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abwabs according Akbar amount ancient authority beegah Behar Benares Bengal British India British Indian Association cent cesses Chap collection collectors constitution of India contd Court of Directors crop custom dacoity debt demand dirhems distraint district duties enhancement of rent established pergunnah rate estates exactions existing expenses favour fixed former Government hereditary Hindu Hindu law improvement increase interest jumma khoodkasht ryots labour land revenue landholders landlord law and constitution leases levied limited Lord Cornwallis Madras Presidency Mahomedan ment middlemen millions sterling native occupancy officers oppression Orissa paid paragraph payable payment period permanent settlement perpetual persons polygars possession pottahs principle produce proportion proprietary right purchase rajahs rate of rent Regulations of 1793 rule rupees ryot's share Sir John Shore soil sovereign sunnud talookdars tenants tenures tion village village communities waste lands zemin zemindars and ryots zemindary settlement
9 페이지 - The movement of the progressive societies has been uniform in one respect. Through all its course it has been distinguished by the gradual dissolution of family dependency and the growth of individual obligation in its place. The individual is steadily substituted for the Family, as the unit of which civil laws take account...
7 페이지 - The eldest male parent — the eldest ascendant — is absolutely supreme in his household. His dominion extends to life and death, and is as unqualified over his children and their houses as over his slaves ; indeed the relations of sonship and serfdom appear to differ in little beyond the higher capacity which the child in blood possesses of becoming one day the head of a family himself.
169 페이지 - There shall be left for every man who cultivates his lands as much as he requires for his own support till the next crop be reaped, and that of his family and for seed. This much shall be left to him, what remains is the land-tax and shall go to the public treasury.
28 페이지 - ... cannot be inhabited, the scattered villagers nevertheless return whenever the power of peaceable possession revives. A generation may pass away, but the succeeding generation will return. The sons will take the places of their fathers, the same site for the...
28 페이지 - Sikh, English, are all masters in turn; but the village communities remain the same. In times of trouble they arm and fortify themselves: a hostile army passes through the country: the village communities collect their cattle within their walls, and let the enemy pass unprovoked.
29 페이지 - Under this simple form of municipal government, the inhabitants of the country have lived from time immemorial. The boundaries of the villages have been but seldom altered; and though the villages themselves have been sometimes injured, and even desolated by war, famine or disease, the same name, the same limits, the same interests, and even the same families, have continued for ages.
29 페이지 - A village, geographically considered, is a tract of country comprising some hundreds or thousands of acres of arable and waste land ; politically viewed, it resembles a corporation or township.
28 페이지 - The village communities are little republics, having nearly everything that they want within themselves, and almost independent of any foreign relations. They seem to last where nothing else lasts. Dynasty after dynasty tumbles down. Revolution succeeds to revolution. Hindoo, Patan, Mogul, Mahratta, Sikh, English, are all masters in turn, but the village communities remain the same.