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Q. How are the tack tricing lines fitted ?
A. With a gun-tackle purchase ; a single block on the tack of the sail, and one

underneath the jaws of the gaff; from this the hauling part leads on deck. Q. How are vangs fitted ? A. With pennants or blocks on the gaff. With the first, a gun tackle purchase;

with the second, single whips. Vangs are now seldom used in yachts.

How are boom topping lifts usually fitted ? A. In small vessels from the boom end to the mainmast head leading on deck.

Single block on boom end, the standing part and single block at masthead. In large vessels they are fitted one on each side; they are hooked on to the main boom, balf way between the sheet block and the reet chocks. They then lead through blocks on the cheek of the mast (under the eyes of the rigging) on to the deck, where they are set up with a

runner and tackle.
Q. Where is the reef tackle of the mainsail usually kept?
A. It is hooked on to eye-bolts under the mainboom.

How are the reef pennants fitted ? :.
One end is a Matthew Walker, or double wall knot, and it is then rove

through an eye-bolt or bee block, on one side of the boom, then through
the cringle on the after leech of the sail, and down through a chock or
bee block (which has a sheave in it) on the other side of the boom.

This end is made fast to the tackle when reefing. Q. What is generally used for reef pennants ? A. Manilla rope. ; Q. Where is the storm trysail gaff usually carried ? A. On the top of the mainboom, in chocks or beds, in large vessels. Q. Proceed to get under weigh, and cast to starboard. A. Heave short. Set foresail and mainsail, taking care to lead the gaff

between the topping lifts. Trice the tacks up. Loose the head sails, and then heave up the anchor. When the anchor is off the ground, run the jib up. (Starboard the helm.) When the anchor is 'up, cast loose your square topsail, if you have one, down tai ks and make sail;

shifting the helm as soon as the topsail is filled. How would you put the vessel about, or tack? See the ropes clear fore and aft. Mainstays (when fitted) clear, the lee

one ready for setting up, when she comes head to wind, and the other for letting go. Put the helm down, haul in the main sheet, ease off jib sheets. When head to wind, haul over head sheets, keeping the forestaysail to windward, to help to box off. As soon as she is sufficiently off fill the square topsail, let draw the fore-staysail, and trim sails. Shift

gaff topsail tack and main tack tackle over to windward. How would you wear the vessel round ? . Trip up, or haul down the gaff topsail, haul up the tack of the maidsail.

Ease up the peak, and throat halliards if needful, ease off the main sheet, and put the helm up. As she pays off, round in the weather braces, and baul in the slack of main sheet. As she comes round, shift the main boom over, brace up the yards, hoist the peak of mainsail, down

main tack, trim sails and set gaff topsail. Q. Suppose your weather boom topping list broke while you were close hauled

what would you do?

A.

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Haul taut the lee one until the other was spliced. 2. The lee one was unhooked to prevent chafe?

In that case I would ease off the gaff topsail sheet, also the throat and

peak halliards, to lower the boom on to the rail, secure it there till the lee one was shifted over to windward. Hook it on, and trim mainsail.

Splice the broken one, and send it aloft for a lee one. 2. Being on a wind, proceed to trim sail so as to keep the wind nearly dead

aft, say about a point on the quarter. 1. Hook on the guy pennant to the main boom, and pass it outside of the lee

main rigging, bring the end inboard to the lee waist, hook on the guy tackle from the windlass bitts ; trice up the tack of the mainsail; put the helm up, check the yards, ease off main sheet, and take in the slack of boom guy tackle; haul flying jib down, and ease away foresail and

fore-staysail sheets.

How would you set the square sail? 4. Haul down the fore-staysail. 2. Why? A. Because the sail would not draw, and the halliards are wanted for the

midship halliards of the square sail. 2. Proceed. . A. Hook on the yard whips to the head cringles, and the fore-staysail halliards

to the middle of the head, hoist up and trim, having a downhaul to each

halliard. Q. Describe how yard arm whips are fitted. A. The standing part of whip and a single block on the yard arm, a hook block

on the sail. The whip leads from the yard arm to a block on the yard

truss, or to the lower masthead. From thence on deck. Q. How would you take in the squaresail, supposing it was blowing a strong

and increasing breeze? A. Slack away the yard arm whips, hauling in on the downhauls, when they are

down as low as possible, slack away the midship halliards, and gather in

the sail. (Tack and sheet to be kept fast till the sail is down.) Q. What is to prevent the head of the sail blowing away from you when you

let go the midship halliards? 4. The lizard, which is bent on to the middle of the head of sail, before

hoisting it up. Q. Describe this. A. A thimble with a rope tail ; this travels on the topsail sheet in light winds,

or on a wire rope jumper, from the masthead to the deck. A downhaul

is usually bent on to it. Q. How would you reef the square topsail? A. Lower the yard down. Trim with the braces to keep the sail on the lift.

Haul out reef tackles, haul taut buntlines and clewlines. Send men

aloft to reef. Q. With a reef in, and the sail set, how would you shake it out? A. Lower the yard down, haul the braces taut, haul out the reef tackles, let go

the reef points, ease off the earings, overhaul the gear, especially your reef tackles, before coming down from aloft, hoist the yard up, and trim

with the braces. Q. How would you reef the mainsail?

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A. Haul the boom well in, hook the tackle on to the reef pennant. Lower

the throat and peak halliards sufficiently to take in the reef, haul on the reef tackle till the cringle on the after leach of the sail is down on the boom. Pass the tack earing. Tie the reef points. Hoist up throat and peak, and trim sail. Take in the slack of the vangs (if any) and

peak line. 2. You are running with the wind on the port quarter, moderate wind, smooth

water. The man at the helm lets her run off so as to bring the wind on

the starboard quarter; what would you do? A. Hard-a-starboard the helm, ease down the throat, aud peak halliards, and

trice the tack of the mainsail up. When she has come back, hoist up

the peak and down with the tack. Q. Suppose this happened in a strong breeze, what danger would you appre

hend, supposing your guy pennant had broken? A. That the bight of the boom sheet, as the boom was going over might sweep

everything off the deck that it came in contact with. The sudden jerk also might spring the boom, carry away the main sheet, or split the

sail.

What is meant by the term goose wing? A. Running with the gaff foresail guyed out on one side, and the mainsail on

the other. Where do the guys lead ? Main one between the fore and main rigging to the windlass bitts, and the

Fore one through a block at the bowsprit end. Sometimes the fore guy

is led to the catheads. Q. Suppose you were running in a gale, with the wind dead aft, what canvas

would you carry ? Close reefed square topsail. Having the storm trysail and fore staysail

reefed and ready for setting when required. Q. Your topsail blows away, and the vessel will not keep ahead of the sea.

What would you do?
Down helm, and heave to under the storm trysail, and storm fore staysail

with sheet a-weather.
On what occasion would you set your storm trysail in preference to a close

reefed mainsail ? A. When it was likely that I should be compelled to heave to, or when the

sea was getting heavy. Q. Why in the latter case ?

To take the weight of the main boom off the vessel. I would secure

main boom in the crutch or on the rail before setting the storm trysail.

Describe a storm trysail. A. It is made of No. 1 canvas (roped in proportion) either with a jib head or

with three cloths in the head ; if the latter, it is bent on to a short
gaff, and hoisted up as far as the throat halliards of the main gaff will
take it. The clew is hauled aft by a luff tackle on deck. The luff of the
sail is either laced round the mast or fitted with rope beckets, on which

travelling trucks are rove.
Why is it made to hoist so high?
To catch the wind in a heavy sea.
How would you gybe it if you were taken aback?

ther

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1. By the weather tackle, which is hooked on over the main boom, and gaff.

The peak halliards of the latter, and the topping lifts of the former being unhooked, and taken into the mast, to be out of the way of the

storm trysail. 2. You are in a gale, no storm trysail on board. What canvas would you

heave to under? 4. A balance reefed mainsail, or a jib abaft the mast. 2. Describe a balance reef. A. It is used after the third or close reef has been taken in. The eyelet-holes

for the reef-points extend from the close reef cringle on the after leach up to the throat earing (in small vessels), but in large vessels from the cringle in the after leach to about two or three feet below the throat earing, and on to the luff of the sail, where a cringle is worked in to

hook on the tack tackle. Q. How would you take in a balance reef, close reef being in? A. Ease the peak halliards to take the strain off the after leach, lower the

jaws of the gaff down by the throat halliards. Hook on the tack tackle to the cringle on the luff of the sail, reeve the points, tie them, set up

throat and peak halliards, shorten vangs if any and peak line. Q. Under sail on a wind with a jump of a sea, what precautions would you

take to prevent the main boom from jerking up and down? A. A guy for this purpose is usually put on the boom, just inside of the main

sheet, and led to the main rigging. It is usually called a lazy guy. Q. Describe it, and how it is put on? A. A stout rope (about three fathoms) with a thimble in one end ; this is

clove hitched round the boom, leaving the thimble about a foot below the boom. The bight of the rope is then put under a cleat or chock, and the end rove through the thimble and belayed. It can be let go and

cleared in a moment. Q. You lose your bowsprit; it breaks off outside of gammoning; you are on

a wind. What would you do? A. Shorten sail, clear away the wreck, and secure the head stays to the stump

of the bowsprit. Q. You are running in the Atlantic to the eastward, under a three-reefed

mainsail, close reefed forestaysail, and double reefed foresail. The
wind at South West, with heavy sea and rain. Your foremast carries
away about six feet above the deck, taking the forestaysail and fore-
sail with it. The triatic stay had broken the head of the mainmast
off above the eyes of the rigging, when the foremast fell and also broke
the peak halliards of the mainsail, which caused the peak of the main

gaff to drop. What would you do?
Port the helm, round to on the starboard tack, and clear away the wreck.
Why on the starboard tack ?
Because it would prevent gybing, and as the wind might draw round to the

westward, the vessel would come up and head the sea. Q. What would you do next?

Balance reef the mainsail, and lie to till the weather moderated, attending

to the pumps during the interval. Q. How would you hoist the peak of your main gaff with a balance reef in,

the masthead and peak halliards having carried away above the rigging ?

A.

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A. Hoist the peak of the gaff up with the lee boom topping lift, or unbend

the sail from the gaff, take an Irish reef in it, and hoist it by the throat

halliards. Q. The foremast being gone, she will not lie to with a balance reefed mainsail.

What would you do?
A. Lower it down, and try her under a small jib abaft the mast.

What would you do when it moderated ?
A. Take the main boom and rig it for a foremast, and after it was secured to

the stump of the old mast I would take the storm main trysail and gaff

and rig and set it as a fore trysail.
Q. How would you set your mainsail without a boom?
A. Treble reefed, with a luff tackle for a sheet.
Q. How would you proceed to ship your main boom as a foremast?

Unship the boom from mainmast. Get the jaws of the boom against the

stump of foremast on the deck. Lift the after end of the boom, with one of the boom topping lifts, high enough for a tackle from the bowsprit to bowse it perpendicularly, having a guy on each side to keep the head of the boom amidships. I would clove hitch a warp over the upper end of the boom for two stays before hoisting the boom up. For shrouds I would use the two main boom topping lifts, one on each side, which are fitted with a runner and tackle. When perpendicular, lash and wedge

the heel of the boom to the stump of foremast. Q. How would you anchor in the Downs, wind at S.W., tide setting North

East, and you were running in from the southward ? A. Shorten sail to forestaysail and scandalized mainsail. Starboard the

helm, haul down forestaysail, haul in the main sheet, and round to to leeward of Deal Bank Buoy. When head to wind, keep her so till she has lost headway. Down anchor and pay out chain. Lower the mainsail

and furl sails.

How would you moor? A. Bring up with best bower anchor, slack away chain (say about sixty

fathoms), and if the vessel would not drift to a position suitable for letting go the second anchor, send out a kedge anchor with a warp, and warp her to it. Let go the second anchor, slack away the chain, heaving in the best bower chain at the same time, until I had equal

lengths out on both cables. Q. How would you proceed to unmoor? A. Slack away on the weather cable, heave up the lee anchor, cat and fish it;

then heave short on the weather cable, ready for getting under weigh.

What is a lee tide ?
A. A tide setting to leeward, and with the wind.
Q. How would you tend a vessel in a tideway?

A light vessel to leeward, a loaded vessel to windward.
QuSuppose you were at anchor in a calm, how would you keep the chain clear

of the anchor ? A. By heaving in the cable quite short without tripping the anchor. Q. What is meant by tide-rode? A. Swung round by the tide, and riding head to it, at anchor. Q. What is meant by wind-rode? A. When swung round by the force of the wind at anchor against the tide. Q. How would you place a kedge in a boat for carrying out ?

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