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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

Gelatine, 90-92; Terrestrial Animal Oils, 93.

PART II.-POULTRY AND EGGS AND GAME BIRDS..

95-116

Application of Name, 94; Domesticated Fowls, 95-116; Chicken, 05-104;

Duck, 104; Goose, 105; Pigeon, 107; Turkey, 107; Forced Fattening, 109;

Slaughtering and Preparing for Market, Int; Poisonous Principles in Egys,

116; Parasites in Eggs, 116.

Part III.--Fish Foods...

Classification, 117; Edible Portion, 119; Principal Constituents, 119; Ale-

wives, 121; Anchovy, 122; Black Bass, 122; Bluefish, 122; Carp, 123;

Catfish, 123; Codfish, 124; Eels, 126; Flounder, 127; Graylings, 128; Had-

dock, 128; Hake, 128; Halibut, 128; Herring, 129; Horse Mackerel, 130;

Hog-fish, 130; Mackerel, 131; Menhaden, 132; Mullet, 132; Muskal-

lunge, 133; Pickerel or Pike, 133; Pompano, 134; Red Snapper, 134; Rock

Bass, 135; Salmon, 135-138; Sardines, 139-140; Scup, 141; Shad, 141-142;

Sheepshead, 143; Smelt, 144; Spanish Mackerel, 144; Sturgeon, 144;

Caviar, 145; Striped Bass, 146; Sole, 146; Tautog, 147; Tilefish, 147;

Trout, 147-148; Turbot, 149; Weakfish, 149; Whitefish, 150; Fluorids in

Fish, 151; Marketing, 151; Cold Storage, 151; Canning, Drying, and Adul-

teration, 152; Value as Food, 153; Shellfish, 153; Clams, 153; Lobster, 155;

Crabs, 155; Crawfish, 156; Shrimp, 157; Aquatic Reptiles, 157; Turtle,

157; Terrapin, 158; Mussel, 158; Oysters, 158-164; Animal Oils, 165;

Marine Animal Oils, 165-166.

PART IV.- MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS AND OLEOMARGARINE......

.169-216

Milk, Limitation of Name, 169; Composition, 169; Method of Production,

169-174; Cream, 175; Curd Test for Purity, 176-178; Whey and Kou-

miss, 179; Buttermilk and Bonnyclabber, 181; Butter, 182-187; Oleomar-

garine, 187-189; Cheese, 190; Kinds, 191; Adulteration and Visbranding,

192; Coloring, 193; Cottage Cheese, 195; American Cheese Manufacture,

.117-166

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FOODS AND

THEIR ADULTERATION

ORIGIN, MANUFACTURE, AND COMPOSITION OF
FOOD PRODUCTS; DESCRIPTION OF COMMON
ADULTERATIONS, FOOD STANDARDS, AND
NATIONAL FOOD LAWS AND REGULATIONS

BY

HARVEY W. WILEY, M.D., Ph.D.

WITH ELEVEN COLORED PLATES AND
EIGHTY-SIX OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS

PHILADELPHIA
P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO.

1012 WALNUT STREET

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196–200; Grading Cheese, 200; Cream Cheese, 201; Foreign Types, 201-
202; Sage Cheese, 203; English Cheese, 203-205; French Cheese, 200-208;
Limburger, 208; Edam, 210; Bacterial Activity, 211; Chemical Changes in
Ripening, 212-214; Digestibility, 214; Effect of Cold Storage, 215; Prepara-

tions of Casein, 215. PART V.-CEREAL Foods..

.217-273 Barley, 217–218; Buckwheat, 219-221; Indian Corn (Maize), 222-232; Oats, 232-236; Rice, 236; Rye, 237-239; Wheat, 239-242; Wheat Flour, 243-245; Gluten, 245-247; Bleaching, 247; Adulterations, 248; Standard Age and Substitutes, 248; Bread, 249; Yeast, 250; Ferments, 250; Chemical Aerating Agents, 251; Baking Powders, 251-254; Composition of Bread, 254255; Comparative Nutritive Properties, 256-257; Biscuit, 258; Sugar Lost in Fermentation, 259; Texture of Loaves, 259; Macaroni, 200-264; Cakes,

265-267; Breakfast Foods, 267–271. PART VI.–VEGETABLES, CONDIMENTS, FRUITS.

.273-388 Succulent Vegetables, 273; Artichoke, 274; Asparagus, 275; Bean, 275276; Beets, 277; Brussels Sprouts, 278; Cabbage, 278; Carrot, 279; Cauliflower, 279; Celery, 280; Chicory, 280; Cranberry, 281; Cress, 281; Cucumbers, 281; Egg-plant, Garlic, and Gourds, 282; Horseradish, Jerusalem Artichoke, and Kale, 282; Leek, Lettuce, Melons, and Cantaloupe, 284-286; Okra and Onion, 286; Parsnip, 287; Peas, 287; Potatoes, 288-298; Potato Starch, 296–299; Rhubarb, 299; Squash, 299; Sweet Potato, 299-304;. Turnip, 304; Yam, 304; Canned Vegetables, 305-315; Ketchup, 316; Use of Refuse in Ketchup, 317; Starches as Foods, 317-321; Condiments, 321-326; Fruits, 326–329; Apples, 330-335; Cherries, 336; Grapes, 337-338; Peaches, 339-341; Plums, 341; Quince, 342; Small Fruits, 342-343; Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, 343-348; Citrus Fruits, 348-369; Composition of Pineapple, 363-364; Ash of Tropical Fruits, 367; Sugar and Acid in Fruit, 369; Canned Fruits, 370-372; Fruit Sirups, 373-374; Jams, Jellies, and Preserves, 375–381; Manufacture of Jellies, 381-382; Compound Jams and Jellies, 383; Preserves, 384; Fruit Butter, 385; Brandied Fruit,

386; Importance of Preserving Industry, 386–388. PART VII.-VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS, AND Nuts...

-389-428 Definition, 389; Chemical Characteristics, 390; Drying and Non-drying Oils, 391; Physical Characters, 392-393; Edible Vegetable Oils, 394-413; Cottonseed Oil, 397-401; Olive Oil, 402-405; Peanut Oil, 406; Rape Oil, 407; Sesame Oil, 408; Sunflower Oil, 409; Cacao-butter, 410; Coconut Oil, 411; Palm Oil, 412; Nuts, 413-428; Acorn, 414; Beechnuts, Brazil-nut, 415; Butternut, Chestnut, 416; Chinese Nut, 417; Coconut, Filbert, 418; Hazelnut, Hickory-nut, 419; Peanuts, 420-424; Pecan, 424-425; Pistachio, 426;

Walnut, 426-428.
PART VIII.-FUNGI AS FOODS...

.429-454 Mushrooms, Production, 429-430; Varieties, 430; Food Value, 430; Distinction between Edible and Poisonous, 433-439; Types of Edible Mushrooms, 440; Horse Mushroom, 441; Shaggy Mushroom, 443; Fairy Ring Mushroom, 443; Puff-ball, 444; Cepe, 445; Fly Amanita, 446; Poisoning by Mushrooms, 448; Canned Mushrooms, 419; Truffles, 450-453; Food

Value of Fungi, 454.
PART IX.-SUGAR, SIRUP, CONFECTIONERY, AND HONEY..

.455-494 Sugar, Origin of Sugar, 455; Beet Sugar, 456-465; Cane Sugar, 466; Maple Sugar, 467-468; Sugar Refining, 468-470; Sugar Production, 471; Adulteration of Sugar, 471; Sugar as Food, 472; Sirup, Maple, 472-473; Cane, 475; Sorghum, 476; Molasses, 477-478; Mixed Sirups, 479; Adulteration of Sirups, 480; Confectionery, 482; Materials, 482; Manufacture, 483; Crystallized Fruits and Flowers, 483; Food Value of Candy, 483; Adulteration of Confections, 483-486; Honey, Definition, Historical, 486; Preparation of Honey, 487; Beehives, 488; Distribution of Honey Industry, 489; Comb

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Honey, 489; Extracted Honey, 490; Properties of Honey, 491-492; Adulter

ation of Honey, 493-494. MISCELLANEOUS.

..494-496 Mince Meat, 494; Pie Fillers, 496. PART X.-INFANTS' AND INVALIDS' Foods..

• 497-500 Modified Milk, 497; Solid Infants' Food, 498; Invalids' Food, 498-499; Composition Infants' and Invalids' Foods, 500.

APPENDICES.

APPENDIX A......

-501-521 Food Standards, 510-517; Law Relating to Filled Cheese, 517-521. APPENDIX B......

-522-537 Rules and Regulations for the Enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act, 522

533. The Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, 533-537. APPENDIX C......

-538-561 Regulations Governing the Meat Inspection of the United States Department

of Agriculture, 538-556; Meat Inspection Law, 556–501. APPENDIX D.......

-562-615 Food Inspection Decisions under Food and Drugs Act, 562-615. Food Inspections Decisions under the Imported Foods Act F. I. D.'s 1-39, 562-584. Food and Drugs Inspections and Decisions under the Food and Drugs Act F. I. D.'s 40-64, 584-615.

INDEX,

....616-625

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