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ceding years under the mayor-council plan, 1910-1913. (New York: Macmillan. 1919. Pp. x, 271. $2.50.)

Contains chapters on How Dayton got good government; Municipal housekeeping; Finance; and Purchasing for a city. TaussiG, F. W. Free trade, the tariff and reciprocity. (New York:

Macmillan. 1920.) VALLÉE, C. Un budget de vingt milliards; comment l'equilibrer?

(Paris: Rivière. 1919. 4 fr.) WEBER, G. A. Organized efforts for the improvement of methods of

administration in the United States. (New York: Appleton. 1919. Pp. xv, 391. $2.75.)

Of value to the student as an aid to locating "source" material. The author gives an account of official and unofficial agencies for research in the field of governmental activities. Part III describes

the several state legislative reference and bill-drafting agencies. Assessed valuation, per cent of true value, tax levies, and tax rates for

Wisconsin cities, 1919. Municipal reference bulletin no. 7. (Madi

son: University Extension Division. 1919. Pp. 15.) Assessors' manual, including assessment laws with questions and

answers relating thereto. (Milwaukee: Minnesota Tax Commission.

1919.) Federal tax manual, illustrative and analytical instructions for pre

paring federal income and profits tax returns of individuals, partnerships, fiduciaries and corporations, adapted to the use of educational institutions, accountants, auditors, bookkeepers, and business and professional men and women. Typewritten. (Washington: Fed

eral Tax Pub. Co. 1919.) Federal stamp taxes on original issues of stocks and bonds and trans

fers of stocks. (New York: Guaranty Trust Co. 1919. Pp. 35.) Income tax. Second instalment of minutes of evidence of the Royal

Commission on the Income Tax, with appendices. Third instal

ment, ditto. (London: Wyman. 1919. 2s. 3d.) Income tax, weights and measures, stamp duties. Coinage, British, colonial, and foreign. (London: National Bank of South Africa.

. 1918. Pp. 325.) Les instruments modernes de la politique etrangère. Les emprunts

d'état. (Paris: Roustan. 1919. Pp. 410.) Report of the special joint taxation committee of the eighty-third Ohio

general assembly. (Columbus. 1919. Pp. 165.) Taxpayer's guide. (New York: Equitable Trust Co. 1920. Pp. 66.) The solvency of the Allies. Great Britain, France, Belgium, Italy.

(New York: Guaranty Trust Co. 1920 Pp. 38.)

Population and Migration

NEW BOOKS

ALLEN, N. F. Infant mortality: results of a field study in Saginaw,

Michigan, based on births in one year. U. S. Department of Labor. Children's Bureau. Infant mortality series, no. 9.

Infant mortality series, no. 9. Bureau publication no. 52. (Washington: Supt. Docs. 1919. Pp. 91.)

Previous studies in this series have for the most part dealt with conditions in manufacturing cities in which there were a large number of mothers gainfully employed and where a large proportion of the population is foreign born. Saginaw was chosen because these problems are not present to such an extent there and because "the families had a high economic status compared with those in other cities studied.”

The results of this study, as well as of the other similar studies, show close relation between poverty and earnings and infant mortality. “The mortality rate was highest, 179.5, for the infants whose fathers were in the lowest earnings group, under $450. It decreased as the earnings increased with but a single irregularity to a minimum of 22.2 for the group with father's earnings $1,250 and over." The investigators found that a very large proportion of the births of both native and foreign born mothers had not been registered (11.7), due not to defects in the state laws but to the fact that "the people of Saginaw are not interested.” “The first step" recommended “is to awaken the public to the value of birth statistics and the need for better registration.” Since two thirds of infant losses in the families included in the investigation "were primarily due to prenatal causes" more adequate prenatal care, especially for the inexperienced young mothers and in families in which the father's earnings are lowest, is recommended. Only three public health nurses were found in Saginaw and the work of these “rarely touched the neglected fields of prenatal and post-natal care."

The report contains an excellent appendix describing the methods and procedure used in this and other investigations of infant mortality by the Children's Bureau, which will be of interest to students in social investigations or to statisticians.

H. H. HIBBS, Jr. Coulter, C. W. The Poles in Cleveland. (Cleveland, O.: Cleveland

Americanization Committee. 1919. Pp. 42. 10c.) COULTER, C. W. The Italians of Cleveland. (Cleveland: Cleveland

Americanization Committee. 1919. Pp. 43. 10c.) DoËRNIG, C. Die Bevölkerungsbewegung im Weltkrieg. 1, Deutsch

land. II, Oesterreich-Ungarn. (Kopenhagen: Bianco Cuno. 1919.

8 Kr.) FOERSTER, R. F. The Italian emigration of our times. (New York:

Harvard Univ. Press. 1919. Pp. xx, 558. $2.50.)

Immigration. An annotated list of the best available books. (New

York: Methodist Book Concern. 1919. Pp. 6. 50c.)

Social Problems and Reforms

NEW BOOKS

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ADAMS, E. K. Professional women workers. (New York: Harcourt,

Brace, & Howe. 1919.)
ARONOVICI, C. Americanization. (St. Paul: Keller Pub. Co. 1919.

Pp. 48.)
BARKER, J. M. The social gospel and the new era. (New York:

Macmillan. 1919. Pp. 232. $1.75.)
BROWN, W. A. Christianity and industry. (New York: Woman's

Press. 1919. 40c.)
CARVER, T. N. Government control of the liquor business in Great

Britain and the United States. Carnegie Endowment for Interna-
tional Peace. (New York: Oxford Univ. Press. 1919. Pp. 192.)

The sudden ending of hostilities defeated the purpose of this study, which was begun with the hope that its results would be useful in guiding our actions during the war. About four fifths of the volume is devoted to the experience of Great Britain, given in considerable detail.

Although there was a great deal of agitation over the use of grain in the manufacture of alcoholic liquors, public action during the first two years of the war was limited to the control of drunkenness, the maintenance of order, and the conservation of time ordinarily lost through drink. In 1916 the output of the breweries was limited by law and restrictions were placed on the use of grain, sugar, and molasses in the distillation of spirits. Nevertheless it became necessary to ease the situation in certain communities by allowing greater leniency in the manufacture and sale of liquor. Many Englishmen objected strenuously to the regulations. The various compromises and the apparent timidity of the government are aptly explained by the author in the statement: “Managing a great war is as much a demogogic as it is a military or an economic problem." Unfortunately the latest statistics used are for the first quarter of 1917 and therefore the information as to the final effects of the British policy is inconclusive.

The control of the traffic in the United States is discussed very briefly. There is a simple and telling statement of the general philosophy underlying the prohibition movement and of the reasons for its growth. The first American wartime restrictions related to the prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors in military camps and to the men in uniform. This action produced in the army a wonderful quality of orderliness and sobriety. The study mentions other measures, including the submission and ratification of the prohibition amendment.

soon,

As far as it goes this is an excellent study, but the reasons for its appearance at this time are not very clear. It came too late or too

Since it could not be completed before, why did not the Carnegie Endowment continue the study of the British experience so that the results might be given to the world.

GEORGE B. MANGOLD. CLIFFORD, J., LORD LEVERHULME, and others. The industrial future.

(London: Allen & Unwin. 1919. 2s. 6d.) CLOPPER, E. N., director. Child welfare in Kentucky. An inquiry by

the national child labor committee for the Kentucky Child Labor Association and the State Board of Health. (New York: National Child Labor Committee. 1919. Pp. 322. $1.25.)

The general plan used by the National Child Labor Committee in its state surveys is followed in this inquiry. The chapters deal with health, schools, recreation, rural life, child labor, juvenile courts, and law and administration. It is much more incisive than the preceding reports, partly because of the conditions uncovered but probably also because of growing aggressiveness on the part of the investigators. It seems wise if a state neglects its children and refuses to pass laws or to enforce them, to say so and to jolt the people into a realization of their shortcomings. The report should accomplish this end. While not unkind nor carping in its criticism it clearly states the unwelcome facts and suggests for each problem an appropriate program of improvement.

The investigation revealed an enormous amount of disease, of illiteracy, and child labor. There is little medical inspection in schools, the school system is in politics, the spirit and meaning of the juvenile court law are not understood in many parts of the state and serious injustice is done to many children. Public authorities do not provide adequate recreational facilities for children, vulgar street carnivals are common, and the commercial recreations are largely unregulated. Kentucky has no state department of charities and therefore no system of state supervision. Many of the laws are clearly inadequate and should be brought up to the standardized form. On the other hand excellent work along some lines is being done in a number of the larger cities.

The report recommends the appointment of a commission to prepare a "children's code” that is to standardize and coördinate the state laws related to child welfare.

G. B. M. Dick, J. L. Defective housing and the growth of children. (London:

King. 1919. 8s. 6d.) DOOLEY, W. H. Principles and methods of industrial education; for

use in teacher training classes. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1919.

Pp. 257. $1.60.) Dunton, W. R., Jr. Reconstruction therapy. (Philadelphia: W. B.

Saunders. 1919. Pp. 236.)

EDWARDS, W.J. Twenty-five years in the black belt. (Boston: Corn

hill Co. 1918. Pp. 143.) ELLWOOD, C. A. The social problem; a reconstructive analysis. (New

York: Macmillan. 1919. Pp. 288. $1.75.) Fairfield, F. P. Story of the city of works; a community of peace

and plenty, where every man is his own policeman, a new order of government, anti-socialistic, free street cars and telephones, no middlemen, no capitalist class, all profit accrues to labor, farm and city life conjoined. (Boston: Madison Ptg. Co., 21 Madison St.

1919. $10.) FREEMAN, A., editor. The equipment of the workers. (London: King.

1919. 10s. 6d.) Hadley, A. T. The moral basis of democracy. Sunday morning talks

to students and graduates. (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. 1919.

Pp. vii, 206. $1.75.) Jackson, B. B. and others. Thrift and success. (New York: Cen

tury Co. 1919. Pp. 288. $1.25.) KESTER, P. Conservative democracy; principles and practice of Am

erican democracy. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1919. Pp. 82.

$1.) MASTERMAN, J. H. B. Clerical incomes and the cost of living. (Lon

don: G. Bell & Sons. 1919. 5s.) SCHARLIEB, M. The relation of alcohol and alcoholism to maternity

and child welfare. (London: British Journal of Inebriety. 1919.

Pp. 49.) Selby, C. D. Studies of the medical and surgical care of industrial

workers. Treasury Department. Public health bulletin no. 99.

(Washington: Supt. Docs. 1919. Pp. 115.) SNEDDEN, D. High spots in vocational education as reported from the

several states. Future policies of the national society as suggested by members. Special bulletin prepared for use at the annual convention, Feb., 1919. (New York: Nat. Soc. for Vocational Edu

cation. 1919. Pp. 24.) Talbot, F. A. Millions from waste. (London: Fisher Unwin; Phila

delphia: Lippincott. 1919. Pp. 309.) Tissié, P. L'education physique et la race. Santé, travail, longévité.

(Paris: Flammarion. 1919. Pp. 336. 4.55 fr.) Wildman, E., editor. Reconstructing America. Views of the country's

greatest thinkers and industrial geniuses. (Boston: Page Co. 1919.

Pp. 422.) Woods, A. Policeman and public. Yale lectures on the responsibilities of citizenship. (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

1919. Pp.

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