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rately and then later, if we wish, compare or combine them. Nothing is gained, however, by trying to make one formula so broad as to lump together three different elements without distinguishing between them. If the progress of science means anything it means the constant development of finer methods of measurement so that problems may be broken up into their constituent parts and these parts then analyzed and measured. Professor Hayes agrees with me that, in order to differentiate between absenteeism and turnover, the total on the payroll should be used as the divisor instead of the average daily attendance. Should he not also logically agree that, in order to differentiate between the maintenance of a given level and changes in that level, replacements and not separations should be used as the dividend?

It may be objected that, in thus reducing what the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics terms "turnover” to three different elements, what I call “turnover”-namely, the maintenance of the working force at a given level-is not "turnover” at all but should rather be termed “labor maintenance.” This is quite possible. Names do not matter appreciably. What does matter, however, is that different phenomena should be identified and measured separately and not thrown loosely together with no attempt at differentiation.

Paul H. DOUGLAS. University of Washington.

REVIEWS AND NEW BOOKS
General Works, Theory and Its History

NEW BOOKS
BARNICH, G. Principes de politique positive d'après Solvay. (Brus-

sells: Office de Publicité, Lebegue & Cie. 1919. Pp. 171.) BULLOCK, C. J. The elements of economics. Third edition. (Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co. 1919. Pp. vii, 406.)

Published in 1905, this text has now (1919) passed into a third edition. Some new material, particularly in chapter 18 on the labor

problem, has been introduced. CARLTON, F. T. Elementary economics. An introduction to the study

of economics and sociology. (New York: Macmillan. 1920.) ELLWOOD, C. A. The social problem: a reconstructive analysis. New

edition, revised with new matter. (New York: Macmillan. 1919.

$1.50.) Pirou, A. C. The economics of welfare. (London: Macmillan.

1920.) ROBERTS, G. E. The distribution of wealth. (New York: National

City Bank of New York. 1919. Pp. 16.) ROBINSON, C. E. New fallacies of Midas. A survey of industrial and economic problems. (New York: McBride.

(New York: McBride. 1919. Pp. xxiii, 294. $2.)

A stimulating volume, holding a midway position between the traditional textbook in economics and the propagandist of a special reform. “An attempt to explain the main principles of industrial, social, and economic theory in language clear to the lay reader: to trace the development and test the practical uses of the three rival claims put forward by the socialist, the syndicalist and the individualist: and finally to show that without the combined application of each ideal there can be no permanent progress towards the goal of universal happiness.” In conclusion, as pointing the way to future evolutionary movement, the author prophesies that with the advance of science a larger and larger proportion of the world's production will be effected by machines. The mass of unskilled workers will be absorbed into the ranks of skilled or semi-skilled labor. “The time may come when it is more difficult to find a man to sweep a crossing or clean out a drain than to mind a spinner or a printing press." This will be accompanied by a reappraisal of values of different human services. The volume is introduced with

a chapter by Sir George Paish. Smith, A. An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of

nations. (London: Methuen. 1919. Two volumes. TRUCHY, H. Cours d'économie politique. (Paris: Librairie de la

Société du Recueil Sirey. 1919. Pp. 458. 14 fr.)

£1. 5.)

Economic History and Geography

NEW BOOKS

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AYRES, L. P. The war with Germany; a statistical summary. (Wash

ington: Supt. Docs. 1919. Pp. 154.) BABSON, R. W. W. B. Wilson, first Secretary of Labor. (New York:

The Public, 70 Fifth Ave. 1919. $2.) BARKER, J. E. Modern Germany: its rise, growth, downfall and future. (New York: Dutton. 1919. Pp. ix, 496. $6.)

The title-page of this book, which has gained great popularity, wrongly says that the sixth edition is "entirely rewritten and greatly enlarged.” Only a few of the chapters are new and the size is reduced from 844 to 496 pages.

Although the individual chapters are, generally speaking, reprints of articles that appeared in English reviews, they may be put into two groups, those that deal with political Germany and those that treat of economic Germany. Political Germany is condemned with all the fervor of wartime days. Economic Germany is praised as in pre-war days. Accordingly it is not far wrong to say that the book was written not so much to inform readers about Germany as to prejudice them in favor of or against German practices. The economic chapters are brought down nearer to date than in the last edition, the statistics of the year 1913 being added to several tables. The intent in these chapters is largely to persuade Englishmen to reform conditions at home, with German successes in mind. This is true notably in the chapters on German agriculture and German railroads. In his treatment of shipbuilding, the author shows himself to be a believer in the efficacy of imperial mercantile policy. He seems to forget that Germany's success was due, in large measure, to her industrial revolution, the indispensable preparation for the task. The absence of a chapter on Germany's banking system, the keystone of the German economic arch, is difficult to understand, when one remembers the part that it has played in industrial and commercial development.

N. S. B. GRAS. BARNETT, H. O. R. Canon Barnett, warden of the first University

Settlement, Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel, London; his life work and friends; by his wife. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1919. Pp. xxiv,

892; xii, 415. $8.) Bell, H. T. M. and WOODHEAD, H. G. W. The China year book,

1919-1920; with a map of Mongolia. (New York: Dutton. 1920.

Pp. xx, 762. $8.)
Bowden, W. The rise of the great manufacturers in England, 1760-

1790. (Allentown, Pa.: H. R. Haas & Co. 1919. Pp. vii, 95.) Bullitt, W. C. The Bullitt mission to Russia. Testimony before the

Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, of W. C.
Bullitt. (New York: Huebsch. 1919. Pp. 151. 50c.)

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CLARK, A. The working life of women in the seventeenth century.

Studies in economics and political science, no. 56, in the series of monographs by writers connected with the London School of Economics and Political Science. (London: Routledge. 1919. Pp.

885. 10s. 6d.) COLBY, F. M., editor. New international year book. A compendium

of the world's progress for the year 1918. (New York: Dodd,

Mead. 1919. Pp. 791.) CORWIN, E. S. John Marshall and the constitution; a chronicle of the

Supreme Court. Chronicles of America series. (New Haven, Conn.:

Yale Univ. Press. 1919. Pp. ix, 242.) CUVILLIER, A. Un journal d'ouvriers: l'atelier, 1840-1850. (Paris:

Alcan. 1919.) DANNENBERG, K. The revolution in Germany; a study including sepa

rate essays. (New York: Radical Review Pub. Assoc. 1919.) DOBBS, A. E. Education and social movements, 1700-1850. (New

York: Longmans, Green. 1919. Pp. xiv, 258. $3.50.) DORCHESTER, D., JR. Bolshevism and social revolt. (New York:

Abingdon Press. 1919. Pp. 124. 75c.) Gueneau, L. L'organisation du travail (industrie et commerce) à

Nevers aur XVII et XVIIIe siècles, 1660-1790. (Paris: Hachette.

1919. Pp. xv, 634.) Hailey, C. P. and Lloyd, D. W. Business prospects year book, 1919.

(Cardiff: Business Statistics Co. 1919. Pp. 262, 10s.) HERZOG, S. Le plan de guerre commerciale de l'Allemagne. Preface

and translation by A. DE TARLÉ. Introduction by Messrs. HOOVER, KELLOGG, and Walcott of the United States Food Administration.

(Paris: Payot. 1919.) HICKEY, M. J., editor. Bolshevism self-defined and self-convicted.

A collection of official decrees (translated from the Russian) together with a statement and analytical summary of its "functions and objects." (New York: National Association of Manufacturers.

1919. Pp. 29.) Holmes, W. H. Handbook of aboriginal American antiquities. Part

I, Introductory, The lithic industries. (Washington: Smithsonian

Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. 1919. Pp. xvii, 380.) Hull, A. M. Coal men of America, a bibliographical and historical

review of the world's greatest industry. (Chicago: Retail Coalman, .

1918. Pp. 506.) Husslein, J. Democratic industry. A practical study in social his

tory. (New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 1919. Pp. ix, 362.

$1.50.) Keynes, J. M. Economic consequences of the peace. (London: Mac

millan. 1919.)

LEBON, A. Problèmes économiques nés de la guerre. (Paris: Payot.

1919. 5 fr.) LOMONOSSOFF, G. U. Memoirs of the Russian revolution. Translated

by D. H. DUBROWSKY and R. T. WILLIAMS. (New York: Rand

School of Social Science. 1919. Pp. 87. 35c.) MAHONEY, C. K. Social evolution and the development of religion.

(New York: Methodist Book Concern. 1919. $1.) McGrane, R. C., editor. The correspondence of Nicholas Biddle deal

ing with national affairs, 1807-1844. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

1919. Pp. xiii, 365. $6.) MARRIOTT, J. A. R. The right to work; an easy introductory to the

economic history of the French Revolution of 1848. (New York:

Oxford Univ. Press. 1919. Pp. 97. 75c.) MIDDLETON, P. H. Industrial Mexico: 1919 facts and figures. (New

York: Dodd, Mead. 1919. Pp. xiii, 270. $2.) MOORE, F. F. Siberia today. (New York: Appleton. 1919. $2.) MORELAND, W. H. India at the death of Akbar: an economic study.

(London: Macmillan. 1919.) MORTON, R. L. The negro in Virginia politics, 1865-1902. (Char

lottesville, Va. 1919. Pp. 199.) PRATO, G. Riflessi storici della economia di guerra, 1919. (Bari, Italy: Gius. Laterza & Figli. 1919. Pp. 227.)

By his competence in historical research and his powers of lucid, fluent writing, Prato has won for himself an important place among contemporary economic historians. The present work (consisting of occasional essays contributed to Italian journals during the war, particularly the Riforma Sociale), though it has naturally offered but limited scope for minute and detailed research, yet is the fruit of mature scholarship. The author has made no atteinpt to revise his papers for publication as a book, but no serious harm has come of the omission.

Of the four chief essays, the longest deals with a comparison of the acts of invaders during former wars and the late war. Such matters as trade (even between the warring countries), the administration of the invaded country's laws, the collection of taxes, the treatment of hostages, are selected for discussion, with a general result that can be guessed. This essay, none the less, is suggestive and illuminating, the forerunner, one may hope and indeed expect, of comprehensive studies which the war itself will have provoked. The second essay is probably of more general interest to historical economists than any of the others. Taking its departure from the "Mitteleuropa" discussions revived and promoted during the war, it recalls the deep interest manifested by Italian writers in economic union with Germany during the Zollverein period preceding 1848. Carlo Cattaneo in that epoch was the leading member of a group

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