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Art. 13. Two SHIPS UNDER STEAM MEETING :-If two Ships under Steam are meeting End on or nearly End on so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Helms of both shall be put to Port, so that each may pass on the Port Side of the other.

Art. 14. Two Ships UNDER STEAM CROSSING :-(f two Ships under Steam are crossing so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Ship which has the other on her own Starboard Side shall keep out of the way of the other.

Art. 15. SAILING SHIP AND SHIP UNDER STEAM:-If two Ships, one of which is a Sailing Ship and the other a Stearn Ship, are proceeding in such Directions as to involve Risk of Collision, the Steain Ship shall keep out of the way of the Sailing Ship.

Art. 16. SHIPS UNDER Steam To SLACKEN SPEED:–Every Steam Ship, when approaching another Ship so as to involve Risk of Collision, shall slacken her Speed, or, if necessary, stop and reverse; and every Steam Ship shall, when in a Fog, go at a moderate speed.

Art. 17. VESSELS OVERTAKING OTHER VESSELS:-Every Vessel overtaking any other vessel shall keep out of the way of the said last-mentioned Vessel.

Art. 18. CONSTRUCTION OF ARTICLES 12, 14, 15, and 17:—Where by the above Rules One of Pwo Ships is to keep out of the Way, the other shall keep her Course, subject to the Qualifications contained in the following Article. .

Art. 19. PROVISO TO SAVE SPECIAL CASES :-In obeying and construing these Rules, due regard must be had to all Dangers of Navigation, and due regard must also be had to any special Circumstances which may exist in any particular Case rendering a Departure froin the above Rules necessary in order to avoid immediate Danger.

Art. 20. No SHIP UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TO NEGLECT PROPER PRECAUTIONS:Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any Ship, or the Owner, or Master, or Crew I thereof from the Consequences of any Neglect to carry Lights or Signals, or of any

neglect to keep a proper Look-out, or of the Neglect of any Precaution which may be required by the ordinary Practice of Seainen, or by the special Circumstances of the Case.

ADDENDA TO THE REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT

SEA.

From the London Gazette, August 4th, 1868. STEERING AND SAILING RULES:- Whereas there has been doubt and misapprehension concerning the effect of the two Articles 11 and 13 (see p. 1).

Her Majesty, by virtue of the powers vested in Her, and by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, is pleased to make the following additions to the said Regulations by way of explanation of the said two recited Articles; that is to say :

The said two Articles numbered 11 and 13 respectively, only apply to cases where ships are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision. They, consequently, do not apply to two ships which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.

The only cases in which the said two Articles apply, are, when each of the two ships is end on, or nearly end on, to the other; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each ship sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own; and, by night, to cases in which each ship is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other.

The said two Articles do not apply, by day, to cases in which a ship sees another a-head crossing her own course; or, by night, to cases where the red light of one ship is opposed to the red light of the other; or where the green light of one ship is opposed to the green light of the other; or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen a-head; or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but a-head.

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THE BAROMETER RISES

THE BAROMETER FALLS for Northerly wind

for Southerly wind (including from N.W., by the North, to the (including from S.E. by the South, to the Eastward),

Westward),
for dry, or less wet weather,—for less wind,- for wet weather, for stronger wind, or
or for more than one of these changes: for more than one of these changes:-
EXCEPT on a few occasions when rain (or EXCEPT on a few occasions when moderate
snow) comes from the Northward with strong wind with Rain (or Snow) comes from the
wind.

Northward.
A THERMOMETER FALLS

A THERMOMETER RISES
For change of wind towards any of the For change of wind towards the upper of
above directions.

the above directions. MOISTURE Or DAMPNESS in the air (shown by a HYGROMETER), increases before or with

Rain, Fog, or Dew.

Admiral Fitzroy's contractions for Barometer Scales in North Latitude.

RISE

FOR
N. E'LY.
DRY

OR
LESS
WIND.

FALL

FOR S.W'LY, WET

OR MORE WIND.

A summary generally useful throughout

the world.
RISE

FALL
FOR

FOR
COLD,

WARM,
DRY

WET
OR

OR
LESS WIND,

MORE WIND.

Except wet from

N.E'ward.

Except wet from

N.E’ward.

“ Long foretold,

“First rise,
Long last;

After low, “ When the wind shifts against the sun,
Short notice-
Foretells

Trust it not, for back it will run."
Soon past."

Stronger blow."||
If in South Latitude read S. or S.'ly for N. or N.'ly, 80., 80.

It should always be remembered that the state of the air foretells coming weather, rather than shows the weather that is present-(an invaluable fact too often overlooked) —that the longer the time between the signs and the change foretold by them, the longer such altered weather will last; and, on the contrary, the less the time between a warning and a change, the shorter will be the continuance of such foretold weather.

To know the state of the air, not only barometers and thermometers should be watched, but the appearance of the sky-clouds should be vigilantly noticed.

If the barometer has been about its ordinary height, say near thirty inches, at the sea level, and is steady, or rising, while the thermometer falls, and dampness becomes lessNorth-westerly, Northerly, or North-easterly wind-or less wind-less rain or snow-may be expected.

On the contrary, if a fall takes place, with a rising thermometer and increased dampness, wind and rain may be expected from the South-eastward, Southward, or South. westward.

In winter, a fall, with low thermometer, foretells snow.

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Exceptions to these rules occur when a Northerly wind, with wet (rain, hail, or snow,) 3 impending, before which the barometer often rises (on account of the direction of the oming wind alone) and deceives persons who, from that sign only (the rising), expect air weather.

When the barometer is rather below its ordinary height, say down to near twenty-nine nches and a-half (at the sea level), a rise foretells less wind, or change in its direction owards the Northward-or less wet; but when it has been very low, about twenty-nine nches, the first rising usually precedes, or indicates, strong wind-at times heavy squalls from the North-westward, Northward, or North-eastward-after which violence a gradually rising glass foretells improving weather—if the thermometer falls. But, if the varmth continue, probably the wind will back (shift against the sun's course), and more Southerly or South-westerly wind will follow, especially if the barometer's rise is sudden.

The most dangerous shifts of wind, or the heaviest Northerly gales, happen soon after the barometer first rises from a very low point; or, if the wind veers gradually, at the same time afterwards with a rising glass.

Indications of approaching change of weather, and the direction and force of winds, are shown less by the height of the barometer than by its falling or rising. Nevertheless, a height of more than thirty (30-3) inches (at the level of the sea) is indicative of fine weather and moderate winds; except from East to North, occasionally whence it may blow strongly.

A rapid rise of the barometer indicates unsettled weather. A slow movement the contrary ; as does likewise a steady barometer, which, when continued, and with dryness, foretells very fine weather lasting for some time.

A rapid and considerable fall is a sign of stormy weather, and rain (or snow). Alternate rising and sinking, or oscillation, indicates unsettled and threatening weather.

The greatest depression of the barometers are with gales from S.E., S., or S.W.; the greatest elevations, with wind from N.W., N., or N.E., or with calm.

Though the barometer generally falls with a Southerly, and rises with a Northerly wind, the contrary sometimes occurs, in which case the Southerly wind is usually dry, with fine weather, or the Northerly wind is violent and accompanied by rain, snow, or hailperhaps with lightning.

When the barometer sinks considerably, much wind, rain (perhaps with hail), or snow will follow, with or without lightning. The wind will be from the Northward, if the thermometer is low (for the season); from the Southward if the thermometer is high. Occasionally a low glass is followed or attended by lightning only, while a storm is beyond the horizon.

A sudden fall of the barometer, with a Westerly wind, is sometimes followed by a violent storm from N.W. or N.E.

If a gale sets in from the E. or S.E., and the wind veers by the South, the barometer will continue falling until the wind is near a marked change, when a lull may occur ; after which the gale will soon be renewed, perhaps suddenly and violently, and the veering of the wind towards the N.W., North, or N.Ê, will be indicated by a rising of the barometer with a fall of the thermometer.

SIGNS OF WEATHER.
This account of weather signs is due to Admiral Fitzroy.

Colour of Sky-Clouds Flight of Sea Birds-Movements of Animals-Clearness of the

Air-Wind dying down at night.

Whether clear or cloudy—a rosy sky at sunset presages fine weather:- a sickly greenish hue, wind and rain; tawny, or coppery clouds—wind: a dark (or Indian) red, rain ; a red sky in the morning bad weather, or much wind (perhaps also rain):-a grey sky in the morning, fine weather,-a high dawn, wind:-a low dawn, fair weather.

NOTE.—A “high dawn" is when the first indications of daylight are seen above a bank of clouds. A “low dawn” is when the day breaks on or near the horizon, the first streaks of light being very low down.

Soft-looking or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, with moderate or light breezes:hard edged oily-looking clouds,-wind. A dark, gloomy blue sky is windy ;-but a light bright blue sky indicates fine weather. Generally, the softer clouds look, the less wind (but perhaps more rain) may be expected; and the harder, more “greasy;" rolled, tufted, or ragged,—the stronger the coming wind will prove. Also—a bright yellow sky at sunset presages wind ; a pale yellow, wet : orange or copper coloured, wind and rainand thus by the prevalence of red, yellow, green, grey, or other tints, the coming weather may be foretold very nearly:-indeed, if aided by instruments, almost exactly.

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Light, delicate, quiet tints or colours, with soft, indefinite forms of clouds, indicate and accompany fine weather: but gaudy or unusual hues, with hard, definitely outlined clouds, foretelī rain, and probably strong wind.

Small inky-looking clouds foretell rain:-light scud clouds driving across heavy masses show wind and rain ; but, if alone, may indicate wind only-proportionate to their motion.

High upper clouds crossing the sun, moon, or stars, in a direction different from that of the lower clouds, or the wind then felt below,-foretell a change of wind toward their direction.

NOTE.—Between the tropics, or in the regions of the Trade Winds, there is generally an upper and counter current of air, with very light clouds, which is not an indication of any approaching change. In middle latitudes such upper currents are not so frequent (or evident ?) except before a change of weather.

After fine clear weather, the first signs in the sky of a coming change, are usually light streaks, curls, wisps, or mottled patches of white distant cloud, which increase and are followed by an overcasting of murky vapour that grows into cloudiness. This appear. ance, more or less oily, or watery, as wind or rain will prevail, is an infallible sign,

Usually the higher and more distant such clouds seem to be,—the more gradual, but, general, the coming change of weather will prove.

Misty clouds forming or hanging on heights, show wind and rain coming-if they remain, increase, or descend. If they rise or disperse—the weather will improve or become fine.

When sea birds fly out early, and far to seaward, moderate wind and fair weather may be expected. When they hang about the land, or over it, sometimes flying inland, strong winds with stormy weather are probable. As, besides birds, many creatures are affected by the approach of rain or wind, their indications should not be slighted by an observer who wishes to foresee changes.

There are other signs of coming change in the weather known less generally than is desirable ; and therefore worth notice : such as,-when birds of long flight, rooks, swallows, or others, hang about home, and fly up and down or low-rain or wind may be expected. Also when animals seek sheltered places, instead of spreading over their usual range ;-when pigs carry straw to their styes; when smoke from chimneys does not ascend readily (straight upwards during calm), unfavourable change is probable.

Dew is an indication of coming fine weather. Its formation never begins under an overcast sky, or when there is much wind.

Remarkable clearness of atmosphere, especially near the horizon : distant objects, such as hills, unusually visible, or well defined ; or raised (by refraction, much refraction is a sign of easterly wind)—and what is called “a good hearing day,” may be mentioned among signs of wet, if not wind, to be expected in a short time.

More than usual twinkling or apparent size of the stars ; indistinctness or apparent multiplication of the moon's horns; haloes ; “ wind-dogs” (fragments or pieces, as it were, of rainbows (sometimes called "wind-galls ") seen on detached clouds),-and the rainbow; are more or less significant of increasing wind, if not approaching rain, with or without wind.

Near land, in sheltered harbours, in valleys, or over low ground, there is usually a marked diminution of wind and a dispersion of clouds during the early part of the night. At such times an eye on an overlooking height may see a body of vapour extending below (rendered visible by the cooling of night) which seems to check the wind.

“North-stormy, stormy and bold,

“A rainbow in the morning,
East-steady-frost and cold ;

Is the sailor's warning,
South-rain-with a troubled sea,

But a rainbow at night,
West—squalls, and helm's a-lee !"

Is a sailor's delight."
“ Red in the East the sailor likes least;

Red in the West the sailor likes best."

CHARLES WILSON. (late J. W. Norie & Wilson,) 157, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C.

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