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Gen. Lewis Cass, accepting the nomina-| liberal appropriations for the improvetion for the Presidency of the Baltimore ment of our internal communications, this Convention :

Half Million of Votes told on that side; “From the days of Gen. Hamilton to our days, since it has, in the course of the incessant the party opposed to us--of whose principles he was the great exponent, if not the founder-mutations of party interest, become Demowhile it has changed its name, has preserved es- cratic to oppose those principles or medsentially its identity of character; and the doubt he entertained and taught of the capacity of man sures, these votes are cast as unhesitatingfor self-government, has exerted a marked influence upon its actions and opinions. Here is !y on the other side. So in regard to other the very starting-point of the difference between questions. It is within the truth to asthe two great parties which divide our country.All other differences are but subordinate and sume that the party which, in our political auxiliary to this, and may, in fact, be resolved into it."

struggles, has possessed itself of the DeHere you perceive the assertion, the mocratic name, has thereby secured an implication, and may discern the practical advantage over its antagonist fully equivimprovement. The assertion is that a alent to One Million Votes. party has existed and does exist in the And yet it became evident to keen obcountry which distrusts the capacity of servers, at the very outset of the late the People for self-government and is Presidential struggle, that the party wrapsecretly if not openly hostile to our entire ped in the mantle of Democracy was Republican system. But how shall an doomed to defeat unless saved by some alarmed people distinguish these traitors palpable blunder on the other side. The to Liberty from their fellow-citizens ?-reasons for this may be briefly summed up Very easily : If you find a man opposing as follows : the self-styled Democracy and the election 1. The expiring Administration came of Gen. Cass to the Presidency, you may into power tainted with fraud. Mr. Polk know there is one of the recreants. Sup-was elected President by the aid of voters port to Gen. Cass and his coadjutors is the attracted to his standard by the resolution touchstone of fidelity to Human Freedom. of the Convention which nominated him The practical improvement follows in-affirming that the right of this country to evitably : If you wish to be regarded as the whole of Oregon is clear and indisputa friend of Liberty, of America and of able, and the clearly implied pledge that Man, you must vote to make Gen. Cass he, if elected, would enforce said right at President and keep his party in power, the cannon's mouth if necessary; by the though you may honestly believe their aid of voters who hold to the Protection line of policy pernicious and the measures of Home Labor by discriminating duties, they advocate most adverse to the public who were deluded by the Kane letter ; interests and general welfare.

by the votes of men conscientiously opPreposterous as this course of argument posed to the acquisition of Texas unless is, it has by skillful iteration acquired and with the free consent of Mexico, and on exerted an immense influence over the terms which should relieve our country popular mind. It is not too much to say from the dishonoring imputation of having that more than Half a Million Votes are loaned her flag and her arms to the cause thrown every year for the candidates of Slavery Extension. When the just extermed Democratic because they are so pectations of each of these classes were designated, and without one thought as blasted by the Oregon Treaty, the Tariff to how far their professions of superior of 1846, and the pushing forward of our Democracy are justified by their acts or troops to the Rio Grande, in the heart of their opinions. When it was Democratic, a Mexican Department, and directly opin the vocabulary of party strife, to bus-posite its chief city, leading inevitably to tain Protection to Home Industry and a bloody, protracted, expensive and deso.

THE ELECTION OF 1848.

lating War, many thousands who had net, refused it as unequal to his deserts, hitherto 'gone with the party' were re- and ex-Gov. Wm. L. Marcy, notoriously pelled and alienated; and though with a adverse to Van Buren and Wright in the large proportion the ties of party were too internal politics of New York, was called strong for the dictates of conscience, yet to the Cabinet, with the portfolio of Sectheir support of the Administration and its retary of War. It was understood that Heir became colder, more hesitating, less the Collectorship of New York would be effective than it had been, while many bestowed as Messrs. Wright and Van openly and utterly renounced the whole Buren should prefer ; but this expectation 'concern. When, on the meeting of the also was blasted ; Mr. C. W. Lawrence, XXXth Congress in December, 1847, an a politician of the Croswell and Marcy Opposition majority in the House was school, being appointed instead of Mr. evinced by the choice of a Whig Speaker, Jona. I. Coddington. The alienation thus the discomfiture of the place-holders was originated was fed by a thousand followalmost ensured. We believe there has ing occurrences, until at length, in Novemnever been an instance under our Federal ber, 1846, Gov. Wright was signally deConstitution in which a President has feated in a canvass for reelection, and it been elected of adverse politics to those was asserted that the Administration had of the Speaker of the House last before connived at and promoted his discomfiture. chosen.

Gov. W right died a few months afterBut a concurring cause of weakness and ward, but the feud thus commenced was dissolution had already been developed in fought out over his grave. A State Conthe ranks of the professing Democracy of vention assembled at Syracuse early in the Empire State. Here, in 1843, the '47 to nominate ·Democratic' candidates name o of Silas Wright had been in-for State Officers; each wing made the volved in aid of the election of Polk, and most desperate exertions to secure a he, an original and earnest opponent of majority of the Delegates, and there were the Tyler Treaty for the Annexation of several contests for seats, the settlement Texas, had been run as Governor, in order of which would determine the character lo reconcile many Democratic opponents of the Convention. Superior management of Annexation to the support of Polk and and tact were clearly on the side of the the party. The plan succeeded but too Croswell or Conservative faction, now well well. Mr. Polk carried the State by 5,106 known by the appellation of votes, and was thereby elected, while while the more Radical or Wright and Mr. Wright ran far ahead of him for Van Buren faction were equally well Governor, receiving 10,030 majority. Al- known as “ Barnburners,' (in allusion to though this disparity evinced in the clear- an anti-Radical story of a thick-skulled est manner the immense service which Dutchman who had barnt his barn to clear Mr. Wright had done the party in con- it of rats and mice.) The Hunkers' carsenting to run on the ticket, yet there ried most of the contested seats, and prowere not wanting sycophants and adven-ceeded to nominate a State Ticket enturers to poison the ears of the Presi- tirely of their own faith, substituting dent elect and his coterie with tales of Orville Hungerford for A. C. Flagg as the treachery of Gov. Wright's especial Controller. In the election which followfriends, who (they asserted) had placed him ed, the leading and more ardent Barnat the head of the poll at the expense of burners' refused to support the ticket so other candidates on the ticket, and even formed, leaving the Whigs to sweep the plotted to defeat the Electoral Ticket !-State by an average majority of over Mr. Polk, a weak man, was like all weak Thirty Thousand. (See Returns in last men, jealous of superiority and uneasy year's Almanac.] under a sense of obligation: every intima- But the Hunkers, though beaten, claim·tion that Mr. Wright had elected him was ed to have got possession of the party an agony. A misunderstanding followed, machinery ; appointed a new State Cenas was natural. It is currently understood tral Committee, and in due time called that the President elect felt constrained another State Convention at Albany, to offer a choice of places in his Cabinet to which framed an Electoral Ticket and Gov. Wright, who declined it in view of chose the State Delegates to Baltimore.-his obligation to the People of New York, Meantime the Barnburners had thembut asked that Azariah C. Flagg should selves called a State Convention at Utica, be made Secretary of the Treasury instead. the call being made by a majority of the This, if not absolutely promised, was vir- Democratic' Members of the Legislatually assured ; but Mr. R. J. Walker, to ture, and as such held to be regular and whom the Attorney-Generalship had been according to the usages of the party.'-assigned in the original cast of the Cabi- This Convention chose a full Delegation

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to the National Convention at Baltimore, Chief Magistracy, while his signal and while the Hunkers chose Representative long-continued labors for the Whig cause

tes by Congressional District Con- were deemed fairly to entitle him to this ventions. When the Baltimore Conven- recognition of his worth. Another class tion assembled, (May 1, 1848,) each side perceived in the brilliant achievements, was fully and ably represented, and their the blameless life and the sound principles conflicting claims were urged with ability of Gen. WINFIELD Scott, the Conqueror aud desperate earnestness, first before a of Mexico, the elements of unquestionable large Committee, then in full Convention. and merited success, and rigorously urged It was finally decided that neither should his nomination. John McLEAN and be aclmitted to cast the vote of New York THOMAS Corwin of Ohio had each of them in the ballotings for President and Vice- advocates for the Presidency, but they had President. The Convention then proceed-withdrawn their names from the canvass. ed to its work, and on the fourth ballot And finally, a large majority of the prominominated Gen. Lewis Cass of Michigan nent politicians of the party, especially for President, and Gen. William O. But-throughout the South and West, and inLER of Kentucky was afterward nominat- cluding most of the Whig Members of ed for Vice-President. The • Hunkers' Congress, discerned in the character and promptly and heartily concurred in those life of Gen. ZACHARY TAYLOR the ele. nominations : but the Barnburners,' to ments of a popularity which nothir whom Gen. Cass was especially obnox-withstand, and deemed his nomination | ious, utterly repudiated them, and prompt- equivalent to an election. It is not alone ly called a State Convention, which as- or mainly, they urged, that he has been sembled at Utica, (May 22d,) and nominat-uniformly successful in the field, winning ed Martin Van Buren for President, and decisive victories over armies numbering HENRY Dodge (ex-Governor, and now treble and quadruple his own, but that he U. S. Senator,) of Wisconsin, for Vice- has uniformly shown himself so wise, so

esident. Gov. Dodge declined the nom. simple, so modest, 80 scrupulous in his ination and adhered to Gen. Cass; but obedience to the civil power, that we urge Mr. Van Buren, though accepting with bis nomination, and pledge to it the supunfuigned reluctance, resolved to abide port of a large majority of the People. the issue. Several gentlemen from other. These considerations prevailed with the States participated in the doings at Utica, Convention. Gen. TAYLOR was nomirated but New-York alone was regularly and for President on the fourth ballot, the votes fully represented. The New-York Dele- running as follows: gates were therefore empowered to attend

1st ballot. 2d. 3d. and take part in a more general Conven-Zachary Taylor .......111

171 tion called upon farther notice to meet at Buffalo in August, and which did meet Daniel Webster....... accordingly.

John M. Clayton.... Meantime, (June 1, 1848,) a Whig Na-/*John McLean... tional Convention assembled at Philadel

Total....... phia, every State in the Union being rep. * Withdrawn before. *** resented ; Texas, which alone had no In point of fact, this nomination had Delerates present, having instructed Loui- been settled from the beginning. Many siana to vote for her. Hon. John M. Delegates who voted for other candidates MOREHEA]), Ex-Governor of North Caro- at first were known to be really in favor lina, was chosen President. An excited of Gen. Taylor, and only voting for others struggle for the Presidential nomination in deference to the opinions of their constithad long been anticipated. A large ma-luents. jority of the Whig voters, in the opinion Millard FILLMORE of New York was of this writer, ardently desired and confi- on the second ballot nominated for Vicedently expected the nomination of their President by a decided majority. old and dearly loved standard-bearer, The opposition to Gen. Taylor in the HENRY CLAY, believing that the People Whig ranks had been in no considerable were now ready to do justice to his emi-degree personal. The merits claimed for nent statesmanship, abilities, devoted him by his friends were very generally patriotism, and unsurpassed public ser-conceded. But it was objected to him that vices. A less numerous but most respect- his Military achievements formed, after able boily, especially in New-England, all, the basis of his aspiration to the Presibut by vo ineans confined to that section, dency, since without these his personal regarded the transcendent abilities and merits and virtues would never have made world-wide fame of DANIEL WEBSTER as him a formidable candidate-and to elevaeminently calculated to shed lustre on the tion to high civil trusts on the strength of

fully repare therefore emporeneral Conven. Henry Clayott......... 49

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struggle for the Presisted. A large ma- uents: ARD FILLMORE of New Yor!

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1. is lawtouch fugitive mig Territory to the po

brilliant Military achievements the Whig into such Territory from whom labor or service party had ever been strongly opposed.

is lawfully claimed in any one of the United It was farther urged that his opinions on and conveyed out of said Territory to the person

States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed the great leading principles of National claiming his or hor labor or service.”

Policy had never been clearly enunciated, il nor his qualifications for the highest civil

| This Proviso was adopted with little station conclusively demonstrated ; and

discussion (but not without evoking much especially that on the great absorbing

"feeling) by the House, nearly all the

Members from the Free States supportquestion respecting the admission of Hu-l

Jing, while those from the Slave States opman Slavery into or its exclusion from the Territories of the Union just acquired from

posed it. The bill thus amended was

sent to the Senate, and was promptly Mexico, his opinions were not known to accord with those of that great majority

met by Mr. D. H. Lewis, of Alabama, with of the Whig party which stood firm for

a motion to strike out the Proviso. Mr. Freedoin, but were with reason suspected;

Davis of Mass. rose in opposition to this and even confidently claimed to incline

motion, and was speaking against it the other way. The objections thus raised

i when word was brought that the House

bahad adjourned without day—the hour of were strengthened by the refusal of the Convention to pass a resolutionaffirming ..

adjournment (noon) having been struck by the principle of the Wilmot Proviso, or

the House clock, though not yet reached even to pat forth any formal declaration of by the Senate's; The bill thus failed for fondamental Whig principles at all. On

the session, and among the most vocifer

"sous mourners over its loss was Gen. Lewis these grounds, many Whigs felt constrain

Cass, a Senator from Michigan, who deeped for months after the nomination to withhold their support. But by letters l'y regretted, in repeated conversations. subsequently written by Gen. Taylor the

that so l'air an opportunity to establish the doubts of his fidelity to Whig princi

principle of Freedom in the Territories

had been lost. ples and the apprehensions that he would

| veto any bill which Congress might pass

The next Session witnessed a revival embodying the principle of Freedom inli

of the bill, and of course of the Proviso;

1." both of which again passed the Honge. the Territories, were pretty generally dispelled, and a very general concurrence

but the latter was now defeated in the of the party in his support ultimately se

Senate-Gen. Cass now ranging himself

with its opponents, but in his speech cured, We return to the dissenters at Balti

avowing his concurrence in the principle

of the Proviso, while he regarded the atmore from the Cass and Butler nomination In the progress of the Wright and Cros

tempt to establish it as untimely and inwell controversy in this State, a difference

auspicious. But soon after the next Conof opinion on a great National question

gress assembled (Dec. 28, 1847,) the same

Gen. Cass addressed an elaborate letter had been gradually developed. When, after the victories on the Rio Grande los

to Mr. A. O. P. Nicholson of Tenn., avowand the simultaneous declaration of War".

ping that a change had taken place in his against Mexico, it became evident that

views, and that he was now opposed to an acquisition of Territory would be

the Proviso altogether, as at best of doubtamong the results of that War, the dis

ful constitutionality and at once perilous position and future institutions of that

and useless. This letter was widely cir

culated, and was doubtless effectual in seTerritory become objects of general concern. Just as the XXIXth Congress was

curing the defeat of the Proviso when the

close of the War had removed most of the closing its first or long session, Mr. David |

original grounds of opposition to it. It Wilmot, a Representative from Penn

doubtless exerted an influence also in sylvania, after a hasty consultation with

winning Southern support to Gen. Cass, several of his Northern Democratic' friends, moved to add to a bill before the

and thus securing his nomination for Pres.

ident. House, designed to give the President

Long ere this, however, the Proviso or control of Three Millions of Dollars where

Free Soil question had become a potent with to make Peace, a Proviso in the

element in the feud which divided the words following :

party in New York. The Wright or Radi" And be it further enacted, That there shall be

cal wing had never cordially approved neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any Territory on the continent of America which shall the policy of Annexation, though they had hereafter be acquired by or annexed to the United acquiesced in it under the stringency of States by virtue of this appropriation, or in any a party necessity, giving pledges to their other manner whatsoever, except for crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convict-1

followers that the acquisition of Texas ed: Provided, always, That any p i napin should not be permitted to operate as an

WA

to the National Convention at Baltimore, Chief Magistracy, while his signal and while the Hunkers chose Representative long-continued labors for the Whig cause Delegates by Congressional District Con- were deemed fairly to entitle him to this ventions. When the Baltimore Conven- recognition of his worth. Another class tion assembled, (May 1, 1848,) each side perceived in the brilliant achievements, was fully and ably represented, and their the blameless life and the sound principles conflicting claims were urged with ability of Gen. WINFIELD Scott, the Conqueror and desperate earnestness, first before a of Mexico, the elements of unquestionable large Committee, then in full Convention. and merited success, and rigorously urged It was finally decided that neither should his nomination. John McLEAN and be admitted to cast the vote of New York THOMAS CORWIN of Ohio had each of them in the ballotings for President and Vice- advocates for the Presidency, but they had President. The Convention then proceed- withdrawn their names from the canvass. ed to its work, and on the fourth ballot And finally, a large majority of the prominominated Gen. LEWIS Cass of Michigan nent politicians of the party, especially for President, and Gen. WILLIAM O. Bur- throughout the South and West, and inLER of Kentucky was afterward nominat- cluding most of the Whig Members of ed for Vice-President. The · Hunkers' Congress, discerned in the character and promptly and heartily concurred in those life of Gen. ZACHARY TAYLOR the ele. nominations; but the Barnburners,' to ments of a popularity which nothing could whom Gen. Cass was especially obnox- withstand, and deemed his nomination ious, utterly repudiated them, and prompt- equivalent to an election. It is not alone ly called a State Convention, which as- or mainly, they urged, that he has been sembled at Utica, (May 22d,) and nominat- uniformly successful in the field, winning ed Martin Van Buren for President, and decisive victories over armies numbering HENRY DODGE (ex-Governor, and now treble and quadruple his own, but that he U. S. Senator,) of Wisconsin, for Vice- has uniformly shown himself so wise, so President. Gov. Dodge declined the nom. simple, so modest, so scrupulous in his ination and adhered to Gen. Cass; but obedience to the civil power, that we urge Mr. Van Buren, though accepting with his nomination, and pledge to it the supunfeigned reluctance, resolved to abide port of a large majority of the People. the issue. Several gentlemen from other These considerations prevailed with the States participated in the doings at Utica, Convention. Gen. TAYLOR was nomirated but New-York alone was regularly and for President on the fourth ballot, the votes

esented. The New York Dele- running as follows: gates were therefore empowered to attend

Ist ballot. 2d.

4th.

133 and take part in a more general Conven-Zachary Taylor.......111 · 118

Henry Clay........... tion called upon farther notice to meet at

Winfield Scott......... Buffalo in August, and which did meet Daniel Webster....... 22 22 accordingly.

John M. Clayton..... Meantime, (June 1, 1848,) a Whig Na- /*John McLean........ 2 tional Convention assembled at Philadel

Total..........

.... ...279 279 279 279

... phia, every State in the Union being rep-| * Withdrawn before.** resented ; Texas, which alone had no In point of fact, this nomination had Delegates present, having instructed Loui- been settled from the beginning. Many siana to vote for her. Hon. John M. Delegates who voted for other candidates MOREHEAT), Ex-Governor of North Caro- at first were known to be really in favor lina. was chosen President. An excited of Gen. Taylor, and only voting for others struggle for the Presidential nomination in deference to the opinions of their constithad long been anticipated. A large ma- uents. jority of the Whig voters, in the opinion MILLARD FILMORE of New-York was of this writer, ardently desired and confi- on the second ballot nominated for Vicedently expected the nomination of their President by a decided majority. old and dearly loved standard-bearer, The opposition to Gen. Taylor in the HENRY CLAY, believing that the People Whig ranks had been in no considerable were now ready to do justice to his emi-degree personal. The merits claimed for nent statesmanship, abilities, devoted him by his friends were very generally patriotism, and unsurpassed public ser-conceded. But it was objected to him that vices. A less numerous but most respect- his Military achievements formed, after able body, especially in New-England, all, the basis of his aspiration to the Presibut by no means confined to that section, dency, since without these his personal regarded the transcendent abilities and merits and virtues would never have made world-wide fame of DANIEL WEBSTER as him a formidable candidate—and to elevaeminently calculated to shed lustre on the Ition to high civil trusts on the strength of

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