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It was also apparent that the proposed amendment if accepted would make Rule I more objectionable than the third article of the former treaty, which was stricken out by the Senate's amendment, for that only invited other powers to come in and become parties to the contract after ratification, whereas the proposed provision would rather compel other powers to come in and become parties to the contract in the first instance as a condition precedent to the use of the canal by them.
Upon due consideration of these suggestions, and at the same time to put all the powers upon the same footing, viz, that they could use the canal only by complying with the rules of neutrality adopted and prescribed an amendment to Lord Lansdowne's amendment was proposed and agreed upon, viz:
To strike out from his amendment the words, “which shall agree to observe ” and substitute therefor the word “observing,” and in the next line to strike out the words “so agreeing,” and to insert before the word “nation" the word
This made the clause as finally agreed upon and found in the treaty as now submitted for the consideration of the Senate:
The canal shall be free and open to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations observing these rules on terms of entire equality, so that there shall be no discrimination against any such nation, etc.
Thus the whole idea of contract right in the other powers is eliminated, and the vessels of any nation which shall refuse or fail to observe the rules adopted and prescribed may be deprived of the use of the canal.
One other amendment proposed by Lord Lansdowne was regarded by the President as so entirely reasonable that it was agreed to without discussion. This was the insertion at the end of clause I of Article III the words: "Such conditions and charges of traffic shall be just and equitable," and the word “convention,” wherever it occurs, has been changed to“ treaty."
It is believed that this memorandum will put the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in full possession of the history of all changes in the treaty since the action of the Senate on the former amendment.
LORD LANSDOWNE'S MEMORANDUM.
August 3, 1901. In the despatch which I addressed to Lord Pauncefote on the 22d February last, and which was communicated to Mr. Hay on the 11th March, I explained the reasons for which His Majesty's Government were unable to accept the amendments introduced by the Senate of the United States into the convention, signed at Washington in February, 1900, relative to the construction of an inter-oceanic canal.
The amendments were three in number, namely:
1. The insertion in Article II, after the reference to Article VIII of the Clayton-Bulwer convention, of the words “which convention is hereby superseded.”
2. The addition of a new paragraph after section 5 of Article II in the following terms:
“ It is agreed, however, tnat none of the immediately foregoing conditions and stipulations in sections numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of this article shall apply to measures which the United States may find it necessary to take for securing by its own forces the defense of the United States and the maintenance of public order."
3. The excision of Article III, which provides that “the high contracting parties will, immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, bring it to the notice of the other powers and invite them to adhere to it."
2. The objections entertained by His Majesty's Government may be briefly stated as follows:
(1) The Clayton-Bulwer convention being an international compact of unquestionable validity could not be abrogated or modified save with the consent of both parties to the contract. No attempt had, however, been made to ascertain the views of Her Late Majesty's Government. The convention dealt with several matters for which no provision had been made in the convention of February, 1900, and if the former were wholly abrogated both powers would, except in the vicinity of the canal, recover entire freedom of action in Central America, a change which might be of substantial importance.
(2) The reservation to the United States of the right to take any measures which it might find necessary to secure by its own forces the defense of the United States appeared to His Majesty's Government to involve a distinct departure from the principle of neutralization which until then had found acceptance with both governments, and which both were, under the convention of 1900, bound to uphold. Moreover, if the amendment were added, the obligation to respect the neutrality of the canal in all circumstances would, so far as Great Britain was concerned, remain in force; the obligation of the United States, on the other hand, would be essentially modified. The result would be a onesided arrangement, under which Great Britain would be debarred from any warlike action in or around the canal, while the United States would be able to resort to such action even in time of peace to whatever extent they might deem necessary to secure their own safety.
(3) The omission of the article inviting the adherence of other powers placed this country in a position of marked disadvantage compared with cther powers; while the United States would have a treaty right to interfere with the canal in time of war, or apprehended war, and while other powers could with a clear conscience disregard any of the restrictions imposed by the convention of 1900, Great Britain alone would be absolutely precluded from resorting to any such action or from taking measures to secure her interests in and near the canal.
For these reasons His Majesty's Government preferred, as matters stood, to retain unmodified the provisions of the Clayton-Bulwer convention. They had, however, throughout the negotiations given evidence of their earnest desire to meet the views of the United States, and would sincerely regret a failure to come to an amicable understanding in regard to this important subject.
3. Mr. Hay, rightly apprehending that His Majesty's Government did not intend to preclude all further attempt at negotiation, has endeavored to find means by which to reconcile such divergences of view as exist between the two governments, and has communicated a further draft of a treaty for the consideration of His Majesty's Government.
Following the order of the Senate amendments, the convention now proposed
(1) Provides by a separate article that the Clayton-Bulwer convention shall be superseded.
(2) The paragraph inserted by the Senate after section 5 of Article II is omitted.
(3) The article inviting other powers to adhere is omitted. There are three other points to which attention must be directed:
(a) The words “in time of war as in time of peace are omitted in rule 1.
(6) The draft contains no stipulation against the acquisition of sovereignty over the Isthmus or over the strip of territory through which the canal is intended to pass. There was no stipulation of this kind in the Hay-Pauncefote convention; but, by the surviving portion of Article I of the Clayton-Bulwer convention, the two governments agreed that neither would ever “occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume, or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central America,” nor attain any of the foregoing objects by protection offered to, or alliance with, any State or people of Central America.
(c) While the amendment reserving to the United States the right of providing for the defense of the canal is no longer pressed for, the first portion of rule 7, providing that "no fortifications shall be erected commanding the canal or the waters adjacent,” has been omitted. The latter portion of the rule has been incorporated in rule 2 of the new draft, and makes provision for military police to protect the canal against lawlessness and disorder.
4. I fully recognize the friendly spirit which has prompted Mr. Hay in making further proposals for the settlement of the question, and while in no way abandoning the position which His Majesty's Government assumed in rejecting the Senate amendments, or admitting that the despatch of the 22d February was other than a well-founded, moderate, and reasonable statement of the British case, I have examined the draft treaty with every wish to arrive at a conclusion which shall facilitate the construction of an interoceanic canal by the United States without involving on the part of His Majesty's Government any departure from the principles for which they have throughout contended.
5. In form the new draft differs from the convention of 1900, under which the high contracting parties, after agreeing that the canal might be constructed by the United States, undertook to adopt certain rules as the basis upon which the canal was to be neutralized. In the new draft the United States intimate their readiness “ to adopt” somewhat similar rules as the basis of the neutralization of the canal. It would appear to follow that the whole responsibility for upholding these rules, and thereby maintaining the neutrality of the canal, would henceforward be assumed by the Government of the United States. The change of form is an important one; but in view of the fact that the whole cost of the construction of the canal is to be borne by that government, which is also to be charged with such measures as may be necessary to protect it against lawlessness and disorder, His Majesty's Government are not likely to object to it.
6. The proposal to abrogate the Clayton-Bulwer convention is not, I think, inadmissible if it can be shown that sufficient provision is made in the new treaty for such portions of the convention as ought, in the interests of this country, to remain in force. This aspect of the case must be considered in connection with the provisions of Article I of the Clayton-Bulwer convention which have already been quoted, and Article VIII referred to in the preamble of the new treaty.
Thus, in view of the permanent character of the treaty to be concluded and of the “ general principle” reaffirmed thereby as a perpetual obligation, the high contracting parties should agree that no change of sovereignty or other change of circumstances in the territory through which the canal is intended to pass shall affect such “ general principle” or release the high contracting parties, or either of them, from their obligations under the treaty, and that the rules adopted as the basis of neutralization shall govern, so far as possible, all interoceanic communications across the Isthmus.
I would therefore propose an additional article in the following terms, on the acceptance of which His Majesty's Government would probably be prepared to withdraw their objections to the formal abrogation of the Clayton-Bulwer convention :
In view of the permanent character of this treaty, whereby the general principle established by Article VIII of the Clayton-Bulwer convention is reaffirmed, the high contracting parties hereby declare and agree that the rules laid down in the last preceding article shall, so far as they may be applicable, govern all interoceanic communications across the isthmus which connects North and South America, and that no change of territorial sovereignty, or other change of circumstances, shall affect such general principle or the obligations of the high contracting parties under the present treaty.
7. The various points connected with the defense of the canal may conveniently be considered together. In the present draft the Senate amendment has been dropped, which left the United States at liberty to apply such measures as might be found " necessary to take for securing by its own forces the defense of the United States.” On the other hand, the words“ in time of war as in time of peace ” are omitted from rule 1, and there is no stipulation, as originally in rule 7, prohibiting the erection of fortifications commanding the canal or the waters adjacent.
I do not fail to observe the important difference between the question as now presented to us and the position which was created by the amendment adopted in the Senate.
In my despatch I pointed out the dangerous ambiguity of an instru