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A. Stock over the stern, flukes in the boat on a plank or spar for canting

overboard. Q. How would you carry out a bower anchor ? A. The crown under the boat with a slip rope, and a ring rope over the stern. Q. You are on a lee shore, on anchorage ground, she will not stay, and there

is no room to veer (or wear), how would you get her round ? A. Let go the anchor, or, if time allow, unshackle lee anchor, bend on a warp

from the lee quarter, let go the anchor when the helm is put down,
gather in the slack, and hold on the warp, this will check her round.

When round slip the warp.
How would you construct a raft to rescue a crew ?
Three spare spars lashed as a triangle, with water casks lashed inside of

the triangle, and small spare spars lashed on top. Q. Your rudder is carried away ; what do you do ? A. If running, lower down the for sail, get mainsheet in, and fore-staysail

sheet to windward Get three spars, and make a triangle, secure a sail over them, bend on a span and sling some pieces of iron to the lower spar, bend on a stout warp to the span, heave over to windward, veer out the hawser, and the vessel will lie-to comfortably while you are rigging a

jury rudder. Q. You have no time to do this ; you are on a lee shore ? | A. Get a spare topsail yard, nail a couple of stout boards to one end at

right angles to each other, pass it out under the tafrail, lash it amidships, get a luff tackle on the inboard end, and you will find she will steer

unless a very unbandy vesscl. Q. You have no time for this even ? A. Then let go both anchors, and cut away the masts, if she won't ride to it

without. Q. What is a spinnaker ? | A. A lofty triangular-shaped sail made of light canvas, used in modern

racing yachts instead of a squaresail for running before the wind. It can also be used as a balloon jib for reaching in light winds. The foot of it is extended by means of a long spar called the spinnaker boom,

which works with a goose neck on the fore-side of the mast. How do you set and take in a spinnaker ? Get the inner end of the boom over the tafrail on the side opposite to

that on which you are carrying the main boom, light it along until the outer end is far enough aft to clear the head sheets, then launch forward, hook on the topping lift,'bend on a couple of whips purchased to the outer end, lead one forward and the othor aft, hcist, away on the topping lift until it takes the weight'of the bučm, 'shove it förward until the goose neck can be shipped in its place on the most. Bend on the halliards to the head of the sail, and the outer clew to the outhaul on the boom, taking care that it is on the fore side of the topping lift. Hoist away on the halliards and at the same time 'haul out the clew ; when it is chock up to the topmast head, the clew close out, and the inner clew fast, slack down your topping lift until the boom is just clear of the rail and trim with the after guy. In large vessels it is usual to have another guy from the outer end to the side of the vessel to keep the boom from rising when the sail is distended by the pressure

A.

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of the wind. In taking in a spinnaker, top the boom well up, ease in the outhaul, and slack away the halliards at the same time, and gather in the sail as it comes down. Ease away the after guy until the boom is fore and aft, unship the goose neck, and stow along the deck; or the boom may be hoisted up with the topping lift until it is

parallel with the mast.

How would you set it as a jib? A. Lash a small tail block on the bowsprit outside the shroud iron, reeve a

rope through it, bend it on to the outer clew of your spinnaker and haul chock out, belay and hoist away on the halliards; use the balloon jib

sheets for spinnakers sheets. Q. You have not said anything about preventer backstays. What are they? A. Temporary stays leading in yachts from the topmast head to the quarters.

They are used when the jib topsail or spinnaker is set. Q. You have spoken several times about “heaving to." Now you are

running in a strong gale with heavy sea, and it is necessary to “heave to" to shorten sail, how would you do it so as not to run the risk of

having the decks swept ? A. Batten down the hatches, get every body aft to the mainsheet, watch for a

smooth sea, and as the yacht begins to descend ease down the helm, and as the vessel comes up to the wind get in the mainsheet foot by foot, haul foresheet to windward, lash the helm a lee and proceed to reduce

your canvas. Q. Suppose you are beating through a crowded channel, with a very light

breeze and strong tide and find that you are drifting foul of other

vessels, what would you do? A. If the tide was adverse, bring up. If the tide was favourable I would get

the anchor or kedge over to leeward with plenty of chain, bend on & stout hawser to the chain within a couple of feet of the anchor, and lead it aft to the quarter. Put the helm down and let her come to; when she begins to lose way, let go the anchor to leeward and haul on the hawser ; when she is fairly round, slip your cable and haul in the anchor

over the stern. Q. You are trying to claw off a lee shore in a gale under storm jib and three

reefed mainsail and your vessel persists in running off her helm in the

squalls, what would you do? A. Get everything below that was at all weighty into the fore peak and sail

her with the head-sheets very flat. Les Q. Why?

Because the head sails (especially (he jib) have a tendency to lift the

bow when slack, but ‘wben' flattened in Tēry taut they depress the lee bow in the water and make & yessel gripe to. windward.

FINIS.

R. BARHAM, Printer, 1, Queenhithe, Upper Thames Street, London, E.C.

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INTERNATIONAL STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

From the Order in Council, dated 9th January, 1863.

REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA, &c.

PRELIMINARY. Art. 1. In the following Rules every Steam Ship which is under Sail and not ander Steam is to be considered a Sailing Ship; and every Steam Ship which is nader Steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a Ship under Steam.

RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS. Art. 2. LIGHTS:-The Lights mentioned in the following Articles numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and no others, shall be carried in all Weathers from Sunset to Sunrise.

Art. 3. LIGHTS FOR STEAM SHIPS :- Seagoing Steam Ships, when under weigh, shall carry :

(a.) AT THE FOREMAST HEAD, a bright White Light, so fixed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the Horizon of 20 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light 10 Points on each side of the Sbip, viz., from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on either side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distan ce of at least Five Miles :

(6.) ON THE STARBOARD SIDE, a Green Light so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam, on the Starboard Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles :

(C) ON THE PORT SIDE, a Red Light, so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 points of the Compass”; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on the Port Side; and of such a character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles:

(d.) The said Green and Red Side Lights shall be fitted with inboard Screens, projecting at least Three Feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent these Lights from being seen across the Bow.

Art. 4. LIGHTS FOR STEAM SHIPS, WHEN TOWING:Steam Ships, when towing other Ships, shall carry Two bright White Mast-head Lights vertically, in addition to their side lights, so as to distinguish them from other Steam Ships. Each of these Mast-head Lights shall be of the same Construction and Character as the Mast-head Lights which other Steam Ships are required to carry.

Art. 5. LIGHTS FOR SAILING SHIPS: Sailing Ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry the same Lights as Steam Ships under weigh, with the Exception of the White Mast-head Lights, which they shall never carry.

Art. 6. EXCEPTIONAL LIGHTS FOR SMALL SAILING VESSELS :- Whenever, as in the Case of small Vessels during bad Weather, the Green and Red Lights cannot be fixed, these lights shall be kept on Deck, on their respective sides of the Vessel. ready for instant Exhibition; and shall, on the approach of, or to other Vessels, bé exhibited on their respective Sides in sufficient Time to prevent Collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port Side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard Side.

To make the Use of these portable Lights more certain and easy, the Lanterns containing them shall each be painted Outside with the Colour of the Light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable Screens.

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Art. 7. LIGHTS FOR SHIPS AT ANCHOR:Ships, whether Steam Ships or Sailing Ships, when at Anchor in Roadsteads or Fairways, shall. exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a Height not exceeding Twenty Feet above the Hull, a White Light, in a globular Lantern of Eight Inches in Diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear uniform and unbroken Light visible all round the Horizon, and at a Distance of at least One Mile.

Art. 8. LIGHTS FOR Pilot VESSELS :-Sailing Pilot Vessels shall not carry the Lights required for other Sailing Vessels, but shall carry a White Light at the Masthead, visible all round the Horizon,—and shall also exhibit a Flare-up Light every Fifteen Minutes.

Art. 9. LIGHTS FOR FISHING VESSELS AND Boats :-Open Fishing Boats and other open Boats shall not be required to carry the Side Lights required for other Vessels; but shall, if they do not carry such Lights, carry a Lantern having a Green Slide on the one side and a Red Slide on the other side, and on the Approach of or to other Vessels, such Lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient tiine to prevent Collision, so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port Side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard Side. · Fishing Vessels and open Boats when at Anchor, or attached to their Nets and stationary, shall exhibit a bright White Light.

Fishing Vessels and open Boats shall, however, not be prevented from using a Flare-up in addition, if considered expedient.

RULES CONCERNING FOG SIGNALS. Art. 10. FOG SIGNALS:—Whenever there is a Fog. whether by Day or Night, the Fog Signals described bulow shall be carried and used, and shall be sounded at least every Five Minutes ; viz. :

(a.) Steam Ships under weigh shall use a Steam Whistle placed before the funnel, not less than eight feet from the deck .

(6.) Sailing Ships under weigh shall use a Fog Horn:
(c.) Steam Ships and Sailing Ships, when not under weigh, shall use a Bell.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES. Art. 11. Two SAILING SHIPS MEETING :-If two Sailing Ships are meeting End on or nearly End on, so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Helme of both shall be pat to Port, so that each may pass on the Port Side of the other.

Art. 12. Two SAILING ShipS CROSSING:-When two Sailing Ships are crossing so as to involve Risk of Collision, then, if they have the wind on different sides, the Ship with the Wind on the Port Side shall keep out of the Way of the Ship with the Wind on the Starboard Side; except in the Case in which the Ship with the Wind on the Port Side is close hauled and the other Slip free, in which case the latter Ship shall keep out of the Way; but if they have the Wind on the same Side, or if one of them has the Wind aft, the Ship which is to windward shall keep out of the Way of the Ship which is to leeward.

* LIGHTS REQUIRED BY THE SEA FISHERIES ACT, 1863, TO BE CARRIED BY ENGLISH

AND FRENCH BOATS CONCERNED IN DRIFT-NET FISHING. 1. No boat shall anchor between sunset and sunrise on grounds where drift-net fishing is actually going on.

This does not apply to anchorings which may take place in consequence of accidents, or any other compulsory circumstances; but in such case the master of the boat thus obliged to anchor shall hoist, so that they shall be seen from a distance, two lights placed horizontally about 3 feet (1 metre) apart, and shall keep those lights up all the time the boat shall remain at anchor.

2. Boats fishing with drift-nets shall carry on one of their masts two lights, one over the other, 3 feet (1 metre) apart. To be kept up during all the time their nets shall be in the sea between sunset and sunrise.

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