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Freodom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
ART. VI. No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or rocoive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty with any king, princo, or Stato; nor shall any porson holding any office of profit or trust undor tho Unito Statos, or any of thom, aocopt of any prosont, omolumont, offico, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign Stato; nor sball the United Statos in Congress assemblod, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.
No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance what. over between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, spocifying accurately the purposes for which the samo is to bo entered into, and how long it shall continue.
No Stato shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince, or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the Courts of France and Spain.
No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such num. ber only as shall be deemed necossary by the United States, in Congross assembled, for the defence of such state or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any Stato, in time of poaco, oxoopt such number only as in the judgment of the United Statos, in Congress assembled, shall be doomed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such State ; but every State shall always keep up a well rogulated and disciplinod militia, sufficiently armed and acooutred, and shall provide and constantly have ready for uso, in public storos, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and oamp equipage.
No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congross assomblod, unloss such Stato bo actually invaded by onomies, or shall havo recoired certain advico of a rosolution being formed by somo nation of Indians to invade such Stato, and the danger is so imminont as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congrogs assomblod can be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be aftor a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or State, and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.
ART. VII. When land forces are raised by any Stato for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of Colonel shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forcos shall be raised, or in such manner as such Stato sball direct; and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first mado the appointment.
ART. VIII. All chargos of war and all other exponses that shall be inourrod for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several Statos, in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted to ur survoyed for any porson, and suob land and the buildings and improvemonts theroon
shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled shall from time to time direct and appoint.
The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.
ART. IX. The United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article-of sending and receiving ambassadors-entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever—of establishing rules for deciding, in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United Statos shall be divided or appropriated—of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace—appointing Courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the bigh deas, and establishing oourts for receiving and dotormining finally appoals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of tho snid Courts.
The United Statos in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereaftor may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following :-Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress stating the matter in question and praying for a bearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint, hy joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question; but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven nor more than dine Dumes, as Congress shall direct, shall, in the presence of Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whoso names shall be so drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the Judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination ; and if either party sball noglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient, or, being present, sball refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the secretary of Congress shall striko in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgment and sentence of the Court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, sball be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defond their claim or cause, the Court shall novortheless proceed to pronounce sentence or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either caso transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, to be administered by one of the judges of the Supreme or Superior Court of the State where the caure shall be tried, “roell and truly to hear and determine the matter in question according to the best of his judgment, without favour, affection, or hope of reward :" provided also that no State shall be deprived of terri. tory for the benefit of the United Statos.
All controversies concerning the private right of soil, claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdiotions as they may respect such lands and the States which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of thom being at the same timo claimed to havo originatod antecedent to such settlemont of jurisdiction, sball, on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United States, be finally detormined as nonr as may be in the same manner as is bofore prosoribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different States.
The United Statos in Congross assembled shall also have the sole and exolusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respoctive States—fixing the staņdard of weights and measures throughout the United States-regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any Stato within its own limits bo not infringed or violated-establishing and regulating postoflicos from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office-appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers_appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States — making rules for the governinent and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.
The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committeo, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated “A Committee of the States," and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of tho United States under their direction-to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to sorvo in the office of president more than ono year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the publio expenses to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting overy half-year to the respective States an account of the sums of money 80 borrowed or emitted to build and equip a navy-to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inbabitants in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, rajse the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States, and the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped shall march to tho placo appointed, and within tho timo agreod on by the Unitod States in Congross assembled; but if the Unitod Stntes in Congress assombled shall, on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other State should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, clotho, arm, and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and mon 80 clothed, armed, and equipped shall march to the place appointod, and within tho time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.
The United States in Congress assembled sball never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the valuo thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United Stntes, or any of them, nor emit hills. no: horrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, ont agree upor tae number of vessels of war to be built or purcharod, or the pumber
of land or soa forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or Davy, unless nine States assent to the same; nor shall a question on any other point, oxcept for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votos of a majority of the United States in Congress assembled.
The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within tho yoar, and to any place within the United Statos, so that no period of adjournmont be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliancos, or military operations, as in their judgment require socresy, and the yeas and days of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegato ; and the delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their requost, shall be furnished with a transoript of the said journal, oxoopt such parts as are above exoopted, to lay before the legislaturos of the soveral Statos.
Art. X. The Committee of the States, or any nino of thom, shall be authorized to execute, in the roco88 of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine Statos, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with: provided that no power bo delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the Artioles of Confederation, the voice of pino States in the Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.
ART. XI. Canada, acceding to this Confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nino States.
ART. XII. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed, and debts contracted by or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States in pursu. ance of the present Confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States and the publio faith are hereby solemnly pledged.
ART. XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this Confederation are submitted to thom. And the Articles of this Confoderation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any altoration at any time hereafter be made in any of thom; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislaturos of overy State.
AND WHEREAS it hath pleased the Great Governor of the world to inoline the hearts of the logislatures we respeotively represont in Congross to approve of and to authorizo us to ratify the said articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, KNOW YE, That we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein oontained : and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our rospective constituents that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by the said Confederation are submitted to them. And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States wo respectively represent, and that the Union sball be perpetual.
HAMILTON'S FIRST PLAN OF GOVERNMENT.
The People of the United States of America do ordain and estar
blish this Constitution for the Government of themselves and their Posterity.
ARTIOLE I. SECTION 1. The Legislative power shall be vosted in two distinot bodies of men, une to be called the Assembly, the other the Senate, subject to the negative hereinafter mentioned.
Sec. 2. The Executive power, with the qualifications hereinafter specified, shall be vested in a Prosidont of the Unito Statos.
Sec. 3. The supreme Judicial authority, except in the cases otherwiso provided for in this Constitution, shall be vested in a court to be called the Supreme Court, to consist of not less than six, nor more than twelve judges.
ARTICLE II. Sec. 1. The Assembly shall consist of persons to be called Representatives, who shall be chosen, except in the first instance, by the free male oitizens and inhabitants' of the several States comprehended in the Union, all of whom of the age of twentyone years and upwards shall be entitled to an equal vote.
Sec. 2. But the first Assembly shall be chosen in the manner prescribed in the last Article, and shall consist of one hundred members, of whom New Hampshire shall have five, Massachusetts thirteon, Rhode Island two, Connecticut soven, New York nine, Now Jersey six, Pennsylvania twolvo, Delaware two, Maryland eight, Virginia' sixteen, North Carolina eight, South Carolina eight, Goorgia four.
Sec. 3. The Legislature shall provide for the future elections of Representatives, apportioning them in each State, from time to time, as noarly as may be to the number of persons described in the 4th Section of the VIIth Artiole, 80 as that the whole number of Representatives shall never be less than one hundred, nor moro than hundred. There shall be a census taken for this purpose within three years, after the first meeting of the Legislature, and within every successive period of ten years. The term for which Representatives shall be eleoted shall be determined by the Legislature; but shall not exceed three years. There shall be a general election at loast once in three years; and the time of service of all the members in' each Assembly shall begin (except in filling vacancies) on the same day, and shall always end on the same day.
Sec. 4. Forty members shall make a house sufficient to proceed to business. But this number mny be inoronsod by the Legislaturo, yet so as never to excoed a majority of tho whole numbor of Ropresontativos.
Sec. 5. The Assembly shall choose its President and other officers ; shall judge of the qualifications and elections of its own members ; punish them for improper con. drct in their capacity of Representatives not extending to life or limb, and shall Jxclusively possess the power of impeachment, except in the case of the President of