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stantly impose on the national rulers, the necessity of a spirit of accommodation to the reasonable expectations of their constituents. But there is yet a further consideration, which proves beyond the possibility of doubt, that the observation is futile. It is this, that the national rulers, whenever pine states concur, will have no option upon the subject. By the fifth article of the plan the congress will be obliged, "on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states, (which at present amount to nine) to call a convention for proposing amendments, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof.” The words of this article are peremptory. The congress "shall call a convention." Nothing in this particular is left to discretion. Of consequence all the declamation about the disinclination to a change, vanishes in air. Nor, however difficult it may be supposed to unite two-thirds, or three-fourths of the state legislatures, in amendments which may affect local interests, can there be any room to apprehend any such difficulty in a union on points which are merely relative to the general liberty or security of the people. We may safely rely on the disposition of the state legislatures to erect barriers against the encroachments of the national authority.
If tbo foregoing argument be a fallacy, certain it is that I am myself deceived by it; for it is, in my conception, one of those rare instances in which a political truth can be brought to the test of mathematical demonstration. Those wbo see the matter in the same light, however zealous they may be for amend. ments, must agree in the propriety of a previous adoption, as the most direct road to their object.
The zeal for attempts to amend, prior to the establishment of the constitution, must abate in every man, who is ready to accede to the truth of the following observations of a writer, eqnally solid and ingenious: “To balance a large state or Bociety (says he) whether monarchical or republican, on goneral la we, je a work of so great difficulty, that no human genius,
however comprehensive, is able by the mere dint of reason and reflection, to effect it. The judgments of many must unite in the work : EXPERIENCE must guide their labour: TIME must bring it to perfection : And the FEELING of inconveniences must correct the mistakes which they inevitably fall into, in their first trials and experiments.”* These judicious reflections contain a lesson of moderation to all the sincere lovers of the union, and ought to put them upon their guard against bazarding anarchy, civil war, a perpetual alienation of the states from each other, and perhaps the military despotism of a victorious demagogue, in the pursuit of what they are not likely to obtain, but from TIME and EXPERIENCE. It
be'in me a defect of political fortitude, but I acknowledge that I cannot entertain an equal tranquillity with those who affect to treat the dangers of a longer continuance in our present situation as imaginary. A NATION without a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, is an awful spectacle. The establishment of a constitution, in time of profound peace, by the voluntary consent of a whole people, is a PRODIGY, to the completion of which I look forward with trembling anxiety. In so arduous an enterprise, I can reconcile it to no rules of prudence to let go the hold we now have, upon seven out of the thirteen states; and after having passed over so con. siderable a part of the ground, to re-commence the course. I dread the more the consequences of new attempts, because I KNOW that POWERFUL INDIVIDUALS, in this and in other states, are enemies to a general national government in every possible shape.
* Hume's Essays, vol. 1, page 128.-The rise of arts and sciences.
The Text in the copies as revised and corrected by Hamilton and Madi. Bon collated with a reprint, purporting to be from the Essays as printed when first issued, in the Gazettes. The first quoied passages are from the revised copies, being substitutes for the quoted passages in the Reprint.
No. I. Page 49. For; After full experience after an unequivocal experience. For; existing Federal Government-subsisting FederalGovernment. For; to decide by their conduct and ex. ample--by their conduct and example to decide. For; period, aaru, For; this idea by adding, willadd. For; will beighten, to boighten. Page 50. For; uninfluenced by considerations for. dion to the pablic good--unperplexed and unbiassed by considerutions not connecled with tho public good. For; but this is more ardently to be rolshed for --but this is a thing moro ardently to be wished. For; entrancous—foreign. For; I am aware-I am well aware. For; "Into inter. ested or ambition8 views, merely because their situations might subject them to suspicion." sentence trunxposed. For; which has alreuly shoron tlsalf, or that mny-rohich has mıda ite ap. grournince, or any. For; would
always furnish-would furnish For; horoeder koell porannded of being in the righe-to those, who aro ever so much persuaded of their being in the righe, in any controversy Pnge 81. For; are nctuated—are influirncod. For; And yet just as those rentiments must appear w candid men-And yel horecor just these sentiments roill be allowed to be. For; fond of power--fond of dexpntic power. Page 52. For; rppearances-appearance. For; it has been my mim, Fellow Citizens, to put you, I hade hud on eye, my Fellow Citizens, 10 pulling you. Page 88. For; clalm to atiention-claim to your attontion, For; its open svowal-un "pen dooronl of i' For; of the Constitution of the woro Constitution. For; 11 may therefore bo essential to examina portioulurly-It will lkoroforo bo of 2016 to begin by enimining tho. For; This shall accordingly bo donoThis eball accordingly constituto tbo subject of my next address.
No. II. Pago 54. For; When the people of Ainorica reflect that the question now submitted to their determination, is one of the inost important that has engaged, or can well engago their attention, the propriety of their Inking a very comprehensive, as well as a very serious view of it, inust be evident Whon the people of Ainorica reflect tbut they are now called upon to docido a question, which in its consequences inust prove one of the most important that ever engnzed their attention, tho propriety of their taking a very comprehensive, as well as a Ivery serions view of it, will be ovlilent For; than that, or that. Pnge 66. For; many of them-many of their citizens. For; tried the souls of men-tried the minds and hearts of men. Page 67. For; passion-passions. For; But as hus been already remarkedBut tn 18 (# was remarked in the foregoing number of thin poper.) For; from the undue or the undue. For; tho great majority reasoned-the great majority of the people reasoned Pngo 68. For: snch manurer only-only Bilch mensuros-omlttod-aftor, great and wolghty reasons—which I shall endeavor to dovolop and oxplain in somo ensuing papers.
No. III. Page 60. For; any erroneous-an erroneons. For; as against dangers arising from domestic canses— from dangers of the liko kinat arising from domestic causos. Page 61. For; or niny happen-or will happen. For; has the additional circumstance, has in addition, the circumstance omitted after, "distinct confederacles "—for this opinion various rensons may be assigned. For; When unco-Because when once. For; town or county-town country. Page 62. For; to the other nations--to other nations. For; to ourseldar - to us. For; Under the national-Because, under the national. For; The prospect-Because the prospect. For lemptations-temptation. For; If soen-Becauso even is.' Page 63. For; sich violenceyBecause such violences. For; occasioned-coured. For; produced-nccusioned. For; Irri. tutiong-irritation. For; in a capacity to act with circumspection—in capacity to act adolsedly.
No. IV. Page 63. For; proposed Confederacios-proposed little Confederacies. Page 66. For; not sanctioned-not sanctified. For; most provalont-mora prevalent. For; see these Aourish in our hands-see it flourish. Pagu 67. For; like considerations—uch like considern. tlons. Page 68. For; will, in a manner-will, as it wore. For; and if we are wiso, tho tipo
may como—and the time may come, if we are wise. Page 69. For; which of the associates which of them. For; combining--and combining. For; than to provoke-than provoke.
No. V. Page 78. For; not very far distant-not very distant. For; reasons-reason. Page 14. For; in which we should be formidable only to euch other-formidable only to cach otber. For; thoso persons—those Gentlemen. For; and which would--and would. For; would have to regulate its commerco with foreigners-would have its cominorcu with foreigners tu regulate. l'ayo 75 For; character-charucters.
No. VI. Prgo 76. For; this work-thilo l'iper, Sontence beginning: “If thusa Statos should olthor bo wholly dlouniwal," truusposod. l'uyo 79. For; Wo my usk-lo it not, we may ask. For; acquisition-acquisitions. For; and that they aro of course liable--and are of course llublo. l'agu 80). For; ..denen to-and to. For; thut haughty--this huughty. For; Yot fow nations huvo bcon unore-Fow nations, novertheless, liavo beou moro. Ostted on Page 81. and soinetimes even tho more culpable desire of sharing in the commerce of other nations, with out their consent. The last war but cwo between Britain and Spain sprang from the attemp's of the English merchants, to prosecute an Illicit trade with the Spanish main. Theso unjustinable practices on their part, produced soverities on the part of the Spaniards, towards the subjects of Great Britain which were not more just/fablu; becauso thoy excorded the bounds of a just retal. lation, and were churgeuble with indiuinunity and cruelty. Many of the English who wero takon on the Spanish coasts, were sent to dig in the mines of Potosí; and by the usual progress of a spir.t of resentment, the innocent were aflor a whilo confounded with the guilty in indiscriininato punisbment. The complaints of the merchants kindled u violent flame througbout the nation, which soon after broke out in the llouse of Commons, and was commanicnted from that body to the Ministry. Letters of reprisul were granted and a war ensued; which in its consequences overthrew all tho alliances that but twenty years before had been formed with sanguine expecte. tions of tbe inost beneficial fruits. For; und the evils - and evilo. Pago 82. For; CONTEDEKATE-CONFEDHRATIVE.
No. VII. Page 88. For; the States could bavo-could the States have. For; differencodifferences. Page 81. For; by the treaty of peace-in the treaty of pence. For; the States which huve mude cessions-the Stutes w bich made the cession. Pago 85. For; the lanıls-tho land. For; another and the other. l'age 88. For; would be exposed-would be hasarded. For; in the experiment-upon experiment. For; Their rofusal would afford to the com. plaining States å protext for with bolding-Their refusal would be too plausible a pretext to the cuinpluining States to withhold. Note in reprint omitted to Page 89.
No. VIII. Pugo 92. For; establishinent-establishinents. For; thence-thorefore. In note; rational precaution-natural precaution. For; This inference, from the very form of the proposition is at best problematical and uncertain-Their existence, however, from the very toring of the proposition is, at most problematical and uncertain. Page 92 For; they would be obliged-they would be nécessituled, Pago 93. For; be likely-be the more likely. For; de. duced froin speculutive-drawn from supposed or speculativé. For; by way or objection--by way of objection to this. Page 98. For; which by its situation is seldoin exposed to invasions
cluloin exposed by its situation to intornul invasions. Pago 14. For; Forbids competition with the natural strongth-renders the untural strength of the community an overniatch for it. For; though it muy-muy. For; will be utterly incompetent to the purpose of enforcingbut it will be unable to enforce. Next sentence transposed For; his services-their services. Onnitted; There has been, for a long timne past little ruoin for the operation of the other causes, which have been enumerated as the consequences of internal war. Note onnitted. Page 95. Note omitted. For; I/ Bituin hud,-11 on the omtrary. Britain had Fur; at this day ba -o at this day. For; the kingdom-that kingdom. For; nor fulllo-or futlle. For; on ils oulaf importance--in the linportance of this intoresting Idea. Page 90. Fur; that now ait-that fil. For;, would then quickly-would quickly. For; prospects-forme,
No IX. Pnge 97. For; kept perpetually vibrating-kept in a state of perpetual vibration. Page 98. For; error--errur's. For; friends of liberty-friends to liberty. Page 99. For; receive his ideas-lake hin Ideas. Now to page 100. Publius vnittod. Pago 101. For; to producreto inuke. Page 108. For; writer-civilian.
No. X. Page 105. For; a less folly-less folly. Pago 107. For; of government of the government. Ing.: 109. For; from tho mischiels of faction-for the salschiufs of faction. Pago 111. For: Does this advantage-Doos the advantage.
No. XI. Page 118. For; look forward with painful solicitude-look forward to what this country is capable of becoming with painful solicitude. Page 114. For; this would answer then the-for, answer the. For; the wings on--the wings by which. For; we may in a variety of ways counteract-we may counteract a policy so unfriendly to our prosperity in a variety of ways. For; importance to any manufucturing nation of the markets of—importance of the markets of For; to remain in this disposition-to remain so, to any manfactoring nation. Page 115. For: to Great Britain-Brituin. Page 116. For; a tourishing—and a flourishing. l'age 117. For; the Lakes-the Western Lakes. Page 118. For; and the conducivepose of that species of cominorco to the prosperity of a navy, are points too manifest to requirs a par. ticular elucidation-does not require a particular elucidation, no more than tho conduciveness of tbat species of cominorco tu thu prosperity of a navy. Puyo 119. For; nowspapor discussion-1 no wspaper discussion.
No. XII. Prigo 121. For; A prosperous commorco--the prosperity of commerco. For; all the channels—the channels. For; to the entire satisfaction-o the satisfaction. Page 128. For; illy brook--ill bivok. For: be tho best-be bent Page 124. For;bo driven--be necessi. tatod. For; dealers in contraband-contraband truda. Pago 124. For; this propos-this shunon. For; and shu108-and places. Page 125. For; to e« pose--to hazard. For; stationed und employert, might-stationed at the entrances of uur poris. For; an adjoining Blato-a neighboring State. For; in Britain the proportion is still greater-in Britain they oxceed this proportou. Nolo omittoi. If my mummory bo rigbt they amount to twonty por cent Pago 126. For; according to the ratio- Upon u rutio. For; may, at a low computation bo estimated 11-may bo estiwald ut. For; health of sociuty-hvalil vi io soclety. For; us this 1ery ar
hiclone there apirite. For; rodenue-revenuea. For; ns before romarked-as has been before romarked. For; populrus-popular. For; in some mode-In some modo or otbor. Puge 137. For; of citizens-of the citizens.
No. XIII. Page 128. If the States be united -aro uplted. For; another conjecture-an. other supposition. No. XIV. Pago 131.
For; errour--error. Pago 182. For; must be confinod-cil bo confined. l'age 186. For; orguur-error. For; scones-scene.
No. Xv. Page 139 For; which is neither controverted, nor doubted—which is not elthor controvertod or doubted. For; in the opinion in this sentiment ut least. For; of the reality of many of those defects of the reality of those defects. For; people-nation. Page 141. For; the very elements-the first principl 8. For; of whom-of rohich, Page 142. For; at Guvernment-Government. Page 143. For; still adbere-still will adhere. For; their observ. ance—the observa1.co. Page 144. For; which dispusos - that disposes. Pago 145. For; of mun -of human nature.
No. XVI. Page 148. For: between different parts--hetrooen parts. For; to tho generalto tho common. Pago 149. For; to the majority ihnt happened to provail in thu national coun. cll for tho uxorciso ci luctious vlews, of partinlity, and of opprosslon--for the exorciso of fnctious viu ws, of partiality, and of oppression, in the majority that happened to prevall in the national council. Page 100. For; attributed-which is attributed. For: the othor-the other half.
No. XVII. Page 158. For; bu urgd-be litrvino iirged. Pago 104. For; to exercise them -exercise those poroers. Page 180. For; to impress upon-to impressing upon. Page 107. For; nepositories-Deporila.
No. XVIII. Page. 168. For; from the best transmitted acconnts—from the best accounts transnitled. Page 159. For; the wrakent—tho rekor. Page 160. For; had in fnot become
had become, in fact. For: who secretly-who had secretly. Page 16l. For; that the monuments which remain of this curions political fabric are so Imperfect--that such imperfect monuments remalo of this curious political fabric Page 163. For; Cleomonen-Cleomens.
No. XIX. Page 167. For; revenuex-revenue. For; farther-further. Page 170. For; sprang--sprung. Page 171. For; 118 the beul-sit the bead.
No. XX. Page 178. For; an bereditary-a bereditary. For; his independent-thir independent. For; audience-miencen. Pngo 176. For; in some mouimure-in some degree. For; operation-londency of theso vices. l'olo .177. For; In tha placo-in place.
No. XXI. Pazo 178 For; which depict—which hirde depicted.” For; the existing Confed. eration-tho subsisling Confederation. For; no puwer-20 powers, For; constitutional mens-constitutional mode. Page 179. For; The want of such a right involves no doubt a striking absurdity-There is, doubtless, a striking absurdity in supposing that a right of this kind does not exist. For; supposing that deficiency-of embracing that supposition. For; considerations of utility-consideration of utility. Page 150. For; directed against-leveliert against.. Page 181. For; produce and constitute national wealth-produce constitutional wealth. For; the contracted lerritory of that republic--that oontracted district. For; those kinyuomx-the three last_mentioned countries. For; no man acquainted---no man who is acqnainted. l'age 182. For; which distributed - which distributes. Pnge 188. For; ara considered-huvo beon considered. For; un Herculean-a Herculean. For; the thingMings.
No. XXII Page 184. For; of the existing federal system enumerated in the last number -already enumeratrol in the existing Federal system. Pago 184. For; conceding on their part privileges of importance-by which they conceded privileges of any importance to them. Page 187. For; ever will be able-will ever be able For; Considering bow peculiarly the enfety and welfare of the smaller states depend on Union-The sinaller_States, considering bow peeulirly their safety and welfare depend on Union. Page 188. For; VETOVOTE. Page 189. For; fortunate-happy. Page 189. For; that which it is necessary to dothe doing what may bu necesary: Page 190. For; that the interest-tho interest. For; and hie intrignes-and intriguos For; corrupt a smallor-corrupt a smaller number. For; minds arluttert by-minds animited and grilled by. Pago 191. For; dlsclosed-deliu. eated. For; the ripul parties—the parties. For; ono iridunill-one court. Pago 192. For; un uolform--uniforin. For; dircisim-jurisdiction. For; should happen-wur to happen. For; from the deference with which men in office naturally louk op to that authority to which they owe their official oxlotence-nothing is moru natural to inun in office than to look with pccullar deference towards that authority. For; of which these are composed--of which 18
A composed For; a considerable part-a great part. For; who are either free from erro. neous propossossions or can divost thóinsolver of thum—who can divost themeulves of the prvo puascasions of proconcelvod opinions. Pago 108. For; of Union of the Union.
No. Xxil Inge 100. For; and the correspondent-or the corrospondent for; opon to discussion-01on for discussion. Page 197. For; TIOSK which may be cominitted-the objecta comınitted. Page 198 For: urhlered-acronipotinh-d For; in respeol to-un to all. Page 109. For; intrusled with—bo rintod with. For; woulut haco given a better impression of their cuind nur if they had coninod themselves to showing-nghi to hand confned themselves to showing. For; Nutivna! concerns-Nutioanl interests Page 200. For; te susceptible of-can do susceptiblo of. For: If we einbrnco as the abundard of our political croed tho tenets of th 8r-I' wo embrace the tonets of thos who uppose the adopiion of the proposed Constitu. tion, as the stand our political creed.
No. XXIV. l’nge 201. for; which is that proper-ohich, if I understand it right, is this, that proper. Pige 202. For; against military establishments-agninst tho keeping up of troops. Note, Page 203," For; other Stutes, and their Constitutions-other states, ercept the foregoing, and their (onstitutions. For; pronouncing there lumours lo bo tbe-regarding those clamors (18 the. Payo 204. For; obe ured-entangled. For; establishments would be improper-establishinents in time of peace, would be inproper.' Page 205 For; only be to quard ngainst-mly ho against. for: The millia, in times of prnfound peace, would not loug - Tbu militia would nui luug, etc., in times uj projound peuco.