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Insurance and Pensions

NEW BOOKS

HOOPER, G. G. Leasehold insurance. An address delivered before

the Insurance Society of New York, January 26, 1920. (New York: Darby, Hooper & McDaniel. 1920.

1920. Pp. 15.) HORD, E. F. History and organisation of automobile insurance. Ad

dress delivered before the Insurance Society of New York. (New

York: The Society. 1920. Pp. 29.) HUEBNER, S. S. Report on status of marine insurance in the United

States. Including the recommendations of the subcommittee on merchant marine and fisheries. (Washington: Supt. Docs. 1920.

Pp. 100.) STUDENSKY, P. Teachers' pension systems in the United States. A

critical and descriptive study. (New York: Appleton. 1920. Pp.

xx, 460. $8.) Causes of fire losses sustained during the year 1918. U. S. Rail

road Administration, Division of Finance, Fire Loss and Protection

Section, bull. 13. (Washington: Supt. Docs. 1920. Pp. 14.) Classification of occupations for accident and health insurance, as ap

proved by the Standard Manual Committee of the Bureau of Personal Accident and Health Underwriters. Revised to March 1,

1919. (New York: Spectator Co. 1920. Pp. 78.) Court decisions on workmen's compensation law, June, 1918-December,

1919. Constitutionality and coverage. (Albany: Bureau of Sta

tistics and Information. 1920. Pp. 278.) Pensions and insurance. Bulletin of the American Association of Uni

versity Professors. (Cambridge, Mass.: H. W. Tyler, Secretary,

Mass. Inst. Tech. 1920. Pp. 84.) Sixty-first annual report of the Superintendent of Insurance of the

State of New York, March, 1920, covering transactions of calendar year closing December 31, 1919. (Albany: Supt. Ins. 1920. Pp.

68.) Unemployment insurance bill. Text of the bill together with report by

the government actuary on the financial provisions of the bill. (Lon

don: H. M. Stationery Office. 1920. Pp. 261. 7d.) Workmen's compensation law with amendments to July, 1919: Ala

bama, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. (New York: F. R. Jones, 80 Maiden Lane. 1920. 25c. each.)

Socialism and Co-operative Enterprises

NEW BOOKS

ANTONELLI, E. Bolshevik Russia. Translated from the French by

C. A. CARROLL. (New York: A. A. Knopf. 1920. Pp. 307. $2.) BAUER, O. La marche au socialisme. Translated from the German.

. (Paris: Librairie du Parti Socialiste et de l'Humanité. 1919. Pp.

72. 1.25 fr.) Boucke, O. F. The limits of socialism. (State College, Pa.: Author.

1920.) BRASOL, B. L. Socialism vs. civilization. (New York: Scribners.

1920. Pp. 289. $2.) CARNOT, R. L'étatisme industriel. (Paris: Payot. 1920. 4.50 fr.) CATHREIN, V. "Der Sozialismus." Eine Untersuchung seiner Grund

lagen und seiner Durchführbarkeit. (Freiburg: Herder. Pp. 504.

10.40 M.) CARTER, H., editor. The limits of state industrial control. A sympo

sium on the present situation and how to meet it. (New York: Stokes. 1919. Pp. 292.)

A collection of brief papers in response to a questionnaire of the editor. The contributions are grouped under the headings: The state views; The views of capital, with subdivisions for shipping, mining, various manufacturing industries, banking, and agriculture; Political views; Sociological views; Socialistic view, represented by G. Bernard Shaw; Labour and industrial views; and Trade union view. Taken as a whole, the answers give an interesting

survey of current opinion. DOUGLAS, C. H. Economic democracy. (London: Palmer. 1920.

5s.) Fay, C. R. Coöperation at home and abroad. (London: King. 1920.

16s.) Goode, W. T. Bolshevism at work. (London: Allen & Unwin. 1920.

2s. 6d.) HIRSCHBERG, M. Bolschewismus. Eine kritische Untersuchung über

die amtlichen Veröffentlichungen der russischen Sowjet-Republik.

(Leipzig: Dunker & Humblot. 1919. Pp. 107. 2.80 M.) Hobson, S. G. National guilds and the state. (London: G. Bell &

Sons. 1920. 12s. 6d.) KIRKUP, T. A primer of socialism. New edition. (London: A. & C.

Black. 1920. 2s. 6d.) LEVERHULME. Profit sharing: its principles and practice. (New

York: Harper. 1920.) LOKERMAN, A. Les Bolcheviks à l'oeuvre. (Paris: Rivière. 1920.

Pp. 137. 4 fr.)

MARTIN SAINT-Léon. Syndicalisme ouvrier et syndicalisme agricole.

(Paris: Payot. 1920. 3.60 fr.) OPPENHEIMER, F. Der Ausweg. Notfragen der Zeit. Second edi

tion, revised. (Jena: Fischer. 1919. Pp. 74. 8.75 M.) RUSSELL, C. E. Bolshevism and the United States. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1919. Pp. 341. $1.50.)

The bitterness with which Mr. Russell attacks Bolshevism and incidentally the American socialist movement, makes it difficult to realize that only four years ago he himself was considered seriously for the socialist presidential nomination. The style of the book is that of the muck-raking period of magazine writing in which the author first made his reputation. The author makes no effort to maintain a judicial attitude toward the problem of revolutionary Russia, using almost as much space for rhetorical denunciation as for reasoned argument. However, aside from these temperamental defects, the book has many commendable features. There is a very good historical sketch of the revolutionary year of 1917 in Russia, giving the background of the bolshevik uprising, and the relation of bolshevism to the ultra radical movements of western Europe and America. He makes it very clear how real is the menace of bolshevism to the present social order. At the same time he shows the folly of armed intervention, which can only result in consolidating the power of the soviets and making their overthrow by the Russian moderates more difficult. In other countries the remedy for bolshevism is not suppression, but the removal of the causes of social unrest.

G. L. ARNER. Ryan, J. A. The Church and socialism; and other essays. The so

cial justice books. (Washington: The University Press. 1919. Pp. 251.)

A collection of papers that have appeared in various publications during the past ten years. Only the first paper relates intimately to the title of the book. Other topics discussed are: A living wage; The legal minimum wage; Moral aspects of the labor union; The

moral aspects of speculation; Birth control; and Woman suffrage. SPARGO, J. Bolshevism. The enemy of political and industrial democracy. (New York: Harper. 1919. Pp. 389. $1.50.)

The tone of this book is in marked contrast to the bitter intolerance and manifest unfairness which characterize so much of the current literature on this subject. The author is not in any sense an apologist for bolshevism, and perhaps does not show the soviet régime in as favorable a light as the facts would justify, but on the other hand he does not indulge in wild exaggeration of the evils of bolshevism, nor does he have any words of commendation for the old imperial régime in Russia or for any of the counter-revolutionary movements which at the time the book was written were thought by so many to be prompted by genuine democratic and patriotic ideals. Mr. Spargo makes his case against the Bolsheviki even stronger by ignoring the mass of atrocity stories reported in the press, thereby throwing the emphasis on the undoubted denial of political democracy in soviet Russia as shown by the summary dissolution of the constituent assembly, the unfairness of representation in the soviets, and the excessive power of the commissars. He also points out the fatal weakness of the bolshevik agrarian program, which Lenine was obliged to abandon almost at the outset with the resulting chaos of unrestricted land seizures by the peasants.

The remedy for bolshevism, however, is the development of a far-reaching program of constructive social democracy which will remove “the social oppression, the poverty, and the servitude which produce the desperation of soul that drives men to bolshevism."

G. L. ARNER. SPARGO, J. The psychology of bolshevism. (New York: Harper. 1919. Pp. 150. $1.35.)

Perhaps it is worth mentioning at the outset that Dr. Spargo makes a distinction between bolshevism and Marxism, on the one hand, and between soviets and bolshevism on the other hand. The Bolshevists, according to the author, have aped Marx without really understanding his philosophy. Marxism after all was an intellectual system designed to vindicate the rights of the masses without denying great differences in men. Bolshevism, to quote from the book, is a composite of the following characteristics: "Exaggerated egoism, extreme intolerance, intellectual vanity, hypercriticism, selfindulgence, craving for mental and emotional excitement, excessive dogmatism, hyperbolic language, impulsive judgment, emotional instability, intense hero-worship, propensity for intrigues and conspiracies, rapid alternation of extremes of exaltation and depression, violent contradictions in tenaciously held opinions and beliefs, periodic, swift, and unsystematic changes of mental attitude."

In other places the author adds to this list of undesirable traits, but it will be seen from the foregoing that the psychological viewpoint affords but a gloomy picture, whatever our regard for external conditions. The book is frankly condemnatory of the bolshevist temperament.

Yet a cure of the distemper is at hand, if we will but avail ourselves of it. The means to health is, in a word, justice. “There is only one force which can kill Bolshevism, namely, justice." Mere manhood suffrage and a fair wage as hitherto defined will not answer.

Labor must be allowed a share in the management of capital and thus help change our old representative principle. "It is probable that the best features of Soviet government will be grafted on to the political State.”

Bolshevism, then, is a rule of the mob, though an intellectual tinge is added by a few outstanding leaders. It is a proletocracy as against an aristocracy familiar to all of us. The hysteria of bolshevism will pass, must pass, or else civilization is doomed to perish.

Dr. Spargo's book is more than a study of states of mind, a fact which adds materially to its value, since it must be confessed that great socio-economic movements cannot be explained psychologically. The survey of conditions and policies in the United States, which the author believes aided the Industrial Workers of the World, the bolshevists of America, is therefore doubly welcome.

O. FRED BOUCKE. TROMBERT, A. Profit sharing. A general study of the system as in actual operation. (London: King. 1920. Pp. 94. 28. 6d.)

This is a translation of a report presented to the Congress of Bordeaux on behalf of the Society for the Practical Study of ProfitSharing, November 23-24, 1912. It contains a useful resumé of

undertakings up to that time. WAGNER, S. Die Sosialisierung der Baubetriebe. (Berlin: Hey

1919. Pp. 56. 4 M.) Bolshevik aims and ideals and Russia's revolt against bolshevism. (New York: Macmillan. 1919. Pp. 89. $1.)

These two articles reprinted from the Round Table, claim to give the real truth about the Russian situation as it was early in 1919. The first article describes the rise of the soviet government and the personalities of its leaders. The second discusses the prospects of the military forces opposed to the bolshevik government. The writer is strongly anti-bolshevik in his sympathies and expresses great faith in the "All-Russian government" of Admiral Kolchak at Omsk.

G. L. A. Coöperation and marketing. (Jefferson City, Mo.: State Board of

Agriculture. 1919. Pp. 23.) Facts against socialism. (London: Municipal Soc., 1 Sanctuary Bldg.,

Great Smith St. 1920. Pp. 16.)

manns.

Statistics and Its Methods

NEW BOOKS
ALEXANDER, C. School statistics and publicity. (Boston: Silver,

Burdett. 1919.)
AYRES, L. P. The war with Germany.

A statistical summary. (Washington: Supt. Docs. 1919. Pp. 154.)

A collection of diagrams and maps with explanatory text on the composition of the army, rejections and defects; transportation of men and supplies; food, clothing, and equipment; armament, guns, airplanes; records of battles; health and casualties; expenditures;

and international comparisons. CONRAD. Statistik. Vol. I. Die Geschichte und Theorie der Statistik. Die Bevölkerungsstatistik. Revised by A. Hesse. (Jena: Fischer.

. 1918. Pp. 250. 11.25 M.)

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