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permission of the Legislature accept any present, emolument, office, or title from a foreign prince or state ; nor shall any religious soot or denomination, or religious tost for any office or place be over established by law.
8E0. 4. Taxes on lands, houses, and other real estate, and capitation taxes, sball bo proportioned in each State by tho whole number of fren persons, except Indians not taxed and by three-fifths of all other persons.
Sec. 5. The two houses of the Logislature may by joint ballot appoint a Troasurer of the United States. Neither house (in the session of both houses) without the consent of the other shall adjourn for more than throo days at a time. The Senators and Ropresontativos in attonding, going to and coming from the session of their rospootive houses shall be privileged from arrests, excopt for orimos and breaches of the peace. The place of mooting shall always bo at tho soat of Govornmont, which shall bo fixod by law.
Sec. 8. The laws of the United States and the treatios whioh have boon made under the Articles of the Confederation, and which shall be mado under this Constitution, shall be the supromo law of the land, and shall be so construed by the courts of the several States.
Sec. 7. The Logislaturo shall convene at least once in oach yoar, which, unless otherwise provided for by law, shall be the first Monday in December.
Sec. 8. The mombers of the two houses of the Legislature shall receive a reasonable compensation for their servicos, to be paid out of the treasury of the United States and ascertained by law. The law for making such provision shall be passed with the concurrence of the first Assombly, and shall extend to suocooding Assemblies, and no succeeding Assembly shall concur in an alteration of such provision, 80 as to increase its own compensation ; but thoro shall be always a law in existence for making such provision.
ARTIOLE VIII. Sec. 1. The Governor or President of each State shall be appointed under the authority of the Uniter States, and shall have a right to negativo all laws about to be passed in the State of whioh he shall be Governor or President, subject to such quali. fications and regulations as the Logislature of the United Statos shall presoribe. He shall in other rospoots have the same powers only whioh the Constitution of the Stato doos or shall allow to its Governor or Prosident, except as to the appointment of officers of the militia.
SEC. 2. Each Governor or President of a State shall hold his office until a successor be actually appointed, unloss he die or resign, or be removed from office by conviction on impeachment. There shall be no appointment of such Governor or Prosident in the recess of the Senato.
The Governors and Presidents of the soveral States, at the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall continuo in office in the samo manner and with the same powers as if they had been appointed pursuant to the first Section of this Article.
The officers of militia in the several States may be appointed under the authority of the United States; the Legislature whoreof may authorize the Governors or Prosidents of Statos to make such appointments, with such restriotions as they shall think proper.
ARTICLE IX. Szo. 1. No porson shall be eligible to the office of President of the United Statos unless ho bo now a citizon of one of the Statos, or horoaftor be born a citizon of the Unitod Stntos.
Sec. 2. No porson shall be eligible as a Sonator or Roprosontativo unloss at the time of his election ho be a citizen and inhabitant of the State in which he is chosen,
provided that he shall not be deemed to be disqualified by a temporary absence from the State.
Sec. 3. No person entitled by this Constitution to elect or be elected President of the United States, or a Senator or Representative in the Legislature thereof, shall be disqualified but by the conviction of some offence for which the law shall have previously ordained the punishment of disqualification. But the Logislaturo may by law provide that persons holding offices under the United States or either of them shall not be eligible to a place in the Assombly or Senate, and shall be during their continuance in office suspended from sitting in the Senate.
Sec. 4. No person having an office or place of trust under the United States shall without pormission of the Legislature accept any present, omolument, office, or titlo from any foreign prinos or state.
Seo. 5. The citizons of each State shall be entitled to the rights, privileges, and immunitios of citizens in overy other State, and full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the publio aots, rooords, and judicial proceedings of another.
Sec. 6. Fugitives from justice from one State who shall be found in another shall be delivered up on the application of the State from which they flod.
Seo. 7. No new State shall be erected within the limits of another, or by the junction of two or more States, without the concurrent oonsent of the Legislature of the United States and of the States concerned. The Legislature of the United States may admit new States into the Union.
Sæo. 8. The United States aro hereby declared to be bound to guarantee to each Stato a republican form of Government, and to protect each State as well against domestic violence as foreign invasion.
Sec. 9. All treaties, contracts, and engagements of the United States of America, under the Articles of Confoderation and perpetual Union, shall havo oqual validity under this Constitution.
Sec. 10. No State shall enter into a treaty, alliance, or oontract with another or with a foreign power without the consent of the United States.
Seo. 11. The mombers of the Legislature of the United States and of each State, and all officers executive and judicial of the one and of the other, shall take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States,
Sec. 12. This Constitution may receive suoh alteration and amendmonts as may be proposed by the Logislature of the United States, with the oonourrence of two-thirds of the members of both houses, and ratified by the Legislatures of or by conventions of deputies ohosen by the people in two-thirds of the States oomposing the Union.
This Constitution shall be submitted to the consideration of conventions in tho several States, the members whereof shall be chosen by the peoplo of such States respectivoly under the direotion of their respective Legislaturos. Enoh convention which shall ratify the same shall appoint the first Reprosontatives and Senators from such State, acording to the rule prescribed in the Section of tho Article. The Representatives so appointed shall continuo in office for one year only. Each convention so ratifying shall give notice thereof to the Congress of the United States, transmitting at the same time a list of the Representatives and Senators chosen. When the Constitution shall have been duly ratified, Congress shall give notice of a day and place for the meeting of the Senators and Representatives from the several States, and when these or a majority of them shall have assombled according to such notice, they shall by joint ballot by plurality of votes elect a Prosident of the United States, and the Constitution, thus organized, shall be carried into effect.
THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION,
AS AGREED UPON
BY THE CONVENTION,
SEPTEMBER 17, 1787.
Cve the People of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the common Defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.
Section 1. All logislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senato and house of representatives.
Seot. 2. The house of roprosentatives shall be composed of members choson every second year by the poople of the soveral states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for eleotors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.
No person shall be a representativo who shall not have attained to the age of twentyfive years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direot taxe8 shall be apportioned among the soveral states which may be included within this union, according to their respootivo numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsoquent term of ton yoars, in such manner as thoy shall by law diroot. The number of representatives shall not excood ono for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of NewHampshire shall be entitled to choose threo, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connectiout five, New-York six, New-Jersoy four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, SouthCarolina five, and Georgia tbroo.
When vacancies happen in the representation from 'any state, the executive anthority thoroof shall issue writs of election to fill such paoanoios.
The house of representatives shall choose their spoakor and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impoachment.
Sect. 3. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two sonators from each stato, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six yoars; and each senator shall havo ono vote.
Immediately aftor they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third olass at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be choson every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any stato, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall thon All such vacancies.
No porson shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and boon nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.
Tho vice-president of the United Statos shall be president of the sonato, but shall havo no voto, unless thoy bo equally divided.
The sonate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absonoo of the vice-president, or when he shall exorciso the office of president of the United States.
The sonate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose they shall bo on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside. And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust, or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.
Sect. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, shall be proscribed in each state by the legislature thereof: but the congress may at any time by law make or alter such rogulations, excopt as to the places of choosing senators.
The congress shall assomble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Sect. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business : but a smaller numbor may adjourn from day to day, and may bo authorized to compel the attondance of absont members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.
Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
Each houso shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the samo, excepting such parts as may in their judgmont require secresy; and the yoas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
Sect. 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and broach of the peace, bo privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same, and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the Unitod States, which shall huve been created, or the cmoluments whereof shall bave Lecu incrcused during such
time; and no person, holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.
Sect. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives ; but the senate may propose or concur with annondmonts as on othor bills. .
Every bill which shall have passed the house of reprosontatives and the sonate shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at largo on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise bo reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectivoly. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he bad signed it, unless the congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
Every ordor, resolution, or voto, to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassod by twothirds of tho sonate and houso of representatives, according to the rules and limitations proscribed in the caso of a bill.
SECT. 8. Tho congross shall havo power,
To lay and collect taxes, dutios, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United Statos; but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States :
To borrow money on the credit of tho United States :
To regulato commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes :
To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subjects of bankruptcies throughout the United States :
To coin monoy, rogulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and moasures :
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and ourront coin of the United States :
To establish post-offices and post-roads :
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusivo right to their respective writings and discoveries :
To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court:
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations :
To declare war, grant lotters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water :
To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longor term than two years :
To provido and maintain a navy:
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and ropel invasions :
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining tho militin, and for governing ruch parts of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving