페이지 이미지

There are incessant examples also of the use of who, whose, whom, and which, in the ordinary way, as co ordinating relatives, or links of additional predication in connexion with single antecedent nouns; and, indeed, the forms whose and whom, as answering to the Latin cujus, quorum, quarum, quem, quam, quos, quas, and the forms to whom, of whom, &c., as answering to the Latin cui, quibus, ad quem, ad quos, de quo, de quibus, &c., are, as far as I have observed, much more frequent in Milton than in Shakespeare :—

"The aidless, innocent Lady, his wished prey,
Who gently asked," &c.-Com. 574, 575.
"Forth rushed in haste the great consulting Peers,
Raised from their dark Divan, and with like joy
Congratulant approached him, who with hand

Silence, and with these words attention, won.”—P: L., X. 456–459.

"Imitate the starry quire,

Who, in their nightly watchful spheres,

Lead in swift round the months and years."-Com. 111-113.

"Hail, divinest Melancholy,

Whose saintly visage is too bright

To hit the sense of human sight."-Il Pens. 12-14.

"who knows not Circe,

The daughter of the Sun, whose charmed cup

Whoever tasted lost his upright shape?"-Com. 50-52.

"Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints, whose bones

Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold."-Sonnet XVIII.
"the great mistress of yon princely shrine,
Whom with low reverence I adore."-Arc. 36, 37.
"Dark-veiled Colytto, to whom the secret flame
Of midnight torches burns!"-Com. 129, 130.

66 'Provoking God to raise them enemies,

From whom as oft he saves them penitent.”—P. L., XII. 318, 319.
"Vane, young in years, but in sage
counsel old,
Than whom a better senator ne'er held
The helm of Rome."-Sonnet XVII.
"Above the smoke and stir of this dim spot,
Which men call Earth."--Com. 5, 6.
"Believe not these suggestions, which proceed
From anguish of the mind, and humours black
That mingle with the fancy."-S. A. 599–601.
"His spear to equal which the tallest pine
Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast
Of some great ammiral, were but a wand-
He walked with."- P. L., I. 292–295.
"which when Samson

Felt in his arms, with head a while inclined
And eyes fast fixed he stood."-S. A. 1635—1637.


my noble task,

Of which all Europe rings from side to side."-Sonnet XXII.


"unable to perform

Thy terms too hard, by which I was to hold

The good I sought not."-P. L., X. 750—752.

Conjugal love, than which perhaps no bliss

Enjoyed by us excites his envy more. .”—P. L., IX. 263, 264.

In all these cases, and in hundreds more, Milton exhibits what the proposed new rule would call the correct, or co-ordinating, use of the declinable relative who, with a more habitual recourse to it, and especially to the oblique cases whose, whom, and to which as the incorporated neuter, than is found in Shakespeare. So he furnishes innumerable illustrations also of what the rule would call the correct use of In the following, it will be observed, that is purely restrictive or explicative, and that that is not avoided ::-

"As the gay motes that people the sunbeams."—Il Pens. 8.

"Of every star that heaven doth shew

And every herb that sips the dew."—Il Pens. 171, 172.

"Yet some there be that by due steps aspire

To lay their just hands on that golden key

That opes the palace of Eternity."-Com. 12-14.

"He that has light within his own clear breast
May sit i' the centre."-Com. 381-382.
"I was all ear,

And took in strains that might create a soul
Under the ribs of Death."-Com. 560-562.

"And disapproves that care, though wise in show,

That with superfluous burden loads the day.”—Sonnet XXI.

"those rich domains

That the first wealthy Pope received of thee.”—Translated Scrap. "Nine times the space that measures day and night

To mortal men.' -P. L., I. 50.

"And Powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones."-P. L., I. 360.

In all these examples, and in hundreds more, Milton uses that, very much as Shakespeare had done, as the merely restrictive or qualifying relative, while all the examples of who, which, whose, whom, hitherto quoted from him, have exhibited these words only in co-ordinating constructions. It would be a great mistake, however, to infer a fixed principle of Milton's syntax from these two sets of selected instances. Quite as numerous are the instances in which he reverses the apparent rule of the foregoing, and uses who, which, whose, whom, for merely restrictive constructions, and that for co-ordinating constructions.

How thoroughly the Latin qui, quæ, quod had been incorporated into Milton's English, for restrictive as well as for co-ordinating constructions, may be seen from the following handful of examples. They are all in accordance with our present mixed practice; but every who,

whose, or whom in them, and nearly every which, would in Shakespeare's syntax have been resolved into that.

"Or wert thou that just Maid who once before
Forsook the hated Earth?"-D. F. I. 50-51.
"Here lieth one who did most truly prove

That he could never die while he could move."-Hobson, II. 1, 2.
"that same lot, however mean or high,

Toward which Time leads me, and the will of Heaven."-Sonnet II.
"This, this is she

To whom our vows and wishes bend."-Arc. 5, 6.

"I shall appear some harmless villager

Whom thrift keeps up about his country gear."-Com. 166, 167.

"Yea even that which Mischief meant most harm

Shall in the happy trial prove most glory."-Com. 591, 592.

"Some other means I have which may be used,

Which once of Melibous old I learnt."-Com. 821, 822.

"He who of those delights can judge, and spare

To interpose them oft, is not unwise."-Sonnet XX. "Men whose life, learning, faith, and pure intent, Would have been held in high esteem with Paul,

Must now be named and printed heretics."-Forc. of Consc.

"That one talent which is death to hide."-Sonnet XIX.


They also serve who only stand and wait."-Sonnet XIX.

"Even them who kept thy truth so pure of old.”—Sonnet XVIII.
"Whom do we count a good man? Whom but he

Who keeps the laws and statutes of the senate,

Who judges in great suits and controversies ?"-Translated Scrap.

"Blest is the man who hath not walked astray
In counsel of the wicked."—Ps. I.

"He shall be as a tree which planted grows
By watery streams."—Ibid.

"The chief were those who, from the pit of Hell

Roaming to seek their prey on Earth, durst fix

Their seats, long after, next the seat of God."—P. L., I. 381–383.

"That all may see who hate us how we seek

Peace and composure."-P. L., VI. 559, 560.

"behold the excellence, the power,

Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed.”—P. L., VI. 637, 638.

"Eve, easily may faith admit that all

The good which we enjoy from Heaven descends."—P. L., XI. 142, 143.

"most men admire

Virtue who follow not her lore."-P. R., I. 482, 483.

It Milton is much more Latin than Shakespeare in his use of who and which in merely restrictive constructions, he makes amends by reviving

[blocks in formation]

much more frequently than Shakespeare did the Old English use of that in distinctly co-ordinative constructions: eg.




[ocr errors]

"Nature, that heard such sound

Beneath the hollow round

Of Cynthia's seat the airy region thrilling,

Now was almost won

To think her part was done."-—Od. Nat. 101-105.

Hail, bounteous May, that dost inspire

Mirth, and youth, and warm desire."-May Morn.

'Sport, that wrinkled Care derides."-L'All. 31.

Spare Fast, that oft with gods doth diet."-Il Pens. 46.

Bacchus, that first from out the purple grape
Crushed the sweet poison of misused wine
On Circe's island fell."-Com. 46-50.

"And disinherit Chaos, that reigns here

[ocr errors]

In double night of darkness and of shades."-Com. 334, 335.
"His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow,
Breathe soft or loud."-P. L., V. 192, 193.

"and to him called

Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deigned
To travel with Tobias."-P. L., V. 220–222.

"The Sun, that light imparts to all, receives

From all his alimental recompense."-P. L., V. 423, 424.


That Milton did not follow the rule of who and which for co-ordinating constructions, and that for restrictive, has been abundantly proved. On the whole, he seems to have been guided by a varying momentary instinct, sometimes logical perhaps, but often merely musical. I may add that occasionally, like Shakespeare, he has the genuine archaism (now a vulgarism) of what for the relative that or which: a relic of the time when the whole of the interrogative who was used relatively (see ante, p. lxxxiii.) Thus "All what we affirm" (Par. Lost, V. 107), "Easy to me to tell thee all what thou commandest" (Par. Lost, IX. 569–70). Peculiar relative constructions also are "Such a foe is rising who intends" (Par. Lost, V. 724, 725), and "such wherein appeared obscure some glimpse of joy" (Par. Lost, I. 523, 524). I have not noted any examples in Milton of Shakespeare's use of which for the masculine and feminine; but there may be such.

PREPOSITIONS. That multiplicity of meanings for the common prepositions of, to, &c., on which Mr. Abbott has commented as one of the characteristics of Elizabethan English persists in Milton, though not to the same extent, nor perhaps to an extent beyond the practice of poets of our own time. I will note but a few instances: "And of pure now purer air meets his approach" (Par. Lost, IV. 153, 154) seems to present of in a sense like from; "may of purest Spirits be found no ingrateful food" (Par. Lost, V. 406, 407) is one of the

passages in which of serves for our present by; and "Greet her of a lovely son" (March. Winch. 23) gives of in the sense of on account of. In "to the twelve that shine in Aaron's breastplate" (Par. Lost, III. 597, 598) to is equivalent to through all the rest of, or to the complete number of; in "So much hath Hell debased, and pain enfeebled me, to what I was in Heaven" (Par. Lost, IX. 487, 488), it has the sense of in comparison with (see also S. A. 950); and in "God will restore him eyesight to his strength" (S. A. 1503) it has the sense of in addition to. "Which, but herself, not all the Stygian powers" (Par. Lost, II. 875) is an example of but used prepositionally for except. An anomalous use of twixt, applying it to more than two objects, is found in "Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding fires" (Par. Lost, I. 346).

ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS.-The most frequent difference from our present English here is the use of the conjunction that for so that. It was a transmitted Elizabethanism, well conserved by Milton: eg.

"And lack of load made his life burdensome,

That, even to his last breath (there be that say't),

As he were pressed to death, he cried 'More weight.'"-Hobson, No. 2. "Untwisting all the chains that tie

The hidden soul of harmony,

That Orpheus' self may heave his head.”—L'All. 143–145.

"Like Maia's son he stood

And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance filled
The circuit wide."-P. L., V. 285-287.

There are other now unusual senses of the conjunction that: e.g. Par. Lost, III. 278, where it seems to mean inasmuch as. In the lines On Shakespeare we have virtually whilst that for whilst; and elsewhere I think we have that redundant.


As appears in several senses not now common. It serves for that or as that: e.g. a stripling cherub . . . such as in his face youth smiled celestial" (Par. Lost, III. 637, 638: compare Par. Reg., II. 97, 98); also for as if: e.g. "into strange vagaries fell, as they would dance" (Par. Lost, VI. 614, 615); also for in proportion as: e.g. "For bliss, as thou hast part, to me is bliss (Par. Lost, IX. 879); also for such as (Il Pens. 163–165) and such that it or so that it (Od. Nat. 96-98).

[ocr errors]

Of but for than, "No sooner blown but blasted (D. F. I. 1) is an early example; and the idiom recurs (Par. Lost, III. 344, 347, XI. 822, 824, &c.) in Par. Lost, V. 674, and perhaps elsewhere, and has a sense of if or though: Milton uses the word both where the reference is to more objects than two: e.g. "The God that made both sky, air, earth, and heaven" (Par. Lost, IV. 722); and he takes the same liberty with neither: e.g. "Of neither sea, nor shore, nor air, nor fire" (Par. Lost, II. 912).- -The variety of his uses of or, nor, neither, &c., may

« 이전계속 »