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„AGS OF THE COMMERCIAL CODE OF SIGNALS

FOR THE USE OF ALL NATIONS.

" CODE SIGNAL" AND

"ANSWERING PENNANT"

N.B.-When used as the “Code Signal" this Pennant is to be hoisted under the “ Ensign;"

when used as the “ Answering Pennant," where best seen.

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BY

WILLIAM CULLEY BERGEN,

Master in the Mercantile Marine,

Author of Bergen's Navigation,and several other Works.

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE.

Presented to Purchasers of the Third Edition of Bergen's Navigation."

LONDON:
PUBLISHED BY SIMPKEN, MARSHALL, & CO., STATIONERS' HALL COURT.
R. H. LAURIE, 53, FLEET STREET; JAMES IMRAY & SON, 89, MINORIES ;
LIVERPOOL: PHILIP, SON & NEPHEW, SOUTH CASTLE STREET;

EDINBURGH: OLIVER & BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT;

BLYTH, NORTHUMBERLAND: WM. C. BERGEN.
PRINTED BY W. J. POTTS & Co., 38, BEDFORD STREET, NORTH SHIELDS.

[Entered at Stationers' Hall. The Right of Translation is reserved.]

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PREFACE.

The following work is derived principally from the author's treatise on Navigation. It is here put in the form of question and answer. There are some additional subjects treated, which it is hoped will increase the utility of the work.

It is difficult, without repetition, to keep the seamanship for the several grades distinct. The author has therefore thought it best to treat every subject completely, and the following Rules will enable the candidate to select the part he wants. Or his teacher will point it out to him :

QUALIFICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY

FOR A “FOREIGN-GOING SHIP.” The qualifications in Seamanship required for the several ranks undermentioned are as follow :

A SECOND MATE must be seventeen years of age, and must have been four years at sea.

IN SEAMANSHIP.—He must give satisfactory answers as to the rigging and unrigging of ships, stowing of holds, &e. ; must understand the measurement of the log-line, glass and lead-line; be conversant with the rule of the road, as regards both steamers and sailing vessels, and the lights and fog signals carried by them, and will also be examined as to his acquaintance with “ the Commercial Code of Signals for the use of all Nations.”

An ONLY MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have been five years at sea.

IN SEAMANSHIP.— In addition to what is required for a Second Mate, he must know how to moor and unmoor, and to keep a clear anchor ; to carry out an anchor; to stow a hold; and to make the requisite entries in the ship's log. He will also be questioned as to his knowledge of the use and management of the mortar and rocket lines in the case of the stranding of a vessel, as explained in the official log-book.

A FIRST MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have served five years at sea, of which one year must have been as either Second or Only Mate, or as both.

IN SEAMANSHIP.-In addition to the qualification required for an Only Mate, a more extensive knowledge of seamanship will be required, as to shifting large spars and sails, managing a ship in stormy weather, taking in and making sail, shifting yards and masts, &c., and getting heavy weights, anchors, &c., in and out; casting a ship on a lee-shore ; and securing the masts in the event of accident to the bowsprit.

A MASTER must be twenty-one years of age, and have been six years at sea, of which at least one year must have been as First or Only Mate, and one year as Second Mate.

He will be examined as to his competency to construct jury rudders and rafts; and as to his resources for the preservation of the ship's crew in the event of wreck. He must possess a sufficient knowledge of what he is required to do by law, as to entry and discharge, and the management of his crew, and as to penalties and entries to be made in the official log; and a knowledge of the measures for preventing and checking the outbreak of scurvy on board ship. He will be questioned as to his knowledge of invoices, charter party, Lloyd's agent, and as to the nature of bottomry, and he must be acquainted with the leading lights of the channel he has been accustomed to navigate, or which he is going to

use.

In cases where an applicant for a certificate as Master Ordinary has only served in a fore-and-aft-rigged vessel, and is ignorant of the management of a square-rigged vessel, he may obtain a certificate on which the words fore-and-aft-rigged vesselwill be written. This certificate does not entitle him to command a square-rigged ship. This is not, however, to apply to Mates, who, being younger men, are expected for the future to learn their business completely.

An EXTRA MASTER'S EXAMINATION is voluntary, and intended for such persons as wish to prove their superior qualifications, and are desirous of having certificates for the highest grade granted by the Board of Trade.

IN SEAMANSHIP.—The extra examination will consist of an inquiry into the competency of the applicant to heave a ship down, in case of accident befalling her abroad ; to get lower masts in and out; and to perform such other operations of a like nature as the Examiner may consider it proper to examine him upon.

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