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assių ned; that the senators should appoint a president of the senate, for the sole pur. pose of receiving, oponing, and counting the votes for president; and that after be shall be chosen, the congress, together with the president, should without delay proceed to execute this constitution. By the unanimous order of the Convention.


AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. The first ten amendments were proposed in Congress during its first session, and on the 15th of December, 1791, were ratified. The eleventh amendment was proposed during the first session of the third congress, and was announced by the President of the United States in a message to it, of date January 8th, 1798, as having been ratified. The twelfth amendment originated with Hamilton,* and was proposed during the first session of the eighth Congress, and was adopted in 1804.

ARTICLE THE FIRST. CONGRESS shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise theroof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assomble, and to potition the government for a redress of griovanoos.

ARTICLE THE SECOND. A well regulatod militia boing necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not bo infringed.

ARTICLE THE THIRD. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to bo prosoribed by law.

ARTICLE THE FOURTH. Tho right of tho poople to bo socure in their persons, hou808, papers, and effects, against unreasonablo soarchos and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be earched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE THE FIFTH. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous orime, unless on a presentment or indictinent of a grand jury, excopt in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the samo offence to be twice put in joopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for publio use without just compensation.

ARTICLE THE SIXTH. In all criminal proscoutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and publio trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall bave been committed, which distriot shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be oonfronted with the witnossos against him; to havo compulsory proooss for obtaining witnossos in his favour, and to have the assistanoo of counsel for his defonco.

ARTICLE THE SEVENTH. In suits nt common law, whoro tho valuo in oontrovorey shall oxoood twonty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwiso re-examined in any court of the United Statos than acoording to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE THR EIGHTH. Excessivo bail shall not be requirod, nor excessive fines imposod, nor oruel and unu. sual punishmonts infliotod.

ARTICLE TAX NINTH. The enumeration in the constitution of cortain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparago othors rotained by the people.

ARTICLE THE TENTI. The powers not delogated to the Unitod Statos by the oonstitution, nor prohibited hy it to the states, are rosorved to tho statos rospoctively, or to tho pooplo.

ARTICLE TAE ELEVENTH. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit m law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citi. zens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign stato.

• Ilist. Rep. VII., 566.

ARTICLE XII. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for president and vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the samo state with thomselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice-president; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of the sonate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of reprosentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes eball then be counted: the person having the greatest number of votes for president, sball be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having ono voto; a quorunu for this purpuse shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of tho stutes, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if tho house of representatives shall not choose a president whenovor the right of choico shall dovolve upon them, before tho fourth day of March next following, thon the vice-president shall act as president as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president.

The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president, shall be the vicepresident, if such pumber be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed : and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the senato shall choose the vico-prosident: a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.

But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president, shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States.


SEPTEMBER 17th, 1787. SIR: We have now the honor to submit to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable. The friends of our country have long seen and desired, that the power of making war, peace, and treaties; that of levying money and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executivo and judicial authorities should be fully and effectually vested in the general government of the Union; but the impropriety of delegating such extensive trusts to one body of men is evident. Henco results the necessity of a different organization. It is obviously impracticable, in the federal government of those States, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all. Individuals entering into society must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and ciroumstanco as on the object to be obtuined. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and thoso which may be rosorvod; and on the present ocousion this difficulty was incroused by a difference among the several states as to their situation, extont, bubits, and particular interests.

In all our deliberations on this subject we kept steadily in our viow, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every truo American, the consolidation of our union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, porhaps our national exist

This important consideration, seriously and doeply impressed on our minds, led each state in tho convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude than might have been otherwise expected; and thus tho Con on, which we now present, is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession which the poouliarity of our political situation rendered indispensablo.

That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every stato is not perhaps to be expected: but each will doubtless consider, that had her interests alone been consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others; that it is liuble to as few exooptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure hor freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honor to be, sir, your excellency's most obedient and bumble sorvants, By un iniinous order of the convention.

Go: WASHINGTON, l'resident Ilis excellency the President of Congress.


The following amendment was ratified by Alabama, December 2d, 1865, which filled the requisite complement of ratifying states, and was certified by the secretary of state to have becomo valid as a part of the Constitution of the United States, December 18th, 1865.

ARTICLE XIII. Seot. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, wheroof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United Statos, or any placo subjeot to thoir jurisdiotion.

Seot. 2. Congress shall bave power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Tho following amondmont was cortifiod by tho socrotary of stato to have become valid as a part of the Constitution of the United States, July 28th, 1868.

ARTICLE XIV. Sect. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the statos wberoin they reside. No stnto shall make or enforco any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Sect. 2. Roprosentatives shall be apportioned among the soveral states according to their respective puinberg, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to voto at any election for the choico of electors for president and vice president of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, oxcopt. for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such inale citizens shall bear to the whole number of innlo citizens of twenty-one years of age in such state.

Secr. 3. No person shall be a sonntor or representative in congress, or elector of prosident and vico prosident, or hold any offico, civil or military, under tho United Statos, or under any state, who, buving proviously taken on oath as a member of oongross, or as an officer of the Unito Statos, or as a member of any stato logisla. turo, or as an exccutivo or judicial officer of any stato, to support the Constitution of the United Statos, shall have engnged in insurroction or robellion ngainst the same. or givon aid or comfort to the onowios thoroof. But oongross may, by a voto of twothirds of each houso, remove such disability,

SECT. 4. Tho validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law. including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United Statos nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligntion incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any clnim for the loss or cmancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and olniins shall be beld illegal and void.

SECT. 5. The congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

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AFTER full experience of the insufficiency of the existing Federal Government, you are invited to deliberate upon a new Constitution for the United States of America.

The subject speaks its own importance; comprehending in its consequences, nothing less than the existence of the UNIONthe safety and welfare of the parts of which it is composed the fate of an empire, in many respects, the most interesting in the world. It has been frequently remarked, that, it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, to decide by their conduct and example, the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are for ever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force. If there be any truth in the remark, the crisis, at which we are arrived, may with propriety be regarded as the period when that decision is to be made; and a wrong election of the part we shall act, may, in this view, deserve to be considerod as the general misfortune of mankind.

This idea, by adding the inducements of philanthropy to those of patriotism, will heighten the solicitude, which all considerate and good men must feel for the event. Happy will it be if our


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