facility, by slacking

up the lacing or unreeving it. . How is the tack tricing line fitted? A single block on the tack of the sail, a single block and the standing part

under the jaws of the gaff; from thence it leads on deck. ! How are the reef pennants of the mainsail fitted ?

With a wall knot or Matthew Walker on one end.
How are they rove?
From down up, through the cleat on one side of the boom, through the

corresponding reef cringle on the after part of the sail, and down through

the sheave on the other side of the boom. How is the foresail fitted ? With hanks on (or by a lacing to the fore stay. The halliards have two

single blocks with clip hooks for hooking into the thimble in the head of the sail. The sheet sometimes travels on an iron rod or horse across the deck. A bowline bridle on the after leach or leech, with a line to the foremost shroud is used to keep the sail to windward when

necessary. ? How are the jib halliards or halyards rove? 1. Through two single blocks with a purchase on the standing part same as

the peak halliards. How would you set a jib? 1. Hook on the halliards to the head of the sail, the tack to the traveller,

shackle on and belay the sheets slack, then haul the tack chock out, hoist away on the halliards, and haul aft the sheet. (Set on the lee side

of the foresail.) 2. How is the gaff topsail sheet rove? 1. From the deck through a block under the jaws of the gaff, from thence

through a sheave or a block at the gaff end. 2. How would you take a gaff topsail in? 1. Lower the balliards, and haul on the downhaul, until the head of the sail

is down to the cap of the masthead, hold on the halliards, let go the sheet, and trip up. When the sail is clewed up, let go the halliards, and haul it down by the tack and downhaul. Always take it in to leeward of the mainsail if possible because there is less chance of its

jambing. b. How is the gaff topsail downhaul fitted ? 1. The standing part on the clew of the sail, and through a single block on

the head of the sail (if it is jib headed); if set with a yard on the head,

the block is on the inner yardarm. b. How is the square sail yard fitted in a Cutter or Sloop? l. In modern vessels, see next question. The old fashioned way was with a

strop and thimble on the midship part of the yard, this travelled on a wire rope jumper, set up from the masthead, to the deck, at the fore side of the mast. The yard was usually carried up and down the mast when not in use. When in use, it is squared by lifts from the lower

masthead, and by braces leading aft. 5. How would you set a squaresail? Lower the foresail down, hoist up and square the yard, bend on the yard

arm whips to the earings, and the foresail halliards to the middle of the FORE AND AFT SEAMANSHIP.

head of the sail, hitch the lizard on the jumper to the midship halliards, hoist up and trim. A downhaul is bent on to each halliard. In modern yachts the sail is sometimes bent to the yard which is hoisted

by the fore halliard, lifts being dispensed with. How would you take it in? Keep the tack and sheet fast. Slack off and haul down outer halliards as

low as possible. Then let go midship halliards, haul on the downhauls, and gather in the sail. In the case of a flying squaresail, as it is called, simply lower the yard down and gather in the sail to leeward of the

mainsail. Q. How would you reef a mainsail?

Lower throat and peak halliards sufficiently to take in the reef required,

hook on reef tackle to reef pennant, and bowse the reef cringle down on to the boom, pass the tack earing, tie the reef points, and reset the sail,

hoisting throat taut up before the peak. Q. How would you take in the balance reef, the third and fourth reef

being in? , A. Ease the peak sufficiently to allow the jaws of the gaff to come close down;

when down pass throat earing, and hook on tack tackle, reeve the points,

tie them, and set up the peak halliards.
Suppose your mainsail has no balance reef.?
Then lower the jaws of the gaff as aforesaid and lash the leach of the sail

round the boom.
Q. What is scandalizing the mainsail ?
A. Tricing the tack up, and lowering or dropping the peak.
Q. Where does the boom guy lead to when running before the wind ?

Outside the rigging, and in board, to the fore part of the bowsprit bitts. Q. What is a jib topsail, and how is it set?

A light sail set from the bowsprit end to the topmast head. Sometimes

it is bent on hanks to the topmast stay. Q. What is a balloon jib? A. A large jib of light make, used only in light winds for going free; it

extends from the bowsprit end to the main rigging. Q. What is a spitfire jib?

A very small jib, of No. 1 canvas, for stormy weather.
How would you shift jibs in a gale of wind ?
Get the sail up from below, lay it along the weather side of the foredeck

with the head aft. Then haul the foresheet to windward, round in on
the mainsheet, trice up the tack and becket the helm. Let go the jib
outhaul, sing out to stand by ! and the sail will fly in along the
bowsprit, muzzle it, let go the halliards, and haul down. Bend on the
sheets to the spitfire jib, hook the tack on the traveller, and the halliards
to the head, pass a couple of rope yarns round the head of the sail.
Haul out the traveller to its proper place; belay the outhaul, make fast
both sheets slack, hoist up, let draw foresheet and trim aft your jib

sheet. Q. What are the rope yarns round the head of the sail for ? A. In order that the sail may be snug while being roused out on the bow

sprit. Directly the sail is hoisted the rope yarns part. Q. What canvas would you reach under, in a gale, with heavy sea ?

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A.

4. Trysail, double reefed foresail, and storm jib.
R. What canvas would you heave to with, heavy gale and sea ?

Trysail and storm jib, topmast on deck,
Q. How would you get under weigh?
A. Heave short, loose sails, hoist the mainsail, trice the tack up, and overhaul

the main sheet. Heave the anchor up, when off the ground run the foresail up, with sheet to windward, helm down, boom well in; as soon as the anchor was up, let draw fore sheet, shift the helm, haul in the main

sheet, set the jib, and down tack of the mainsail. Q. How would you tack? A. Ease down helm ; as soon as she comes head to wind slack off jib sheet.

As soon as the jib fills on the other tack, let draw the fore sheet and

haul aft jib sheet, and trim sail. Q. How would you wear round? A. Up with the helm, trice up the tack and ease down the peak and throat.

When before the wind, shift over the mainboom, get the head sheets over,

and as she rounds to, down tack of mainsai!. Q. You are running before the wind, and wish to gybe, what precautions should

you take ? A. Gybing in a fore and aft vessel requires great care, otherwise it is

dangerous, (the manœuvre is the same in both classes of vessels) the chances are that the main boom may be sprung, or the sail split, when the boom is brought up with a jerk, after going over. In a light breeze and smooth water it may be done with a whole mainsail set, but in a strong breeze in a sea-way it requires preparation and care. The first thing is to reduce the power of the mainsail; this is readily done by tricing up the tack of the mainsail, first topping the boom well up, and easing down the peak and throat ; quarter the wind (if running with it aft) and haul in the main sheet, unhook the guy before putting the helm up, and gather in quickly as much of the sheet as possible, while the vessel is paying off and the boom is going over. When you have brought the wind on the other quarter, hook on your guy, slack off the

main sheet, trim and make sail. . Q. Suppose your masthead broke off just above the eyes of the rigging, and

carried away your peak halliards and its blocks, how would you set your

mainsail? A. With three reefs, and hoist the peak of the gaff with the lee boom topping

lift or unbend the sail from the gaff, take an Irishman’s reef in (that

is, tie up) head of the sail, and hoist up with the throat halliards. Q. Your lee boom topping lift is broken, or carried away? A. I would rig a span from the jaws to the end of the gaff, hook the throat

halliards on to the middle of the span, and hoist the gaff with it. 2. Your bowsprit is carried away near the gammon iron ? A. Luff-up and heave-to by putting down the helm, and haul fore-sheet to

windward. Trice up the tack of the mainsail, top the boom well up, and haul in the main sheet; parbuckle bowsprit alongside to leeward, that is, get a rope round each end of the broken spar, with one part made fast in board, and hauling on them roll the spar in board ; secure the jib and gear, take the shroud iron off the end, unreeve the inner stump of the bowsprit from the bitts. Reeve the long or oater end of the bowsprit through the bitts and gammon iron, put on the traveller and shroud-iron, sheepshank shrouds and bobstay, run out the bowsprit, lash the heel to the bitts, keeping the sheave in the outer end fair up and down. Set up shrouds, bobstay and topmast stay.

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Set a small jib, put the helm up, trim and make sail. Q. Fore stay is carried away. What would you do?

Put the helm down. Trice up the tack and ease down throat and peak

halliards ; down foresail, hook the balliards on to the stem head, haul them taut; send a hand aloft to place a strop round the masthead just over the collar of the forestay, hook on a good double block, and reeve a luff tackle of sufficient length to reach to the stem head, hook on ; sway away until the strain is taken off the fore halliards, belay securely

and jog on to the nearest port. Your bowsprit shroud is carried away. What would you do? In a strong breeze put the helm down and keep her easy to the wind. Ease

in the jib halfway, hoist it well up, and trim the sheet (or bend a smaller jib) after securing the shroud with a shroud knot if it was rope,-if it was chain, and no shackle at hand, reef knot it,-stop the ends, set up

the gear, trim and make sail. How would you anchor on a wind ? A. Trice up the tack of the mainsail, take in the jib, slack and trice up the

bobstay, put the helm down, when she comes up head to wind, meet her with the helm, let the foresail run down, keep her head to wind until she loses headway, then let go the anchor, and pay out chain. When she

is brought up, lower the mainsail, and furl sail. How would you anchor when running? Haul the head sails down, slack and trice up bobstay, trice up the tack of

the mainsail and drop throat and peak, put the helm down, haul in the main sheet amidships; when she comes head to wind, keep her so with the helm, until she loses headway. Let go the anchor, pay out chain, lower

the mainsail, and furl sails. Q. You are on a wind; heave to so as to allow a boat to come up alongside;

smooth water, light wind ? A. Trice tack of mainsail up, haul in mainsheet, and lay both and jib fore sheets

a-weather. Q. Suppose you were in a strong breeze? A. Ease off jib sheet, haul foresheet a-weather, and stand by with a line for the

boat. Q. You are close hauled on port tack, and a man falls overboard, what do

you do? A. Throw the yacht in the wind, throw.overboard a life-buoy, grating, oars,

or anything that is at hand. By this time the yacht will be on the other

tack, and standing towards the man.

You are running in a strong breeze, when a man falls overboard ?
A. Haul in mainsheet, up main tack, round to and get the boat in the water.

You spoke just now of a shroud knot. How is it made ?
It is generally used to repair a broken or stranded shroud, and is made byl

taking the two severed ends, unlaying them the same as for a short
splice. Place them together closely, take the outside strand of the
lower part, and pass it round the upper part in a loop; take the next

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lower strand, pass it under and up through the bight of the firstnamed strand, then take the end of the next lower strand, pass it round the end of the first strand, outside of the second strand, and up through the bight of the first strand, draw band taut, and do the same with the other part. Draw the strands taut as possible, marl and serve the end

of the strands on each side, and set up your shroud again. Q. Do the above manæuvres apply to a yawl as well as a cutter? 4. Yes, with two or three exceptions. For instance, in a yawl, when gybing

or going about, the mizen stays (when carried) have to be attended to. Lee one slacked off and weather one hauled taut whilst in stays. The mizen sbeet works itself, except when requiring to be eased off or hauled in. In a yawl the mizen will be found of great service in keeping the vessel's head to the sea whilst getting the storm trysail on her, also a yawl can be got under weigh with her mizen and jib alone. This rig is very useful for cruising and fishing, as it does away with the necessity of carrying a heavy main boom, but it will never supersede the cutter rig, which is the more elegant of the two, and the cutter will always be the smarter vessel.

SCHOONER RIG.

bowsprit,

Q. What is a Fore-and-Aft Schooner Rig?
A. That of a Schooner without a square topsail, in place of which she sets &

fore gaff-topsail. Small ones, and most racing craft, have a Cutter's

bowsprit, to run out or in. Q. What is a Topsail Schooner Rig ? A. A fore-and-aft mainsail and gaff-topsail upon the mainmast; gaff foresail,

and staysail set on the fore stay and one or two jibs, square topsail and

top gallant sail on the foremast, and with a standing bowsprit. Q. Where is the fore stay usually set up? A. Generally to a bull's-eye in an iron band on the bowsprit, just inside or

outside the stem, unless the vessel has a running bowsprit, when it is

fitted to the stemhead. Q. How is the mainmast stayed ? A. With a triatic stay. That is a stout stay from one lower masthead to

the other. Q. Are any other stays used for this mast? 4. Yes, in large Schooners, a double stay, set up with a runner and tackle,

to eye-bolts near the waterways, one on each side, about the after part of the fore rigging. In harbour, both are set up. When under weigh,

the lee one is let go, to be clear of the foresail. Q. How are the peak halliards of the mainsail rove? A. Through three single blocks on the masthead, and two on the gaff. The

hauling part on one side on deck, and the standing part on the other,

the latter being fitted with a gun-tackle purchase. Q. How are they used when setting the mainsail ? A. Hoisted taut with the hauling, and then set up with the standing part. Q. How is the outer end, or clew of mainsail secured ? 4. Generally shackled on to a traveller, with about three fect drift, to slack

up, when the sail shrinks with wet.

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