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TROM THE DISCOVERY OF THE CONTINENT TO THE
1492.—This was a memorable year. The commercial enterprise of the Portuguese imparted a thirst for discoveries to the nations of Europe. A native of Genoa, Christopher Columbus, had long imagined that a western passage to the East Indies was practicable.After repeated applications, and niortilying refusals from different courts, he at lengih obtained the patronage of Ferdinand and Isabella, of Spain. Columbus sailed fro'n Spain, on Friday, the 3d of August, with a small fleet. On the 12th of October following, he discos vered the Island of $1. Salvador. This important result “ laid the foundation for all the subsequent discoveries in America, and doubtless entitled Columbus to the honour of giving a naine to the New World." The intrepid na rigator, alter some time spent in examining the country, and in amicable traffic with the natives, set sail on his return, and arrivedl sa se in Spain, March 15th, 1493. His account of this great enterprise excited the astonishment of Europe, and opened a wide theatre for the skill of oiher adventurers.
1497. Under the patronage of King Henry VII. of England, John Cabot, and his son, Sebastian Cabot, commenced a voyage of discovery. They sailed in May, and on the 24th of June, discovered Newfoundland, then St. John's and continuing westerly, made
the first discovery of the Continent of America. lis whole coast from Labrador to Florida was ranged by these bold navigators.
1499.-Americus Vespucius, a Florentine, accompanied Alonzo Ojeda, (an active officer, who sailed with Columbus in his first voyage,) in another expedition to the New World. The flattering account which he published on his return, had the effect though with manisest injustice of his name being, given to the Continent.
1524. No discoveries were attempted by the French until the commencement of this year. For this purpose, Francis I. gave a commission to Verrazano, a Florentine. Having surveyed the coast from Florida to the 50th degree of North Latitude, Verrazano, in compliment to his employer, named the country New France.
1584. Sir Walter Raleigh entered Pamplico Sound,. now in North Carolina, and proceeded from thence to Roanoke, an island near the mouth of Albermarle Sound. On his return to England, he gave a glową. ing description of its beauty and sertility. In allusion. to her being unmarried, Queen Elizabeth bestowed upon it the name of Virginia.
1602. Cape Cod was discovered by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, of England.
1607. After several unsuccessful attempts to form settlements during a period of 115 years, Jamestown was permanently established.
1614. A fort was built by some Dutch adventurers at Albany, on Hudson's river. Thus commenced that important city. The following year a fort was. built and settlements commenced by the Dutch on the Island of Manhalian, now New York. This city was
called New Amsterdam, until the year 1644, when the English effected its conquest. Since that period its growth has been amazingly rapid ; it is evidently destined to become one of the first commercial cities in the civilized world. Captain John Smith sailed this year from England. The coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod was ranged under his directions. He presented a map of the country to Prince Charles on his return to England, who named it New England.
1620. The Puritans landed at Plymouth. The motives which impelled this sect 10 leave England was the prospect of enjoying a purer worship, and a grealer liberty of conscience.”
1621. A league of friendship, commerce and mutual defence, was entered into by the colony of Plymouth with Masassoit, the great Sachem of the neighbouring Indians. For a period of more than filly years this treaty was strictly observed, until the breaking out of Philip's war.
1622. Virginia Colony experienced a cruel stroke. The Indians on the 22d of March butchered, almost in the same instant, 347 of the colony, men, women, and children.
1623. A number of emigrabis from England arrived in the river Piscata qua, and began two settlements; one at a place called Little Harbour, the other at a place now called Dover: these were the first settlements in New Hampshire.
1624. By an act of King James I. the London Company which had settled Virginia was dissolved.
1625. Virginia Colony was brought more immediately under the direction of the crown, by Charles 1. successor of James I. The colony was subjected 10 many grievances from the arbitrary treatment of this monarch.
1628. The colony of Massachusetts Bay in New England, was founded.
1630. One thousand five hundred people arrived at Charlestown: owing, however, to a deadly pestilence with which the settlement was soon after at: tacked, the governor and several of the planters rę, moved to Shawmut; this place they named Boston.
1682. A patent was granted by Charles I. to Lord Baltimore, by which a tract of country on the Chesapeake Bay was conveyed to his Jordship. This he named Maryland, in honour of Henrietta-Maria, daughter of Henry the Great of France.
1633. Several Plymouth adventurers sent a vessel up Connecticut river with building materials, and erected a trading-house at Windsor.
1637. The Pequots, a tribe of Indians, who had commenced war with the colonists, were entirely vanquished at the great swamp in Fairfield.
1638. New Haven was setiled by the English. Its former name was Quinna piak.
1639. A charter was obtained from the crown by Sir Ferdinando Gorges of all the land from Piscataqua to Sagada hoc. This territory was called the Province of Maine. After an interval of about twelve years, it was, by the request of the people of Maine, taken under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.
1643. The articles of confederation for uniting the colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, were signed May 191h.
1662. A charter of incorporation was granted by King Charles II. April 2, to the colonists of Connecticut. They were designated 6 The Governor and Company of the English Colony of Connecticut, in New England, in America.
1664. The colonies of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, were granted by King Charles II. 10 his brother the Duke of York and Albany. Accordingly an expedition was fitted out under the conamand of Colonel Richard Nichols, who appeared before Manhattan, and summoned the Dutch governor, Stuyvesant, to surrender. On the 27th of August, being unprepared for detence, he capitulated, and the English became masters of the whole country,
1675. King Philip's war commenced this year, New England suffered severely in this contest,
1676. A finishing stroke was given on the 12th of August, to the hostilities of the Indians, by the death of Philip. New England lost six hundred men, had twelve or thirteen towns destroyed, and six hundred houses burnt. “Every eleventh family was houseless, and every eleventh soldier had sunk to his grave.”
1677. A controversy relative to the province of Maine, which was warmly disputed by the colony of Massachusetts, and the heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges was finally settled in England, by which the colony was adjudged to the heirs of Sir Ferdinando. The title was then purchased by Massachusetts for the sum of 1,2001. 'The territory was a part of Massachusetts from that time until 1820.
1679. New Hampshire was separated from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, by order of Charles II,
1681. In consequence of services done, and debts due to admiral Penn, King Charles II. granted to William Penn, the son of the Admiral, the territory of Pennsylvania. From his judicious measures, the colony enjoyed an unexampled share of prosperity. The name of William Penn will descend unsullied to posterity as a philanthropist and an honest man."