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Effects of Excessive Mental Excite-
ment . . . 302
Eggers of Labrador . 399
Electricity . . .410
English Allotment System 101
English Glees . . 381
English Songs-
First Article . . 165
Second Article . 181
Equality of Remuneration for La-
bour . . . 402
Executioner of Charles I. . 317
Exercise, Bodily » q 58
Facetiousness . . • 230
Fatal Effects of Over Study 278
Fergusson's Canadian Settlement 68
Few Days at Hamburg . 391
Few Days in France-
Concluding Observations 12
Few Words on a Branch of Rural

Economy . . .174

First Primrose . . 83

Fish Ponds . . . 255

Five Kernels of Corn . 287

Flood, Traditions of the . 188

Fly Fishing . . 127

Follies and Frivolities at the Re-
storation ... 268
Forgotten English Poet . 84
Forest on Fire . • 126

Forty-second Regiment . 66
Fowls, on Breeding . .174
French Serjeant . 59

French Laws and Courts . Ill

Frendraught, Burning of . 101
Frenzy of Gentility . . 349

Game Birds . . 31

Gardens for the Working Classes
Gentle Art—Flies . . 15

Geographical Distribution of Ani-
mals .... 177
German Manners . . 391

German Settlement . .6
Gipsies, Scottish . . ^5

Glance at the New Forest . 257
Glasgow, Society in . 279

Glass ... 35

Gleanings from the Elements 306
Gold and Silver Fish . . 52

Grant Thorburn's Ideas of London 140
Great Plague at Athens . 364

Greek Traditions of the Flood 188
Greyfriars' Cemetery . 109

Grouse . . .31

Halley's Comet . . 143

Highland Dress . . 414

Himalayas, Residence among the 197
Hints about House-Furnishing 253
Hints on House-Painting . 327
Hoffman's Account of Caverns in

Western Virginia . 182

Home .* . . 316

Home Colony in Holland . 414
Homely Sculpture . . 80

Honours paid to Men of Science 326
Household Recipes . . 248

How to Keep a Cow and Pig 200
Human Stature . . 194

Humbler Employments of London 212
Hydrophobia . . .88

Ignorance, Doings of . 103
Improvement from Botanical Pur-
suits . . .199
Improvement in the Iron Manu-
facture . . . 210
Improvements in the Art of Turn-
ing . . .124
India, Scene In . . 22
Indian Jugglers . . 351
Indians, North American . 198
Inferiority of Sons of Celebrated

Men . . .376
Influence of Mental Cultivation on

Health . . 234

Inoculation . . . 225

Insensibility of Animals to Pain 329
Institutions for the Blind . 20
Irish Sketches . .16
Irish Convent . . 408

Iron Manufacture . . 210

Iron Mask, Prisoner in the . 39
James I., Journey of . 173
Joachim Murat . . 82

Journey of James I. from Edin-
burgh to London . 173
Judicial Torture in Scotland 121
Knowledge leads to Comfort 215
Laird of Logan . 191, 240
Lamb, Charles . . 66
Language of Flowers . 303
Laws of Bodily Exercise 58
Laws of Mental Exercise . 146
Leistering Ploy . . 214
Letter from an M.P. to the Keeper

of his Country Residence . 69
Little Master Via. . . 248

Liverpool Merchant 390
Living in London and Edinburgh 332
London Fog . . 358

Page

London, Humbler Employments of 212
London Press, Editorial Depart-
ment of . . 18
Mechanical Department 46
London Systems . . 256
London, Thorburn's Ideas of 140
Lord Cullen . . 325
Louis Le Grand . . 133
Louvre, the . . 213
Love me Love my Dog . 183
Magnetic Influence . 26
Man and Tiger Combat . 3G8
Manners, on . 190
Mantis, the . . 384
Manufactures, Philosophy of 229
Manuscripts of Sir Walter Scott 21
Marvell, Andrew . .84
Mason, Adventure of the 256
Match-making in Calcutta . 327
Mechanism of Chambers's Journal 149
Medical Power of Nature . 381
Melton, Amusements at . 166
Mental Culture . . 144
Mental Exercise . . 146
Meteoric Shower in America 287
Mexico and Peru . . 253
Mind Murder . . 162
Mine, Monkwearmouth . 199
Misapplication of Talents . 215
Miscellaneous Observations in Na-
tural History . . 284
Miseries of Human Life . 103
Moles . . 120
Monkey and the Crow . 336
Monsieur de la Tude . 147
Mont Blanc . . .386
Montrose Asylum . . 293
Moral Education, on . 351
Mrs Battle's Opinions on Whist 87
Mutiny of the Bounty . 157
My First Action . . 247
Natural History of the Sponge 130
Natural History, Observations on 284
Navigation . . .98
New Forest, Glance at the 257
New way of Educating Ladies 398
Nodders ... 222
Occasional Sketches of the Conti-
nent—

Berlin" . . .300
Old English Manners—

Small Squire of the Reign of
George II. . . 70

Country Gentleman of the
Reign of Queen Anne 92

Remaining Traits . 116

Squire of the Seventeenth Cen-
tury ... 142
Old and Young Gedge . 269

Omnibusses . . 77

Operation of the Laws of Nature 251
Organic Remains . .10
Page of Comicalities . 69

Paper-Making, Art of . 119

Parisian Tombstone Warehouse 159
Particulars regarding Canada 118
Pellico, story of . 10

Pere la Chaise in London . 264
Phenomena in Seeing Colours 117
Philosophy of British Manufactures 229
Places of Resort for the Consump-
tive . . 296
Plague at Athens . . 364
Pleasures"of a Bad Day . 277
Pleasures of being unwell . 367
Pleasure Tours—

Banks of the Forth and Stir-
ling . . . 237

Trosachs' and Loch Katrine 243

Clyde, Loch Lomond, and In-
verary' . . . 260

Popular Information on Science—

Time Measurers

Organic Remains . . 10

Magnetic Influence .
The Compass . . 74

Art of Navigation . 98
Soils and Vegetation . 106
Crystallisation . 218

Transmutation of Species 273
Resisting Medium . 289

Vitality . . 396

Electricity, Ac . . 410
Poets Laureate . . 114

Poisons and Poisoning . 44

Vegetable and Mineral 50

Poor Passenger . . . 135

Popping the Question . . 69
Popular Information on Literature—

Rise of English Literature 338
Prairie Dogs . . 100

Printing Machinery . . 150

Prisoner in the Iron Mask 39
Productiveness of Vegetables 374
Progress of Rustic Improvement 245
Proverbs of Different Nations 390
Prussian Police . . 372

Punishment of Witnesses . 140
Quoting . . 344

Railways in the United States, 239
Rat and Ferret . . 164

Reading . . . 383

Recluse, story of a . . 63

Recollections of a Soldier . 95
Recollections of the South-Sea

House . . . 206

Remarks upon Moral Education 351
Republic of Prairie Dogs . 100
Residence of Europeans in the

Himalaya Mountains . 197
Resisting Medium . . 289

Restoration, Follies at the . 268
Riding, Rules for . .295
Riding the Stang . . 252

Rise of the Rotheschildes . 155
Roads ■ 63

Romance of War . . 383

Romans, Amusements of the 85
Ross's Expedition . . 346

Rotheschildes, the . . 155

Rules for Riding . . 296

Rural Economy . • 190

Russian Intrepidity . . 382

Russian Sketches . . 189

Scattered Observations about

Words . . .365

Scenes and Adventures at Sea 133
Scene at Jerusalem . 357

Scene in India . . 22

Schools in the Factory Districts 271
Scott, Manuscripts of Sir Walter 21
Scottie ... 45
Scottish Dialect . . 156

Scottish Gipsies • 75

Scottish Songs-
First Article . . 266
Second Article . 291
Third Article . . 356

Scraps from the Portfolio of a Na-
turalist . . 236
Seekers and Keepers . .94
Shakspeare and Scott . 351
Shakspeare in Scotland . 199
Sheep-stealing Dog . 13
SherrirTs Tour in America . 60
Shetland Islands . . 85
Shipping of Great Britain and the

United States . . 322

Sieges . 167

Siege of Blair . . 310

Silk Manufacture in France 246
Simpson of Vauxhall . T28
Single Ladies in India . 271
Singular Mode of Treatment for

Cholera . 407

Singular Story of a Recluse 63
Sir Michael Scott . . 180

Sketch of the Cagots . . 319

Sketches from the Seasons 324
Slave-Market at Constantinople 168
Social State . . 366

Society in Glasgow . 279

Soils and Vegetation . 106

Soldier of Fortune . * .126

Soldier, Recollections of a . 95
Songs, English . . 165, 181
Songs and Management of Birds 123
Songs of Canaries - .
South Sea House . . 206

South Sea Marauders . 37
Speech without a Tongue . 125
Sponge, the . 130

Steam Carriages, Lecture on 279
Steamer on the Danube . 288
Steeple-Chasing . . 135

Stethoscopic Art . .71
Stock Jobber . . 286

Stories of North American Indians 198
Story of Captain X. .51
Story of Silvio Pellico . 10
Sublime and Beautiful in Lan-
guage . . .128
Suckling, Sir John . l(i(i
Sunday in France . . 384
Superstitious Practices . 320
Sword Players of Last Century 188
Taking Dinner in China . 204
Tall and Short Men . . 292
Tardy the Poisoner . '276
Terror by Night . . 46
That we should lie down with the

Lamb . . 391

Theory and Practice . 77

Thomas the Rhymer . . 93

Thoughts on Mental Culture 144
Three Brothers of Galloway . 62
Thrilling Incidents . 182

Thugs, the . . 333

Time ... 134

Time Measurers

Tombstone Warehouse . 159
Torpedo . . .93

Torture in Scotland . 121

Tough Yarn . . .125

Traditional History of Alaster Mae

Col . . . 373

Transmutation of Species . 273
Travelling Thirty Years Ago 47

Trees, Chapter on . . »317

Trip from New York to Philadel-
phia . . . 341
Tude, Monsieur de la . . 147
Turning, Improvements in the Art

of . .124

Uncivilised Nations . 378

Use and Abuse of Classical Edu-
cation . . . 223
Uses of Birds . . .151
- of Dissection . . 154
Vaccination ... 242
Vails, Custom of giving . 40
Varieties of Colour among Man-
kind . . . 354
Vegetables' . . . 374
Vegetable and Mineral Poisons , SO
Vicissitudes in the Life of a Princess 290
Visit to the Montrose Asylum . 293
Vitality . 396
Viz., Little Master . 248
Weeds . ... 297
Whale, the . . 292
Whale, Adventure with a . 30
Whales in the Mediterranean 78
What Good Roads accomplish 340
Whist, Mrs Battle on . • 87
Who should go to Canada 21
Wimble, Will . . 92
Wine Merchant and Cobbler 358
Witnesses, Punishment of . • 140
Word or two for the Ass 367
Words, Observations on . 365

ANECDOTES & PARAGRAPHS.

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Activity of Mind . .
Advice to Emigrants
Advice to Unmarried Ladies aw
Affairs of Honour . . t304

Allotments . . .48

All Truths useful . . 312
American Advertisement . 410
American President's Drawing-

Room ... 72
American Wood Adventures 224
Anatomical Studies . . 64

Ancient Writers, respect for 64
Apsley House- . 128

Arrangement of Portraits . 288
Atlantic and Mediterranean, the 48
Attacks upon Americans . ■ 352
["ATrthor's aim1 their Writings 280
Avarice, Anecdotes of . .55
Bantam Cock 88
Bear, destroying a .72
Beneficence . 40

Blessing of Literature . . 391

Bodily Changes . . 312
Brest . . . .72

Bricklayers, the . . . 112
Brief enough . . . 312

British Mode of Fighting . 376
Buchanan, Saying of . . 160

Building a Pyramid . 400

Burns .... 256
Can she Spin? . . 240

Capture of Trinidad . . 64

Carlyle, Anecdote' of Dr 175
Cats, Exhibition of .184
Causes for the Thriving of Towns 400
Centipedes ... 72
Character . . 216

Children of the Poor . 272

Civilisation, Possibilities of greater 160
Coincidences in the Lives of a Mar*

ried Pair . . 80

Coming to Close Quarters • 240
Comparison of Man to a Book 400
Compliment to the Ladies . 130
Contentment . . 176

Conversation between a weather
glass and a Weather-cock 312
Convicts in New South Wales 72
Cook of Taste . . 280

Cost of a Fire in France . 399
Country Townya . '. * 160

Crime, Causes of . 168

Crossing a River in South America 415
Cultivation, Effects of . 64
Davie Lindsay . . 40

Density of Bodies at Different

Depths . . 216

Design in Dogs . . 312

Destruction of Sparrows . 207
Diamonds . . . • 175

Doctor's Advice to a Patient 400
Dog, Anecdote of a . . 268
Doze of two Ages . 288

Drunkenness . .24

Duration of Wisdom . 376
Dying, a Reason for . 399

Dying Philosopher . 128

Early Rising . . 72

Earthquakes . • 151

Eastern Justice . . 338

Economy, Opinion of . . 72
Effects of Drunkenness . 24
Elegant Highland Epitaph , 80

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Emigrants, Advice to .

Encouragement for Schoolmasters

English and French Manners

Escape Inferential . .

Falls of the Niagara

False Metaphors . •

Fernandez, Situation of Juan

Fine Saying . .

Fine Sentence in Hooker .

First Sight of Venice .

First View of Jerusalem .

Fishing for Sword Fish .

Foolish Custom reproved .

French Beans . . 168

French Pronunciation . 48

Came . . 272

Garland of Flowers, Key to 136

Gas Lights, Precautions regard-

ing . . 120

Gasten, Marquis de Renty 56

Gentlemen's Show Seats . 320
Geological Changes . . 400
Hedgehog, the . . 280
Henry Prentice . . 264
Hero in Humble Life, Notices re-
specting . 176, 216, 272, 296

Highland Epitaph . . 80

Highland Martinet . 376

Highland Pledge . . 240

Hint to Wives . . 240

Honesty Rewarded . . 240

Hoodwinked Pigeons . 312
Hooker, fine Sentence in . 64
Hospitality, Old English . 64
How to please your Friends 280
Human Life . . .40
Humbug Author, a . 88
Hypocritical Respect for Ancient

Writers . . 64

Illustration of a Political Question 112

Imitation . . . 328

Imitation of the Ancients . 184
Imitation of a Cow . 96

Importation of Horses to France 400

Incurable Disease . ■
Indian Fabrics •
Indian Wit . .

Influence of Music
Ingenious Mode of destroying

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ANALYSIS OF ARTICLES IN VOLUME IV.

Firs T zone Familiar Sketches and Moral Essays; Two Hundred Miscellaneous Articles of Instruction and Entertainment; Thirty-six Stories, or Tales |
TwEKTT-srx Biographies of eminent Individuals; and Foety-one pieces of Poetry—making B total of Three Hundred And Fifty-tour Articles, Two
Hundred And Sixteen of which are original, the remainder being either selected or partially re-written; besides Two Hundred Anecdotes and Paragraphs.

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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF "CHAMBERS'S HISTORICAL NEWSPAPER."

No. 157.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 81, 1835.

Price Three Halfpence.

CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL. Ik addressing our readers at the commencement of a new volume, we are rather complying with a custom which we appear to ourselves to have established, than acting under any immediate desire of communicating with the public. Our way is now so smooth—the success of our little miscellany is so completely ascertained—and so little ever occurs to disturb the happy relation which seems to subsist between it and its readers, that we might perhaps have intermitted this task for a year, without either disadvantage to ourselves, or disappointment to the public. The occasion, however, has occurred, and we have been tempted to seize it, if only for the purpose of conveying some assurance of the continued prosperity of our work, and, consequently, of inspiring in those who approve of its object, renewed hopes of the beneficial influence which so copious and so constant an effusion of moral literature may be expected to have upon society. 'The success, then, of this Journal continues to be proved, not only by an undiminished, or rather, we may say, an increasing circulation, but by innumerable circumstances which, coming by chance under our notice, manifest to us the strong hold which it has taken of the public mind. Ii still penetrates into every remote nook of the countryI still travels from hand to hand over pastoral wastes—the fiery cross of knowledge—conveying pictures of life, and snatches of science, and lessons of morality, where scarcely any such things were ever received before; still visits, and we would hope cheers, the labour-worn arlizan, and animates to the struggle of the world the musing boy. As a single fact illustrative of its extensive reception among the working classes, we have been informed that, in a single cotton-work near Glasgow, no fewer than eighty-four copies are regularly purchased, notwithstanding that in such places a single copy of a newspaper or other periodical work generally serves a dozen readers. But it is not alone among the inferior orders of society that the Journal is circulated. We have been given to understand that it reaches the drawing-rooms of the most exalted persons in the country, and the libraries of the most learned; that, in the large towns, a vast proportion of the mercantile and professional persons of every rank and order are its regular purchasers; and that, in short, it pervades the whole of society. Let it not be imagined that we relate these circumstances in a spirit of personal boasting: unconscious as we are of having ever anticipated them, they surprise ourselves as much as they can surprise others, and, so far as we are not tempted to speak of them by a mere sense of wonder, we are prompted to do so by that disinterested feeling of philanthropic gratulation which they can hardly fail to excite in every generous bosom. Is it possible—we would say, and say in all humility—to over-estimate the social blessings that may be expected to flow from a work which is thus qualified to re-unite the sympathies of the most opposite and remote orders of the people—which can tell the great about the humble, and the humble about the great, and promote a spirit of natural human kindness amongst all—which serves, it may be said, as an universal instructor and monitor, chastening the proud, chastising the vicious, guiding the ignorant to correct views of society, and creating a diversion every where from harmful indulgences to those thoughts which advance all who cherish them in the scale of being?

While referring to this universality of circulation, it may be worth while to mention, that, to whatever causes the public may attribute it, we have all along seen reason to ascribe, at leait its continuance, to B

No. 1. Vol. IV.

circumstance in the highest degree creditable to the public itself. It is our habitual impression and conviction, from all we have ever learned of the details of our circulation, that a few delinquencies in the ethics of the Journal, or even a few transgressions of the bounds of good taste, not to speak of a partisanship in politics, would instantly prove its ruin. We feel that we stand only by our devotion to what is good, and our hostility to what is bad, in ordinary conduct; and if no other consideration made us the friends of vir. tue, the commercial quality of prudence would come to our aid, and erase the peccant word, paragraph, or article. Many of our readers, while satisfied of the purity of our general intentions, may be ignorant of the pains which are necessary in order to preserve a quality of such importance. We can declare that numberless topics and expressions which the conductors of hardly any other periodical work would think objectionable, are avoided by us, and that we hardly ever receive a contribution from the most practised writers, which does not require purification before we deem it fit for insertion. Nor is it only in regard to matters of moral decency that we find it necessary to maintain a vigilant guard: we deem it only in a less degree essential to exclude every thing that tends to keep alive the recollection of the superstitions, savagery, and darker vices of the past—even the details of ordinary warfare, and the drolleries of ordinary bacchanalian fellowship, we regard as in some measure objectionable, as tending to foster only the lower propensities of our nature. In whatever degree, we are persuaded, a departure might be made from these rules, would the circulation of this work decline from the universality which it has attained, and in so far would it forfeit that reputation which, against every disadvantage of form and price, its right-forward good aims have procured for it. The public, indeed, have this matter entirely in their own hands, and we consider it impossible that our work should ever be less pure and innocuous than it now is, unless the community shall suddenly become thoroughly vicious, or the light of reason be withdrawn from ourselves. We think it the more necessary to make this avowal, as it serves to meet the arguments of those who, taking upon system every degrading view of their species, allege that the bulk of the people of even this enlightened land deliberately prefer an immoral and grovelling literature.

But it is not only by such negative qualities—it is not only by our continuing to think and write in the spirit which it is no more than our duty as individual citizens to cherish—that we are to expect this publication to be supported. Great efforts, we are sensible, must also be made to maintain that humble literary reputation which is also to be considered as an element in its success. In reference to this point, we can statewith a reasonable expectation of being credited, that victory, so far as gained, has never lulled us for a moment into security or indifference. We have not only been induced, by the approbation which the public was pleased to bestow upon our trivial labours, to devote ourselves to them more and more unsparingly, but we have used the results of success in no niggard spirit in purchasing literary aid. While vigorously resolving to continue the exertions of every kind which have been already made, we must also confess that we look chiefly for the means of maintaining our ground, to our own improvement and progressive acquirements. At the time when the Journal was commenced, our experience in literature was comparatively slight, and our studies had referred to a limited and in many respects useless range of knowledge. With the progress of the work, we conceive ourselves

to have acquired increased powers of both instruction and entertainment, with views, almost new to us, of the social relations of our race. Unskilled as we may yet be in many departments of knowledge, we find ourselves to be constantly advancing from less to greater things, and at the same time receiving a deeper and deeper sense of the importance of using these to the advantage of our fellow.creatures. We therefore venture a humble but earnest hope that this miscellany, through the improving faculties of both its writers and its readers, will be enabled to go on freshening and strengthening, and yet adopt higher purposes and reach more splendid triumphs than any yet contemplated.

All that remains for us to do, is to advert to the Information- For The People, which is now concluded in fifty sheets similar to the numbers of the Journal, each in general containing some particular department of knowledge, treated in a popular manner. Of this work, eighteen thousand copies at least have been issued of each successive number, and this success we deem in some measure even more agreeable than that of the more widely diffused Journal, as the advantage of a miscellaneous and entertaining character was here entirely wanting. When we mention that each of the sheets contains exactly the same quantity of literary matter as the number of the Library of Useful Knowledge, the public may conceive what an important addition has thus been made to the amount of reading produced by the moderately priced publications. The InforMation For The People, in its new character as a volume, will be comparatively the cheapest work in existence that bears the character of a collection of treatises. At the price of an ordinary duodecimo, it presents a series of between forty and fifty volumes. —for so they may be styled—each constructed with the utmost care, and with the advantage of the most recent discoveries, and all of them very immediately bearing upon the necessities and uses of the people.

•V../.- Our efforts in the diffusion of cheap literature having been followed by the establishment of various similarly moderate-priced publications, it may perhaps have been anticipated that the circulation of Chamheiis's Journal would therefore have been in some degree lessened; we are happy to say that this has not been in any respect the case, the world being seemingly wide enough for the exertions of all. From the period of a few months after the commencement of the Journal, when the work had become generally known, till the present time, the circulation has continued to be remarkably uniform; the sale of each number, within ashort period after its publication,

• The subjects of the Information von Thk Pkoplr may be enumerated in the following systematic arrangement :—Astronomy —Physical and Political Geography—Geology—Botany—History of MankindAccount of the Human BodyNatural TheologyMoral Philosophy—Duties of Life—History and Present State of Education—Manufactures and Commerce of the World—Political Economy—Natural PhilosophyMechanicsElectricity and Gal vanism—Hydrostatics and Hydraulics—Pneumatics, Acoustics, and AeronauticsOpticsArchitecture Chemistry—Chemistry applied to the Arts—Printing—The Steam-Engine—Domestic Economy and Cookery—Preservation of Health—History of the British Empire—Resources of the British Empire—General Account of the United States of America—Palestine—China—The East IndiesThe West Indies—South America—Egypt The Cotton, Woolen, Silk, and Linen Manufactures —History of the French Revolution —History of the American Revolution—Life of Benjamin Franklin —Emigration to Canada, the United States, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Van Diemen's Land, and New South Wales—Th - De —The Horse.

being 50,000, while the subsequent or after demand, as we have found, has been to the extent of not less than 5000 additional, making a total average circulation of 55,000 copies. Latterly, the demand for sets of the work from the commencement has been very considerable, particularly from some of the British colonies, to which not fewer than two hundred thousand numbers have been sent during the lust twelve months. It is likewise gratifying for us to learn that Chambers's Journal is now legularly reprinted in New York ; though this forms a branch of circulation over which we of course can exorcise no control. It was formerly stated that the quantity of paper used for these sheets annually, amounted to 5416 reams ; upon a calculation now made, we find that during the last three years we have consumed, reckoning the English and Scotch editions of our works, fully 20.000 ream?, or the astonishing number of nine million six hundred thousand sheets, which, by the heavy duty of 3d. per pound weight on the paper, have yielded a clear revenue to government of L.G0OO.

POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE.

TIME MEASURERS.

In ancient times there were neither clocks nor watches by which time might he measured. The only instrument in use calculated to be of service in this respect was the sun-dial, which appears to have been known in very early times. It was most likely invented by the Egyptians, from whom its use spread among the Chaldeans and Jews, or Hebrews; it being mentioned in the Old Testament, in the book of Isaiah, chapter xxxviii. verse 8., "Behold I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, whereby it is gone down in the dial of Abaz by the sun," and so forth, by which we may learn that the sun-dial was the instrument in use for measuring time at that remote period.

The Greeks became acquainted with the sun-dial from the Jews, and from the Greeks it was derived by the Romans, who were the means of introducing it into the western nations of Europe. The Romans came to a knowledge of the use of dials in a remarkable way. In one of their warlike excursions, they saw one, and carried it off as a part of their spoil, and placed it in the forum of Rome; hut it being constructed for a place four degrees different, they found that it could not indicate the true time—a circumstance they had not anticipated, as in these times little or nothing was known of degrees of latitude or longitude. It is probable that they soon rectified the dial to the situation of Rome. Before they thus became acquainted with sun-dials, they measured time by means of a thing called a clepsydru—a word signifying in Greek, I steal water, the time being reckoned by the dropping of water; and it was the duty of a slave to attend and make a sound at the recurrence of every certain number of drops. Clepsydra; were long used in both Greek and Roman courts and assemblies, and, like our sand-gl-isses, they determined the time which members were permitted to speak.

As sun-dials were available only while the sun shone, the invention of some kind of instrument which could measure time both during darkness and sunshine, became a matter of anxious research to many reflective persons; but this appears to have been a matter of extraordinary difficulty. Sun-dials for the day, and clepsydra; for the night or cloudy weather, were in use for many centuries after the destruction of the Roman empire and the establishment of Christianity. It is related in an ancient chronicle that Charlemagne, king of France, received a present of a clock from the caliph Haroun Alraschid in the year 809, but on the best investigations it is found that this was only a species of clepsydra, and not a clock with wheels and other mechanism. According to the best authenticated accounts, it appears that we are indebted to the monks of the middle ages for the invention of clocks or time-keepers. These men, who formed the only learned classes of their time, enjoyed considerable seclusion, free from the necessity of providing for their support; and when not engaged in devotional exercises, they often practised various arts now entirely committed to the hands of the artisan and tradesman. At what precise period c'ocks were fust made by the monks, is not known; but it is ascertained from old chronicles, that such instruments, put in motion by wheels, were made use of in the monasteries in the twelfth century, and that they announced the termination of every hour by strokes on a bell. The hand for marking the lime is likewise mentioned in these old records. In the thirteenth century, there is mention marie of a clock, given by sultan Saladin to the emperor Frederic I [., and which was put in motion by wheels. It not only marked the hours, but also the urseof the sun, of the moon, the planets, in the zodiac. Some luve concluded that the Saracens must have learned the art of clock-making from the recluses in Eastern monasteries; but they may have acquired their knowledge from the ex

ercise of genius among themselves; in the present day, this is a question which it is impossible to 6ettie satisfactorily.

In the fourteenth century, traces of clockwork become more common. Dante, the Italian poet, particularly mentions chicks. Richard, abbot of St Atban's in England, made a clock, in 132G, such as had never been heard of till then. It not only indicated the course of the sun and moon, but also the ebb and flow of the tide. Large clocks on steeples, likewise, were first made use of in the fourteenth century. It is thought that one Jacob Dondi, in Padua, was the first who made one of this kind; at least his family was called after hinwic//' Orologio. A German, Henry de Wyck, was celebrated in the same century for a large clock which he placed in a tower built by the command of Charles V. king of France. This clock was preserved till 1/37- Watches are a much later invention, although it has been alleged that they were known in the fourteenth century. The more general belief is, that they were contrived in 1510 by a person named Peter Hele. Reckoning hack from the present era, it may reasonably be concluded that clocks were invented about seven hundred, and watches from three to four hundred years ago, which is a very moderate antiquity.

The earliest made clocks wanted many of the contrivances which now distinguish these valuable instruments. The first great improvement was the addition of the pendulum, which was invented by iluygeus in ln'ofi, and which is of use in regulating the motion of the wheehvork. The doctrine of the pendulum, which belongs to dynamics, or the science of bodies in motion, is one of great importance. A pendulum once put in motion would never cease to oscillate, or swing, were it not for the friction at the point of suspension, and the resistance of the air. Neither of these circumstances can ever be avoided entirely, and have to be provided against by certain arrangements. The times of the vibrations of the pendulum chiefly depend on three circumstances— the angle by which the heavy body of the pendulum is removed from tin- vertical line; second, the length of the pendulum; and, third, the accelerating power of gravity. The principal thing to be attended to is the length. A short pendulum oscillates quickly, a long pendulum more slow ly. But the ulockmaker in arranging the length must keep in view the situation on the earth's surface where the clock is to be placed; for the pendulum which will suit at one degree of latitude will not answer at another. The reason for this is, that the power of gravity, that is, the unseen power which attracts ail things to the earth's surface, acts more strongly at one part than another, from the peculiar shape of the globe, and this power aliecls the useillauuns of the pendulum in such a manner that the pendulum of a clock mu*t be made somewhat shorter at the equator than towards the poles. The oscillations of the pendulum have hence served as data whereupon to draw conclusions regnrding the power of gravity in diiFerent parts of the world. The honour of being the inventor of the balance-spring in watcher was contested by fJuygens and the English philosopher ilooke. In order to prevent friction, Facio, a Genevan, invented the method of boring holes in diamonds or rubies for the pivots to revolve in, which was found a great improvement. Thus chronometers had their origin, in which the English have a tained great perfection. This nation also invented i epeaters. An individual of the name of Barlow first made o:ie, in lu"7b', for Charles II; and Graham was the iu venlorot the compensation-pendulum in 171o. This was perfected by Harrison, who formed the pendulum of nine round ro;ls, five of which were of iron and four of brass. With these pendulums the astronomical clocks are still provided, and perfect dependence may be placed in the regularity of their action.

Amongst the important inventions of the 18th century, the astronomical clocks of the clergyman Hahu, in Echterdingen, Wurtemburg, deserve to be particularly named. He formed thu idea of measuring time in its whole extent. The principal hand iu his instrument is that of universal history. This turns on a table, and indicates the principal epochs of history, according to the chronology of the Old Testament, and the great events o; future times, according to the calculations of Bengel, founded on the Apocalypse. Its revolution embraces a period of nearly eight thousand years. Another hand on this table marks the year of the century, and makes its circuit in one hundred years. Still mure remarkable is the representation of the motions of the planets known at the time of tiie inventor, and of the systems of Ptolemy and Copernicus. They and their i>atellites perform their revolutions in exactly the same time as they actually do iu the heavens; and these automata not only have the central motion, but their course is also eccentrical and elliptic, like that of the heavenly orbs, and the motion is sometimes slower, sometimes quicker, and even retrograde. This instrument must have been the fruit of deep knowledge, indefatigable research, and the calculations of years. It is much to be regretted that the limited means of the artist prevented his machine from being better finished, and that he was not acquainted with clock-making in its present advanced btate, and with the excellent instruments which have been invented since his time.

The country where watches are manufactured in the greatest numbers is French Switzerland, particularly at Ge.'ievdj La-Chaux-de Fondsj Lucie, &c,

where they are made by thousands. Among French watchmakers, Berthoud, Breguet, Chevalier, Courvoisior, Preud'homme, and others, are.distinguished. England and France have been active in perfecting the art of horology. The elegant Parisian pendulum clocks are well known, in which the art of the sculptor is combined with that of the machinist. Elegance, however, is their principal recommendation, it is much to be regretted that the present watches, even the finest, have not the finish which gave such great durability to those of former times. This is particularly the case with French watches. We speak now of the better sort of watches; the ordinary ones are hardly worth the trifling sum which they cost: The English watches are generally much more substantial and accurate in their workmanship than those of France or Geneva; but it must he allowed that a great depreciation is taking place in this department of our manufactures. Perfect accuracy in going, is now a rare quality in a new made watch, unless it be of the most expensive kind. The most accurate of all time measurers are chronometers, which are of a peculiar construction, and are much employed by navigators in determining the longitude at sea. In general, chronometers are much larger than common watches, and are hung iu giuiba's, in boxes six or eight inches square; but there are also many pocket chronometers which, externally, have all the appearance of the better sort of pocket watches, and internally differ from these only iu the construction of the balance. The balance and hair-spring are the principal agents in regulating the rite of going in a common watch, being to this what the pendulum is to a common clock; and this spring in thu former, like the pendulum in the latter, is subject to expansions and contractions under different degrees of heat and cold, which of course affect the speed or rate of the machine; and the methods of correcting this inaccuracy mark the difference between the watch and chronometer. These are very numerous. With British and American navigators, chronometers aie more common thau with those of any other nation.

Wooden clocks are made chiefly in the Schwarzwald, or Black Forest, in South Germany, and furnish an imp >rtaut object of manufacture for this mountainous and barren country. It is said that 70,000 of such clocks are made there annually; audgreat numbers are sent to North and South America, and all over Europe.

TIIE USES OF ADVERSITY,

A STORY."

At the age of twenty-one, the young, gay, and voluptuous Earl of Gleuthorn succeeded to the vast possessions of his family; an event to which he had anxiously looked forward during the, to him, tedious years of minority. But this consummation of his hopes and prospects did not relieve the young nobleman from that dreadful malady to which those are subject, and to which he was already a prey, who are in possession of all that there is to desire on earth, who have nothing to employ them, and nothing to fear or to hope; where every wish has only to be expressed to be gratified, and where every command has only to be issued to be obeyed. This malady, for which we have no English name, is entitled by the French ennui—a term now naturalised amongst us.

While yet a boy, the earl, who was indulged by a cunning and dishonest guardian in every desire, however wayward or foolish, which his imagination could suggest, and which wealth could gratify, was rendered miserable by this oppressive vacuity of mind and aimless life. The bustle and excitation consequent on his accession to the entire control of his large possessions, subdued for a time that feeling of apathy and listlessness which iu the midst of every luxury and enjoyment was rendering his life miserable. It was, however, but for a time that it had this effect. No sooner had the novelty of his situation worn off, than the demon of ennui seized again upon the unhappy carl, and rendered him more wretched thau ever. In vain he had recourse to all the usual expedients with which fir*hion and folly endeavour to relieve themselves of the burden of time. lie associated himself with debauchees, and in their society indulged himself iu every species of excels. He mingled with boxers and horse-racers, and finally took to gambling, at which, immensely wealthy as he was, he soon lost sudi sums, as, together with the robberies of his stewards and servants, whose doings he was too indolent to check, and too easy tempered to punish, greatly embarrassed him, and compelled him to look out for such a matrimonial alliance as should relieve him from his difficulties. In this he succeeded. He married a lady of large fortune; but as money had been the object of the one, and a titie that of the other, neither added to their happiness b\ the connection, which was finally dissolved by the almost inevitable result of such illassorted matches. Lady Gleuthorn, shortly after their marriage, eloped with a Captain Crawley, a sort of fttC-totum of the earl's—one of those hangers-on who

• This story has been condensed from one of Miss EdgcwoiuYs brht talcs depicting fashionable life, entitled "Ennui." Our object in Riving it in this form and place is to point out the wretched results of idleness, and the value of compulsory industry in Improving the mind.

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