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porter's profits, 10 cts.—making $1 20. Atstime cheapen the article. Is it not so? Door this price, the article can be manufactured not experience justify this position ? Without and sold in this country. Now, let one of our a duty, the foreign manufacturer sells at the citizens go into the manufacture of this arti- maximum price-with the duty, he sells at cle, and what will be the result? Why, the the minimum. Without the duty, he could foreign manufacturer, who has heretofore en-profitably reduce his price to destroy our majoyed the monopoly of our market, and who nufacturer--with the duty, he must cone is enjoying large profits, will immediately put down to the lowest price to compete with the article at ninety cents to the American him. importer-this being the cost of the article. It has often been objected to the protective He will willingly forego all profit for the time system, that it operated unequally ; that its being, for the purpose of crushing the infant benefits were enjoyed by the north, and that establishments in this country, and the im- its burdens tell upon the south. The injusporter will give up one-half of his profits, ra- tice of this objection will appear from the fact ther than lose this portion of his business.--that there is scarcely a northern interest, as
This will reduce the price of the article fifteen such, which is protected, while there are sev. cents, bringing it down to $1 05. The Ame-eral southern interests which have always rican manufacturer immediately finds the arti- enjoyed protection. Sugar, cotton, rice and cle in the market at this reduced price, which tobacco are southern articles, and cannot be is, in fact, less than he can manufacture the cultivated in the northern section of the counarticle for. He must, therefore, abandon his try. Coal and lead are highly protected, but
business, give up his establishunent at a great they are hardly found in the northern States. sacrifice, and yield the market to the foreign Hemp is among the protected articles, but is manufacturer, who, finding his new rival de- cultivated not in the northern and eastern, but stroyed, will' immediately demand the old in the southwestern States. The articles of price, and put his article at $1; and the con- wool, salt and iron are the product of almost sumer in this country will be compelled to every section of the country, and pertain to
pay $1 20, or perhaps $1 25, to make up the the southem as much as to the northern loss which the importer and foreign manufac- States. Many of the articles mentioned above turer sustained during the period of competi- ure southern, and cannot be produced at the
tion. This is the result when the article is north-all the advantages, then, of their profree of duty.
tection must accrue to other sections of the Now, we will take the same article, at the country. But it will be said that the cotton, same price, both in Europe and America, woollen, paper, glass, and many other species with protective duties. A duty of fifteen cents of manufactures which enjoy protection, are is imposed upon the article, to encourage do- located at the north, and hence they enjoy mestic manufactures. This, added to the for- peculiar benefits from the Tariff. mer price, $1 20, would bring the article up But why are these manufactures located at to $1 35. The foreign manufacturer tears the north? There is nothing in the acts of that he shall lose the American market; and Congress which gives them any particular consequently, to prevent a surplus in his own location. When the Tariff of 1816 was pays. home market, and to create a surplus here, ed, there were but few manufactures in the he will at once put his article at cost, ninety northern States; and if that law held out any cents; the importer will forego half his pro- great inducements to go into manufacturos, fits, and take off five cents, which will bring why did not the south avail themselves of the the article down to $1 20, the very price benefits ? Cotton can be manufactured at the which the article brought before the duty was south as well as at the north. The south
imposed. In the mean time, the American could save the transportation of the raw mamanufacturer produces the article, which he terial. They could raise the cotton, and macan sell' for the same price. Here, then, the nufacture it in the same neighborhood. And manufacturer is protected, and the consumer there is nothing in the woollen, glass, or pahas no additional price to pay. The importa- per manufacture, which excludes it from the tion will not be materially checked; and this, southern States. They have water.power with the domestic production, will create a sufficient to drive machinery enough to mana surplus, which will tend to a reduction of the facture for the world; and if they have not price. A sharp competition will ensue ; and availed themselves of the privileges they en. necessity, that mother of invention, will bring joy, the fault is not chargeable to the northern out improvements in machinery, so that the States. The fact is, the northern Sinies were article can be produced at a cheap rate. The in a great degree commercial, and they were skill, also, which is acquired, will enable the compelled to go into manufactures by southmanufacturer to turn off the article at less ex-ern policy. The sterility of their soil forbade pense, and so afford it to the consumer at a the idea of competing with the more fertile reduced price. Thus will discriminating du-sections of the country; and, rather than loave ties protect the manufacturer, and at the samelthe graves of their fathers, they embarked in
this new species of industry. And is it to be human industry. We are in favor of it, becharged to them as a crime, that they have cause we believe that it is protective of the been more enterprising and industrious than commercial interests. We are in favor of it, their southern friends, and have made greater because we regard it as essential to agriculproficiency in the arts of manufactures ?
ture, that great and paramount interest, which As to the burdens of the Tariff, they fall is the foundation of every other. But, above upon the middle and northern States more all, we are in favor of the protective system, than upon the southern. Every one who because it promotes the interest of the laborers knows the character of southern society, of the country. This, after all, is the interest knows that the dutiable articles are there which requires the most protection. The rich used principally by a select class of the popu- man can rely upon his money for his support. lation; while, at the north, they are used by If the times are hard, his money becomes almost the entire population. Let the reve- more valuable, as it will command a better innue from customs be abandoned, and let the terest, and furnish him more of the comforts burdens of the Government fall upon the and luxuries of life. But to the poor man, the States according to federal numbers, and the laborer, who has no capital but his ability to south would see at once that her present com- toil-to such a one, a prostration of business is plaints are unfounded. We have no disposi- absolute ruin. Now, as the protective policy tion to excite local jealousies--we would ra- is calculated to revive business, and give to the ther strive to allay them. We have no dispo- laborer the due reward of his toil, we regard sition to build up one section of the Union at it as the poor man's system-as his rightful the expense of another-hence we are in favor inheritance. of a Tariff which shall protect every interest, This system has already done much for the and encourage enterprise and industry, in poor man. There is no article of clothing whatever business it may be employed, or in which goes into the consumption of the poor whatever part of the country it may be loca- man's family so extensively as cottons, in their ted.
various forms; and this policy has reduced But we are told that protection diminishes the price of common cotton cloth more than importations, and that our exports must cor- three-quarters. Those shirtings, which in respond with our imports, and a Tariff is a 1816 would cost some thirty cents per yard, tax upon the exportation of cotton. We have can now be purchased for six cents; and other no disposition, at this time, to go at length cottons have fallen nearly in the same proporinto this subject; but will content ourselves tion. We commend this to the special considwith observing that, if this argument be sound, eration of those who eat their bread in the the planting States are more clamorous for sweat of their brow, who constitute the great
protection than any other section of the coun- mass of the people. try. For they ask the Government to shape We say, in conclusion, that Congress not their policy so as to meet their interest alone only possesses the power to lay protective du-to repeal those restrictions upon commerce ties, but the good of the country demands the which every nation has found necessary for exercise of this power. So thought the “ Fanational prosperity, and even national inde-ther of his country"-80 thought the patriots pendence, that they may reap all the advan- and sages of the Revolution. And shall the tages in the sale of their great staple. But, mere theorists of this day, with their refined suppose their request were granted, it would, closet-dreams, lead us from the paths which on their own theory, operate in the end to our fathers have trod, and which experience their own disadvantage. A repeal of discri- has shown us to be the paths of wisdom and minating duties would destroy our manufac- of prosperity ? Every feeling of national tures and paralyze our industry, so as to ren-honor, every dictate of patriotism, every inteder us unable to purchase foreign fabrics.- rest in the country, cry out against it. Importations, then, would in a measure cease;
(Hunt's Merchants' Magazine. and as imports and exports must correspond with each other,the exports of cotton would be
Mr. Van Buren and the Tariff, diminished. But we have no room to pursue
ALBANY, Feb. 28, 1843. this subject.
“ My Dear Sir-I thank you very kindly We are in favor of the protective system, for your friendly letter, I have at no time because we believe it is calculated to promote nor any where hesitated to express my decithe interest of our country, and our whole ded disapprobation of the T'āriff Aci of the country. We believe that there is no one last Session, as well in respect to the princiquestion of national policy in which the people ple upon which it is founded, as to its details. have so deep an interest as the one we have In good time you will have my views in rebeen considering. We are in favor of it, be spect to that and other subjects before the cause it will promote the interest of the manu- public. In the mean time believe me to be, $facturers, and save from ruin the $300,000,000
Your friend and ob't servant, of capital invested in that useful department
M. VAN BUREN.”
MR. CLAY'S SPEECH ON THE PUBLIC LANDS.
(The proper disposition of the Public Lands of the may safely, however, anticipate that long, if not centuUnited States, after the payment of the Revolutionary ries after the present day, the representatives of our chilDebt, for which they were originally pledged, and to aid in discharging which was a principal inducement to dren's children may be deliberating in the halls of Contheir cession by the States to the Union, had for some gress, on laws relating to the public lands. time been a subject of increasing solicitude to our wisest statesmen. President JEFFERSON, as early as 1806, sug
The subject in other points of view, challenges the gested the appropriation of their proceeds to the con- fullest attention of an American statesman. If there struction of works of Internal Improvement and to the be any one circumstance more than all others which support of Education, even though it should be deemed prerequisite to alter the Federal Constitution. General distinguishes our happy condition from that of the naJACKSON, as early as 1830, again called the attention of tions of the old world, it is the possession of this vast Congress to the subject, and proposed the cession of the remaining. Lands, without recompense, to the several national property, and the resources which it afforded to States which contained them, thus shutting out the Old our people and our government. No European nation Thirteen States altogether (with a good part of the (possibly with the exception of Russia) commands such proposition would very naturally be received with great an ample resource. With respect to the other republics
favor in the States containing Public Lands, while the of this continent, we have no information that any of ence, to take little or no interest in the subject. Mr. them have yet adopted a regular system of previous surCLAY and General Jackson were then rival candidates vey and subsequent sale of their wild lands, in convefor President, and the election not very distant; and the nient tracts, well defined, and adapted to the wants of adversaries of Mr. CLAY, composing a decided majority of the Senate, having placed him at the head of the all
. On the contrary, the probability is that they adhere Committee on Manufactures, now resolved to embarrass to the ruinous and mad system of old Spain, according and prejudice him with the new states by referring to that to which large unsurveyed districts are granted to favorCommittee this proposition to give away to those States the Public Lands. Extraordinary as this resolution
mayite individuals, prejudicial to them, who often sink under well seem, it was carried into effect, and Mr. Clay re- the incumbrance, and die in poverty, whilst the regular quired to report directly on this project of Cession. He did not hesitate to discharge mantully the duty so un-current of emigration is checked and diverted from its graciously thrust upon him, and after earnest considera- legitimate channels. tion, devised and reported a bill to DISTRIBUTE TO ALL And if there be in the operations of this government, THE STATES THE PROCEEDS OF THE PUBLIC LANDS, with which his fume and fortunes will stand identified to one which more than any other displays consummate
all future time. In support of this bill, he addressed the wisdom and statesmanship, it is that system by which Senate as follows:)
the public lands have been so successfully administered. [The entire Speech will be found in Greeley & We should pause, solemnly pause, before we subvert it. McElrath's edition of the Life and Speeches of Henry We should touch it hesitatingly, and with the gentlest Clay, vol. I., pp. 104–138.)
hand. Long after we shall cease to be agitated by the Tariff,
Under the system of the general government, the ages after our manufactures shall have acquired a sta- country subject to its operation, beyond the Alleghany bility and perfection which will enable them successful
mountains, has rapidly advanced in population, imSly to cope with the manufactures of any other country. provement and prosperity. The example of the State of
the public lands will remain a subject of deep and endur. Ohio was emphatically relied on-its millions of people, Sing interest. In whatever view we contemplate them, its canals, and other improvements, its flourishing there is no question of such vast importance. As to their extent, there is public land enough to found an em- less than forty years.
towns, its highly cultivated fields, all put there within pire; stretching across the immense continent, from the
Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, from the Gulf of Mexico In a national point of view, one of the greatest advanto the northwestern lakes, the quantity, according to the tages which these public lands in the west, and this sysofficial surveys and estimates, amounting to the prodi- tem of selling them, affords, is the resource which they gious sum of one billion and eighty millions of acres, present against pressure and want, in other parts of the As to the duration of the interest, regarded as a source of Union, from the vocations of society being too closely comfort to our people, and of public income---during filled, and too much crowded. They constantly tend to the year, when the greatest quantity was sold that ever sustain the price of labor, by the opportunity which they in one year had been previously sold, it amounted to less offer of the acquisition of fertile land at a moderate than three millions of acres; and assuming that year as price, and the consequent temptation to emigrate from affording the standard rate at which the lands will be those parts of the Union where labor may be badly roannually sold, it would require three hundred year to warded. dispose of them. But the sales will probably be accele The progress of settlement, and the improvement in rated from increased population and other causes. Welthe fortunes and condition of individuals, under the ope
ration of this beneficent system, are as simple as they are Tennessee, are the most migrating States in the Union. manifest. Pioneers of a' more adventurous character. To supply this constantly augmenting demand, the advancing before the tide of emigration, penetrate into policy, which has hitherto characterized the general the uninhabited regions of the west. They apply the government, has been highly liberal both towards indiaxe to the forest, which falls before them, or the plough viduals and the new States. Large tracts, far surpassing to the prairie, deeply sinking its share in the unbroken the demand of purchasers, in every climate and situawild grasses in which it abounds. They build houses, tion, adapted to the wants of all parts of the Union, are plant orchards, enclose fields, cultivate the earth, and brought into market at moderate prices, the government rear up families around them. Meantime, the tide of having sustained all the expense of the original puremigration flows upon them, their improved forms rise chase, and of surveying, marking, and dividing the in value, a demand for them takes place, they sell to the land. For fifty dollars any poor man may purchase new comers, at a great advance, and proceed farther forty acres of first rate land; and for less than the wages west, with ample means to purchase from government, of one year's labor, he may buy eighty acres. To the at reasonable prices, sufficient land for all the members new States, also, has the government been liberal and of their families. Another and another tide succeeds, generous in the grants for schools and for internal imthe first pushing on westwardly the previous settlers, provements, as well as in reducing the debt, contracted who, in their turn, sell out their farms, constantly aug- for the purchase of lands, by the citizens of those states menting in price, until they arrive at a fixed and station- who are tempted, in a spirit of inordinate speculation, to ary value. In this way, thousands and tens of thou- purchase too much, or at too high prices. sands are daily improving their circumstances and bet Such is a rapid outline of this invaluable national protering their condition. I have often witnessed this grati-perty; of the system which regulates its management ying progress. On the same farm you may sometimes and distribution, and of the effects of that system. We behold, standing together, the first rude cabin of round might here pause, and wonder that there should be a and unhewn logs, and wooden chimneys, the hewed log disposition with any to waste or throw away this great house, chinked and shingled, with stone or brick chim- resource, or to abolish a system which has been fraught neys; and, lastly, the comfortable brick or stone dwel- with so many manifest advantages. Nevertheless, there ling, each denoting the different occupants of the farm, are such, who, impatient with the slow and natural opeor the several stages of the condition of the same occu- ration of wise laws, have put forth various pretensions pant. What other nation can boast of such an outlet and projects concerning the public lands, within a few for its increasing population, such bountiful means of years past. One of these pretensions is an assumption of promoting their prosperity and securing their indepen- the sovereign right of the new States to all the lands dence ?
within their respective limits, to the exclusion of the ge To the public lands of the United States, and especial- neral government, and to the exclusion of all the people ly to the existing system by which they are distributed of the United States, those in the new States only exwith so much rogularity and equity, we are indebted for cepted. It is my purpose now to trace the origin, exathese signal benefits in our national condition. And mine the nature, and expose the injustice of this pretenevery consideration of duty to ourselves and to posterity, sion. enjoins that we should abstain from the adoption of any This pretension may be fairly ascribed to the proposiwild project that would cast away this vast national tions of the gentleman from Missouri, (Mr. Benton,) to property, holden by the general government in sacred graduate the public lands, to reduce the price, and cede trust for the whole people of the United States, and for the refuse" lands (a term which I believe originated bids that we should rashly touch a system which has with him) to the States within which they lie. Promptbeen so sucoessfully tested by experience.
od, probably, by those propositions, a late Governor of It has been only within a few years that restless men Illinois, unwilling to be outdone, presented an elaborate hove thrown before the public their visionary plans for Message to the Legislature of that State, in which he squandering the public domain. With the existing laws gravely and formally asserted the right of that State to the great State of the west is satisfied and contented. all the land of the United States, comprehended within She has felt their benefit, and grown great and powerful its limits. It must be allowed that the Governor was a under their sway. She knows and testifies to the liber-most impartial judge, and the Legislature a most disinality of the general government in the administration of terested tribunal, to docide such a question ! the public lands, extended alike to her and to the other The Senator from Missouri was chanting most sweetnew States.
*y to the tune, “refuse lande." refuse lands," "refuse Assuming the duplication of our population in terms ands," on the Missouri side of the Mississippi, and the of twenty-five years, the demand for waste land, at the soft strains of his music, having caught the car of his eend of every term, will at least be double what it was at cellency, on the Illinois side, he joined in chorus, and the commencement. But the ratio of the increased de-struck an octave higher. The Senator from Missouri
mand will be much greater than the increase of the whole wished only to pick up some crumbs wbich fell from population of the United States, because the Western Uncle Sam's table; but the Governor resolved to grasp States nearest to, or including the public lands, populate the whole loaf. The Senator modestly claimed only an much more rapidly than other parts of the Union; and old smoked, rejected joint; but the stoinach of his exoelit will be from them that the greatest current of emigra- lency yeamed after the whole hog! The Governor tion will flow. At this moment Ohio, Kentucky and peeped over the Mississippi into Missouri, and saw the
Senator leisurely roaming in some rich pastures, on bits! But this pretension, unjust to the old States, unequal
of refuse lands. He returned to Illinois, and, springing as to all, would be injurious to the new States theminto the grand prairie, determined to claim and occupy selves, in whose behalf it has been put forth, if it were it, in all its boundless extent.
* recognized. The interest of the new States is not con The right of the Union to the public lands is incon- fined to the lands within their limits, but extends to the testible. It ought not to be considered debatable. It whole billion and eighty millions of acres. Sanction the never was questioned but by a few, whose monstrous claim, however, and they are cut down and restricted heresy, it was probably supposed, would escape ani- to that which is included in their own boundaries. Is it madversion from the enormity of the absurdity, and the not better for Ohio, instead of the five millions and a utter impracticability of the success of the claim. The half--for Indiana, instead of the fifteen millions--or Sright of the whole is sealed by the blood of the Revolu- even for Illinois, instead of the thirty-one or thirty-two tion, founded upon solemn deeds of cession from sove-millions---or Missouri, instead of the thirty-eight millions reign States, deliberately executed in the face of the --within their respective limits, to retain their interests
world, or testing upon national treaties concluded with in those several quantities, and also retain their interest, foreign powers, or ample equivalents contributed from in common with the other members of the Union, in the the common treasury of the people of the United Stutes. countless millions of acres that lie west or northwest
This right of the whole was stamped upon the face of beyond them? the new States at the very instant of their parturition. “The general goverument at a moderate price, is sellThey admitted and recognised it with their first breath. ing the public land as fust as it can find purchasers.
They hold their stations, as members of the confederacy. The new States are populating with unexampled 12in virtue of(that admission. The senators who sit here. pidity; their condition is now much more eligible than and the members in the House of Representatives from that of some of the old States. Ohio, I am sorry to be the new States, deliberate in Congress with other sena-obliged to confess, is, in internal improvement and some tors and representatives, under that admission. And other respects, fifty years in advance of her elder sister since the new States came into being, they have recog- and neighbor, Kentucky. How have her growth and nised this right of the general government by innumer- prosperity, her independence, her equality with the elder able acts.
States, the development of her resources, the taxation, By their concurrence in the passage of hundreds of laws cultivation, and settlement of her soil, or the proper enrespecting the public domain, founded upon the incon-joyment of her jurisdiction and sovereignty, been affecttestible right of the whole of the States.
ed or impaired by the federal title within her limits? By repeated applications to extinguish Indian titles, The federal title! It has been a source of blessings and and to survey the lands which they covered.
of bounties, but not one of real grievance. As to the And by solicitation and acceptance of extensive grants exemption from taxation of the public lands, and the from the general government, of the public lands. exemption for five years of those sold to individuals, if
The existence of the new States is a falsehood, or the the public land belonged to the new States, would they right of all the States to the public domain is an unde- tax it? And as to the latter exemption, it is paid for by the niable truth. They have no more right to the public general government, as may be seen by reference to the lands, within their particular jurisdiction, than other compacts; and it is, moreover, beneficial to the new States have to the mint, the forts and arsenals, or public states themselves, by holding out a motive to emigrants ships within theirs, or than the people of the District of to purchase and settle within their limits. Columbia have to this magnificent capitol, in whose Whatever may be the sum drawn from the sales of the splendid halls we now deliberate.
public lands, it will be contributed, not by citizens of the The equality contended for between all the States now States alone in which they are situated, but by omiexists. The public lands are now held, and ought to be grants from all the States. And it will be raised, not in held and administered, for the common benefit of all. I a single year, but in a long series of yoars. It would hope our fellow citizens of Illinois, Indiana, and Mis- have been impossible for the State of Ohio to have paid, souri will reconsider the matter ; that they will cease to in one year, the millions that have been raised in that take counsel from demagogues who would deceive State by the sale of public lands; but in a period of upthem, and instil erroneous principles into their ears; and ward of thirty years the payment has been made, not that they will feel and acknowledge that their brethren only without impoverishing, but with the constantly inof Kentucky and of Ohio, and of all the States in the creasing prosperity of the State. Union, have an equal right with the citizens of those England has too little land, and too many poople. three States in the public lands. If the possibility of an America has too much land, for the present population event so direful as a severance of this Union, were for a of the country, and wants people. The British crown moment contemplated, what would be the probablo had ownod, for many generations, large bodies of land, consequence of such an unspeakable calamity; if three preserved for game and forest, from which but small re confederacies were formed out of its fragments, do you venues were derived. It was proposed to sell out the imagine that the western confederacy would consent to crown lands, that they might be poopled and culuvated, the States including the public lands holding them ex- and that the royal family should be placed on the civil clusively for themselves ? Can you imagine that the list. Mr. Burke supported the proposition by convincing States of Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, would quietly arguments. But what analogy is there between the renounce their right in all the public lands west of them ? crown lands of the British sovereign, and the public