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which knowledge is necessary if any constructive plan is to be made for better relations between capital and labor.

After a short introductory chapter the topics discussed are: epochs in the history of organized labor; adoption and interpretation of the constitution; the free school and the wage earner; land reform and the wage earner; labor legislation and the wage earner; labor parties, socialism, direct action, and progressive movement; the ideals of the wage earner; recent pre-war tendencies; and, the war and after. Epochs in the History of Organized Labor is a clear and concise outline of American industrial and labor history and is perhaps the best chapter in the book. Concerning the chapters on the Constitution, Free Schools, and Land Reform, the question might be raised as to the appropriateness of their inclusion. Especially is this true in regard to the discussion concerning the adoption and the interpretaton of the Constitution which is simply a rehash of the now familiar charge that the Constitution was written and adopted through what amounted to a conspiracy on the part of the propertied classes. The argument is interesting but not convincing and shows lack of historical perspective. Too much is read back from presentday conditions. The difficulty of amendment is stressed but the recent passage of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Amendments has led the author to modify somewhat his ideas on that subject. The Constitution, of course, is not sacrosanct and can be changed; but that universal manhood suffrage did not exist at the time of its adoption is an argument neither for nor against it. At any rate, the chapter is based on an idealistic doctrinaire theory and has little relation to the subject of the book.

The matter in the other chapters is, however, more closely connected with the subject of the book. Concerning labor legislation, after tracing its development, the point is made that if it is to accomplish the purpose for which it was ostensibly passed labor legislation must be supported by efficient and sympathetic administration. This fact has been recognized and so through union efforts a considerable number of union men are holding administrative offices in the federal and state service. It is said that two rather antagonistic results will follow. In the first place, the administration of labor laws will be more satisfactory to the wage-earning group than is the case when all administrative positions are filled by persons antagonistic or indifferent to the aspirations of the workers as a class. In the second place, however, as soon as a union man gets a political appointment he is in danger of losing his enthusiasm for unionism. Promotion in industry and political preferment seem to be the means of satisfying the ambitious and modifying the radical. The man who is being promoted or who sees a political job dangling before his eyes has an incentive for conservatism.

Considerable emphasis is placed in various chapters on the difference between business unionism organized along craft lines and industrial or radical unionism. The industrial unionist and many old-line trade unionists are abandoning old and familiar watchwords and traditional policies. The solidarity of the wage-earning class is being stressed. Professor Carlton says:

Not only has industrial integration or combination furnished an incentive and a reason for the partial erasure of craft differences and demarcations, but the shortsighted and fatuous policy of many associations of employers, such as, for example, that of the National Association of Manufacturers, is driving many trade union men into a hard and coherent mass union in which trade demarcations count for little. And the bitter, unreasoning, archaic hatred and opposition of many members of such associations do but furnish the fuel which heats the melting pot and reduces the crystallized trade unions to the amorphous mass union. These gentlemen are in reality the promoters par excellence of revolutionary industrial unionism and of impossibilist socialism.

The changes brought about before and after the war are emphasized in the last two chapters. Among these may be mentioned a tendency toward amalgamation of allied trades, the organization of unskilled workers, and the demand for some participation in the management of industry.

Aside from the strictures noted, this book is a substantial piece of work. One of its chief merits is that it is based on an accurate knowledge of the ideals and policies of organized labor.

GEORGE M. JANES. Washington and Jefferson College.

NEW BOOKS

ALLEN, H. J. and GOMPERS, S. The Allen-Gompers debate. (New

York: Dutton. 1920.) AYUSAWA, I. F. International labor legislation. Columbia Univer

sity studies in history, economics, and public law. (New York: Longmans, Green. 1920. Pp. 258.)

Traces the origin and development of international labor legislation from the time of Owen (1818), with chapters on progress toward international agreements (1890-1900), labor conferences and treaties (1900-1913) and the labor development of the world war. Part II deals with the difficulties in international labor legislation and part III with the Washington conference of 1919 including a summary of the discussion of the eight-hour day and the employment

of women and children. BRAUER, T. Das Recht auf Arbeit. (Jena: Fischer. 1919. Pp. 52.

2.40 M.) BERRIMAN AND OTHERS. Industrial administration. A series of lectures. (New York: Longmans. 1920. Pp. vii, 208. $3.)

Contents: Social obligations of industry to labour, by B. S. Rowntree; The applications of psychology to industry, by T. H. Pear; Education as a function of management, by A. E. Berriman; Occupational diseases, by T. M. Legge; Atmospheric conditions and efficiency, by L. Hill; Industrial councils and their possibilities, by T. B. Johnston; Training for factory administration, by St. G. Heath;

Industrial fatigue, by A. F. S. Kent. Black, F. R. Should trade unions and employers' associations be

made legally responsible? First prize essay of National Industrial Conference Board, 1919-1920. Special report number 10, June,

1920. (Boston: Nat. Indus. Conference Board. 1920. Pp. iv, 35.) BLOOMFIELD, D. Labor maintenance. (New York: Ronald. 1920. .

$5.) BROECKER, P. Die Arbeitnehmerbewegung. (Hamburg: Deutschna

tionale Verlagsanstalt. 1920. Pp. 114.) Commons, J. R. and Andrews, J. B. Principles of labor legislation.

(New York: Harper. 1920. Pp. xii, 559.) Fay, C. N. Labor in politics of class versus country. Considerations

for American voters. (Cambridge: University Press. 1920. Pp. 284.)

A frank and vigorous criticism of the policies of organized labor. The author refers to the difficulties he has met in securing the prompt publication of his views and the book is consequently privately printed. The author's address is 205 Brattle Bldg., Cam

bridge, Mass. Fish, E. H. How to manage men: the principles of employing labor.

(New York: Engg. Mag. Co. 1920. Pp. xii, 337.) Foster, W. Z. The great steel strike and its lessons. With introduc

tion by J. A. Fitch. (New York: Huebsch. 1920. Pp. ix, 265. $1.75.)

This book by the leader of the recent steel strike, in spite of its lurid rhetoric, extreme statements, and partisan viewpoint, throws a good deal of light on labor conditions in the steel industry. Whatever the truth underlying the contentions made, the fact seems to remain that one extreme breeds its opposite extreme. The narra

tive shows clearly that underlying conditions and not merely outside agitators were the cause of the strike. The twelve-hour day, the seven-day week, the twenty-four hour shift, autocratic methods of many employers, and lack of any voice in fixing wages or conditions seem to be the real causes of the strike. Mr. Foster's threats as to a future strike may seem crude and weak and yet the fundamental issue of collective bargaining is the root of the matter and is bound to come up again.

GEORGE M. JANES. FRANKEL, L. K. and FLEISCHER, A. The human factor in industry. (New York: Macmillan. 1920. Pp. xi, 366. $3.)

Contains chapters on hiring and holding of labor, education, working hours and conditions, medical care, method of remuneration, refreshment and recreation of employees, insurance, savings and loans, and organization of a department of labor. There are twelve pages of bibliographical references. The volume provides

an up-to-date summary of current practice. Frost, S. Labor and revolt. (New York: Dutton. 1920.) GOMPERS, S. Labor and the employer. Compiled and edited by H.

ROBBINS. (New York: Dutton. 1920. Pp. vii, 320. $3.50.) GOODRICH, C. L. The frontier control: A study of British workshop

politics. (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Howe. 1920.) HAMMOND, M. B. British labor conditions and legislation during the

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace preliminary economic studies of the war, no. 14. (New York: Oxford Univ. Press. 1919. Pp. ix, 335.)

This volume is the most recent and most complete account of British labor in war time that has yet been issued. Professor Hammond's foreword calls attention to the fact that his study is definitely, as the title of the series indicates, a preliminary one.

He wisely points out the impossibility of trying to record the important happenings in a great war and showing the causal connection of these events while the war is still in progress. He has prepared therefore a narrative of events rather than a critical interpretation of these events.

In addition to two valuable chapters dealing with The Social Background and English Industry and Labor at the Outbreak of the War, the volume covers the following subjects: industrial panic and readjustment, the government and the trade unions, the munitions of war acts, the supply and distribution of labor, the dilution of labor, wages, cost of living, hours of labor, welfare work and unemployment, and industrial unrest. The study deserves amplification in a later volume.

Edith ABBOTT. Hard, W. and LEACH, P. R. Labor in a basic industry. (Chicago:

Daily News. 1920. Pp. 34. 25c.) HODGKIN, J. E., ed. Quakerism and industry. (Darlington: North

of England Newspaper Co. Pp. 152. 4s.)

war.

HOWARD, S. E. The movement of wages in the cotton manufacturing

industry of New England since 1860. (Boston: National Council of American Cotton Manufacturers. 1920. Pp. 99. $1.25.)

Address the author at Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. Kelly, R. W. Training industrial workers. (New York: Ronald

Press Co. 1920. $5.) KIRKALDY, A. W., editor. Industry and finance. (Supplementary

volume.) Being the results of inquiries arranged by the Section of Economic Science and Statistics of the British Association, during the years 1918 and 1919. Published by authority of the Council of

the British Association. (London: Pitman, 1920. Pp. 150.) LEVERHULME, W. H. L. The six-hour shift and industrial efficiency. (New York: Holt. 1920. Pp. viii, 265. $2.50.)

An American and slightly abridged edition, prepared by Mr. Frank Tannenbaum, of the English volume The Six-Hour Day.

There is a brief introduction by Professor Seager. LITCHFIELD, P. W. The industrial republic: A study in industrial economics. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1920. Pp. 95.)

The author discusses the need of giving workmen a voice and share in industrial management. LLOYD, E. F. The closed union shop versus the open shop: their 80

cial and economic value compared. A second prize essay of the National Industrial Conference Board, 1919-1920. Special report number 11. (Boston: Nat. Indus. Conference Board. 1920. Pp.

vi, 27.) LÜDERS, M. E. Die Entwicklung der gewerblichen Frauenarbeit wäh

rend des Krieges. (Munich: Duncker & Humblot. 8 M.) MENDELSOHN, S. Labor's crisis : An employer's view of labor prob

lems. (New York: Macmillan. 1920. Pp. 171, $1.50.) RICHARDS, C. A history of trades councils, 1860-1875. (London:

Labour Research Department. 1920. 19.) ROBINSON, J. S. The Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and

Tin Workers. Johns Hopkins University studies in history and political science, series XXXVIII, no. 2. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 1920. Pp. vii, 166.)

Based on documentary material furnished by the Library of Johns Hopkins University, the files of the Amalgamated Association, and personal interviews. An intensive study of one of the largest trade unions, covering its history, government, jurisdiction, finances, the benefit system, standard rate, working day, restriction of output, machinery, apprenticeship and the helper system, and collective

bargaining. St. LEON, M. Syndicalisme ouvrier et syndicalisme agricole. (Paris:

Payot. 1920. Pp. 160.)

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