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A TREATISE ON MILCH COWS,
Whereby the Quality and Quantity of Milk which any Cow will give may be accurately determined, by observing Natural
Marks or External Indications alone; the length of time she will continue to give Milk, &c. &c' By M. Francis Guénon, of Libourne, France. Translated for The Farmers' Library by N. P. Trist, Esq. with Introductory Remarks and Observations on THE COW AND THE DAIRY, by J. S. Skinner, Editor of The Farmers Library lll Illustrated with numerous Engravings.
Price for single copies, neatly done up in paper covers, 37} cents. Library edition, full bound in cloth and lettered, 62 cents. The usual discount to Booksellers, Agents, Country Merchants and Peddlers.
This extraordinary Book has excited the attention of the ablest agriculturists of the country. The Publishers have received nomerous testimonials as to the usefulness and accuracy of Guénon's Theory. The practical remarks and the useful information contained in the first part of the Book are worth limore to any Farmer than the whole cost,
Since the days of Doctor Jenner's discovery of vaccination, or the Cow-pox, being an antidote to the small.pox, nothing has appeared so extraordinary in that department of Natural History as the discov. llery of M. GUENON, the son of a French gardener, of a mean of ascertaining the quality of Milch Cows by extemal and visible signs over the milk region of the animal.
The signs have been reduced to a clear system, and by Committees of various Agricultural Societies lin France rronounced "infalible," after repeated and most careful trials.
The work was translated by Mr. TRIST of the State Department, and published with numerous engravings explanatory of the system, first in THE FARMERS' LIBRARY. But the Publishers, not wish. ing to withhold a discovery so inportant and valuable from the poo, est person owning, or wishing to own, a Cow, have published it in a separate and cheap form.
At a meeting of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society, held at the Legislative Hall, in Boston Mr. BROOKS made some remarks on the ability of their united report was in favor of the high value any one to distinguish the qualities of a Cow by of the work. One of them went so far as to say examination. He had a very high (pinion of a that a farmer keeping 20 Cows could well afford to French work by Guénon, recently translated and give $100 for this Treatise of Guénon, if it could not published in The Farmers' Library, by Mr. Skinner, be obtained at a less cost. lof New York. By the aid of that work a man might Mr. FRENCH expressed his entire confidence in select his stock with almost infallible certainty. lant
ble certainty. Guénon's Treatise, and thought its introduction He believed he could tell, within a few quarta,
quarta, among our farmers was destined to work an entirell what a Cow would yield of milk, and within a few
revolution. He mentioned the difficulties which pounds what she would yield of butter. He had Guénon encountered in getting his work into no Inot missed in more than 10 instances out of between tice in France. For some time none of the Agri-l 11300 and 400 trials. He had known one Cow that
that cultural Societies would give any heed to his sugwas not dry for fourteen years, and had calves gestions; but when, at length, one of them was every year.
induced to put Guénon to the test, they were perMr. DENNY fully accorded with Mr. Brooks in fectly astonished at the accuracy with which he his estimate of the Treatise on Cattle by Guénon. applied his rules for determining the milk-giving He had tested its value by distributing a numher qualities of a Cow. of copies among intelligent, practical farmers, and From a number of letters from different parts we select the following:
PRINCETON, Mass. October 15. 1846. I return to you my sincere thanks for giving toll I have examined more than one hundred Cows, us farmers this valuable Treatise of M Guenon'a. and after carefully marking their escutcheons, II shall hereafter inake my selection of the calves U have become satisfied that M. Guénon's discovery will raise from my choice stocks from the marks is one of great merit, and can be relied upon as given by this author. I think every farmer ghould true. I have no doubt that I can judge very nearly own this work. With regard, yours, &c as to the quantity and quality of milk any Cow will
ROSWELL L. COLT. give at the hight of her flow, and also the time she To the Editor of The Farmers' Library. will continue in milk after being with calf.
The way taken to convince myself of the truth of M. Guénon's method has been to visit the cow.
EAST WINDSOR HILL, Ct. Dec. 19, 1846. yards of some of our principal dairy farmers, and Dear Sir: Having had some experience in raisexamine the escutcheons upon calves as early as iug Cows, and having had my attention partictwo or three weeks old, and I see no reason why ularly called to their milking properties, I was their value as future milkers may not be judged pleased to find a Treatise on the subject by M. of at this age as well as as at any other age. Guénon, of Libourne, in France-published by you
Yours, respectfully JOHN BROOKS. a few months since, which I procured and carefully To J. S. SKINNER, Esq. Ed. of The Farmers' Lib. studied; and I think the book worthy of more at
tention than I believe it has received from the PATERSON, N. J. December 19, 1846. public in this quarter. Dear Sir : I have read, with great satisfaction, I have fonnd that his 'escutcheong, or marks of M. Guénon's work on Milch Cows, by which one the particular classes and orders of Uows, to agree can judge by certain infallible signs the milking with nearly all I have had an opportunity to exqualities of the animal. I have compared the marks amine. It has been easy to ascertain, after studying he gives for his first grade Flanders Cow, and find this book, to which class and order almost every they correspond with the escu cheon of my favor Cow belongs; which, as a guide in purchasing ite Devon Cow Ellen, that has taken the first pre-Milch Cows, or of safely deciding which to keep:// miums at the last two cattle-shows of the Ameri. before we have had time or opportunity to test can Institute. My farmer has great faith in M. their qualities as milkers, will far more than repay Guénon's work, and so has one of my neighbors, a the price of the book and the time necessary to a knowing Scotch milkman, who keeps fifty Cows. clear uuder tanding of it. He says that after careful examination he places I am, Sir, very resp'y, your ob't serv't. confidence in these marks, and they will govern
JESSE CHARLTON. him in his future purchases.
TO JOHN S SKINNER, Esq. Ed. Farmers' Library. GREELEY & McELRATH, Publishers, Tribune Buildings, New-York.
Guénonistutet. My far met het leo wa of the Ampere. Milch ebonyos which, as and order almost dying
anomination he powe. clearance of the bookers, will fal portunity to
believe thublic. Danguage, penular.nished in Four
I have examined the popular en you have rendered e vraies
BY DIONYSIUS LARDNER,
and Dublin, and Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in the University of London, &c. &c. After Dr. Lardner had brought to a close his Public Lectures in the United States, he was prevailed Hupon by the Publishers to prepare a complete and authentic edition for publication. The general inIterest which, for a period of several years, these beautiful expositions and commentaries on the Nato-1 iral Sciencra bad excited. and which was so universally felt and acknowledged, induced the Publishers to believe that their publication would be most acceptable, as well as permanently beneficial, to the American public. In these published Lectures it will be found that the Author has preserved the game simplicity of language, perspicuity of reasoning, and felicity of illustration, which rendered the loral discourses so universally popular.
The above work was originally published in Fourteen Numbers or Parts, and sold at 25 cents per Unnmber. Any of the numbers can still be purchased. The entire work is now completed in two largell Hoctavo volumes of about 600 pages each, well bound in full cloth, illustrated by 380 Engravings, and sold at $4 50.
District School Libraries can order these Lectures through any of the Booksellers or Country Merchante. Parents, Teachers, Superintendents and Trustees of Common Schools, Farmers, Mechanics. land all. indeed. who have any desire to increase their store of useful information on the subiects embraced in these volumes, are earnestly entreated to examine this work before they throw away theirl Imoney on the trash, or even worse than trash, that is now so rapidly inundating the country.
From among the numerous recommendatory notices which the publishers received during the proigress of publication, we have only room to give the following: From D. MEREDITH REESE, A. M., M. D., Superin. The volumes of “The Farmers' Library" andil
tendent of Common Schools in the City and Coun- "Journal of Agriculture" I shall also take inuch!
ty of New York. New-YORK, Oct. 20, 1846. pleasure in recommending. In their publication GREELEY & McELRATH:
you have rendered a grateful service to a large GENTLEMEN: I have examined the Popular Lec- class of your fellow-citizens, who will read them Itures of Dr. Lardner on Science and Art, with much with profit and be thankful. satisfaction, and take pleasure in expressing the very truly yours,
TRA MAYHEW, opinion that you are doing a valuable service to the
Superintendens 'ublic Instruction, Ipeople of our common country by their publication,
ROCHESTER, Nov. 2, 1845. and especially by issuing them at so cheap a rate. DEAR SIR: I perused Dr. Lardner's Lectures on To popularize Science and cheapen Knowledge,ls
viedge, Science and Art, as they appeared in numbers pubmust be regarded by the philanthropist as worthy lished by Greeley & McElrath, with much profil lof the mightiest minds of the age, and to be suc-land
be auc and satisfaction. cessful in such efforts, constitutes their authors public benefactors. These Lectures of Dr. Lardner. It has been a source both of complaint and regret: lare addressed to the common mind, and though that information upon scientific subjects was only Itreading upon the loftiest of the Natural Sciences, to be obtained through abstruse treatises little adapt ! are so plain and practical, so simple and attractive, ed to common apprehension. This, to & great exUthat all who can read may readily profit by their tent, had closed the popular mind to the attainment i instructions. The clear and familiar illustrations of such information, and prevented the knowledgeil and diagra s, waich und in every department, of scientific truths from becoming common and Jare skillfully adapted the apprehension of youth, general. who should be anco Traged everywhere to read and I think Dr. Lardner has in these Lectures, to the study them and thus promote their own happiness extent of the subjects embraced in them, obvisted and use iness.
this evil. He has been peculiarly happy in comIorio wish that they were found in every School)municating information in clear and perspicuous Library to which their scientific accuracy and nu-l language, and by the aid of familiar illustrations merous moral reflections upon the wonderful works presented his subjects in a manner both attrectivel of God should be esteemed no small commendation. and each comprehended. In short se 2 been But they should be found in every workshop in the emiteriicces crul in these Lectures in popular Hand: for Science and Art are here exhibited in izing
Kuowledge. These volumes contain their true relations; and the working men of our a vast u ut of information, presented in an I country would find here both entertainment and agreeable inan and they are peculiarly proper linstruction, calculated to improve alike their in- for Distric! So Libraries, and indeed for every! tellects and their morals.
D. M. REESE. place where they will reach that popular mind STATE OF MICHIGAN.
which they are so well calculated to enlighten and Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, improve. Tours respectfully,
MONROE, May 23, 1847 GREELEY & MCELRATH-Gentlemen :... Von efforts, in connection with those of Dr. Lardrot,
evo knof no pubcation in this department preparing so complete an edition of his pop
Jof Literature which h
mucceeded so well in strip and attractive Lectures on Science and Art, which in an
ping an unvise and erudite philology from a vest may be comprehended by ordinary minds, and
mine of me..ial wealth, and exhibiting its attracwhich are, nevertheless, replete with instruction,
tions to the delighted gaze of the 'unletterad hind, are beyond praise. I shall take great pleasure in as we
as well as to the student of Nature's manifold my communicating my official recommendation of|teries. these invaluable Lectures to every Board of Officers “We would be glad to see these interesting die charged with the purchase of Township and School sertations in cyery family, (and we think their District Libraries through the State. I hope they cheapness renders them easily accessible to meet may reach not only every Town and School District because there we & solidity of instter and a vigor of this State, but that they may be extensively cir- style about them, whion will render them as is culated and read throughout our wide-spread coun-structive and impressive to succeeding generations try.
as to the present."
are soll who como se
and up shensio to rea
untry, would lculated to improve. M. REESE. which they are so respectfully; WHITTLESEY,
LEY & MCEL.RATih home or
ping too une is anders th, and the binleiterede hingston
Trauma omy official recoboard of officers certations in crore family accessible to meet
of Reps., U. S.......23 Pa
Abbreviations used.............81 Fillmore, Millard..........12, 22 | New Jersey......8, 22, 23, 24, Alabaina..........8, 22, 23, 24, 57 Finances...............29, 30, 52 New Mexico...............8 Arkansas.......
24 Florida....... ........8, 22, 23, 24 New York.....8, 11, 22, 23, 2,5 Army, the U. S........
33 Free Soil...................... 13 New York Custom-house... 31 Army Expenditures.34, 36, 37, 52 French Revolution............16 North Carolina...8, 22, 23, 25, Army (U. S.) Promotions.....36 Germany, Revolutions in......17 Offices [See Salaries. Army (C. S.) Pay of.......33, 36 Georgia ..........8, 22, 23, 24, 57 Ohio .............8, 22, 23, Artillery Regiments...........35 Governors of States....
Oregon..................8, Astronomical Calculations.....1 Government, U. S......
Patent Office........... Barnburners..................11 House of Reps., U. S......22, 24 Paymasters............ Biruei. J G., votes for.....53 &c Hunkers.......
Pennsylvania.....8, 22, Brown, Gov'r. votes for, 1848. 59 Illinois ...........8, 22, 62 | Plaquemines, La ............. Buffalo Convention, 1848......14| Indian Department.....
Polk. Jas. K , votes for.....53, Cabinet, Mr. Polk's...........23 | Indian War........
.52 Population Estimates..........! Calendar, &c.................2-7 | Indiana...........8,
61 Postage, Cheap.......... California....... ........8, 42, 44 Infantry Regiments...
.35 Postage Rates................. California, Route to..See Cover Interest, Rates of...... ..8 PM's and Clerks' Incomes.. Capitals of States..............8 Iowa......
24 Post-Office Department ....41,52 Cass, Lewis, votes for.....53, &c Ireland, Troubles in...
19 Presidential Election Re. Clay, Henry, votes for.....53, &c Judiciary, cost of U.S. ...31, 32 turns, 1844, 1848, &c .. 53-64 Coast Survey..................28 Kentucky ........8, 22, 2 59 Property, Real and Personal, Congress Dist Elections...53,&c Land Office, the Public
Value of........ Congress, Thirty-first.......
Lands, &c................28, 51 Printers, Payments to Public..56 Congress, Thirtieth.
3 Land Reform Votes.... 54 Railroads, &c...... ......... Congress, Officers and Ex
30 Revenues of U.S.... 29, 30, 42, 2 penses of....................26 Louisiana ........8, 22, 23, 24, 58 Rhode Island......8, 22, 23, 2, Congress, Money votes
Maine.............8, 22, 23
.......8, 22, 23, 24, 53 Russian Embassy..... of..............30, 33 36, 37, 39 Manly, Gov'r, votes for, 1818..56 Salaries...23, 26-34, 38, 39, 41, 42 Congress, Wages and Mile Marshals, U. S......
Santa Anna's Passport........4 age of....................23-25 Maryland.........8, 22, 23, 24, 55 Senate of U.S., Members, Connecticut.......8, 22, 23, 24, 53 Massachusetts....8, 22, 23, 24, 53 Mileage, Native States, Consuls Abroad...... ..26 Mexican Boundary......
Wages, &c............... Courts Martial-Flogging.....40 :.:.40 Mexican Claims. ;
Sicily, Revolution in....... Crittenden, Gov, votes for 1848.60 Mexico, Cassius M. Clay on...44 South Carolina....8, 22, 23, 2,38 Customs Revenue, Officers, Mexico, War with............44 State Department............. Tucomes, &c..........2
Mexico, future War Rules....49 Supreme Court, U. S......... Debt of the U.S...
Mexico, Treaty with..........45 Taylor, General.....12, 22, Debts, State........
.8 Michigan .........8, 22, 23, 24, 63 Do. votes for,.......... Defaulters...........
| Mileage of Congressmen, &c..23 Telegraph, Electric....... Delaware ........8, 22, 55 Military Expenditures.....33-37 Tennessee........8, 22, 24, 25, District Attornies, U. S. 32 Military Pensions............ 33 Territory of the U. S...... District Judges, U. S..........31 Ministers Abroad.............26 Texas.............8, 22, 24, 25, District of Columbia.......30, 32 Mints ......
.....30 Treasury Department.........21
Treasury Economy and Retrenchment..31 Missions, Foreign, Cost of.....27 | Van Buren, Martin, votes Election of '848 ...............9 Mississippi ..........8, 22, 24, 58 for, 1840 & '48...... Election of Postmasters by Missouri .........8, 22, 23, 24, 62 Vermont..........8, 22, 24, 25,
the People ...... ........41 Naval Bureaus and Officers...38 Vessels of War..... Elections, Presidential, &c.53-64 Naval Expenditures.......38, 39 Virginia..........8 22, Elections, State, when held ...8 Naval Pensions............... 39 War Department.......... Electro-Chemical Telegraph..51 Naval Rank and Service. .....40/West Point Academy... Engineer Department.........34 Naval Rewards and Punish- Whig Convention, 1848. Europe in 1848....... .......15 ments........
........40 Wilmot Proviso.......... Expenditure, Wasteful.. 28, 29, 31 Navy. The..
.37 Wisconsin..... Exports and Imports..........52 New Hampshire...8, 22, 23, 25, 53 / Wright, Silas..
THE ROAD TO CALIFORNIA. Those who have the means, and can secure at If the writer wese starting before March, and New-York a passage in the steamship from Pana- not sure of a passage from Panamá, he would má to San Francisco, will find that mode of probably take ship to Vera Cruz, and thence Irak. travel the quickest and best; they will be in el over land, by way of Mexico (City) to Maza! the gold region in 30 or 40 days. The dis- lan or some point on the Pacific, whence passage tances are, New York to Chagres, 2,860 miles; I could be got; and if such could not be loud, thence to Panamá, 60; Panamá to San Francisco, would keep on by land to California. With two 3,600 miles; thence to the gold country 80 to 150 | or three hundred Mexican dollars. (gold will a Expense, for best accommodations, $400; second swer.) we believe the trip to San Francisco class passengers, $200 Sailing vessels, in the could be made over this route in 60 or 70 daye, Atlantic ports, charge $75 down to $30, for a pas- and not unpleasantly. Not less than 20 nor more sage, made in 18 or 20 days, to Chagres, 60 miles than 80 should travel together. They must pur from Panamá, in 9° N. latitude. The length of chase hardy horses or mules, at Vera Cruz or the passage round South America is 18,000 miles, ther West, as speed or economy shall dictale. lasts about six months, and is very tedious, even On Dec 18, 1848, Mr. Greeley moved in Congress to cabin passengers, who pay about $300 in first “ That the Secretary of the Navy be requested to class ships, board included. The two land routes consider and report upon the expediency of ten through our own territory-one by Missouri and porarily employing the whole or some portion the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, and the the national vessels now on the Pacific station, other by Sante Fé and the river Gila-are long, the transportation, at moderate rates, of America tedious, not without perils, and exposed to priva- citizens and their effects, from Panamá and the tions; yet those who start early, well mounted Mexican ports on the Pacific to San Francisco." and provided, will go through this way; and for It is as lawful to convey citizens in a national ship persons who start from points West of the Alleg- \from an unhealthy to a healthy climate, as to trade hanies, these are probably as good routes as any. port food to a foreign land suffering from famiine.
1 8 4 9.
CALCULATIONS FOR THE YEAR 1849.
CUSTOMARY NOTES. Venus will be Evening Star until May 12, then Morning Star until March 2, 1850. The Moon will run highest this year about the 7th degree of Cancer, and lowest about the 7th degree of Capricorn. Latitude of Herschel about 36' south this year. Longitude of the Moon's Ascending Node in the middle of this year, 5 signs, 6 degrees; or 166o. Mean obliquity of the Ecliptic in the middle of this year, 23° 27' 32.21. True obliquity at the same time, 23° 27' 23.2''. CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. MOVABLE FEASTS.
EQUINOXES AND SOLSTICES. | Dominical Letter................G Easter Sunday ..
... April 81
D. H. M. Golden Number, or Lunar Cycle..7 Rogation Sunday..........May 13 Vernal Equinox.... March 200 17 evening. Epact, or Moon's age, Jan. 1......6 Ascension Day..
May 17 Summer Solstice.... June 21 9 12 morning. Solar Cycle.......
......10 Whit Sunday, (Pentecost,). May 27 Autumnal Equinox.. Sept. 22 11 7 evening. Romon Indiction.... ..... 7 Trinity Sunday ... ........June 3 Winter Solstice.....Dec. 21 4 46 evening. Jutian Period.................6,662 Advent Sunday............Dec. 21
ECLIPSES IN THE YEAR 1849. There will be four Eclipses this year: two of the Sun,
Middle End MagniHand two of the Moon.
Names of the Moon Eclipse of of tude at 1. The Sun will be eclipsed on the 22d of February, at| PRINCIPAL | Rises. begin. Eclipse. Eclipse. rising. the time of the New Moon, in the evening, invisible. This CITIES.
H.M. H. M. H M . H. M. Digits. Eclipse will be visible in the eastern part of Asia, in the North Pacific Ocean, and in Russian America. It will be Boston .......
6 41 8 11 941 central and annular on the meridian in longitude 153° 9' | New York ....
6 29 7 59 9 29 Ileast froin Greenwich, and latitude 41° 22' north.
6 24 7 54 9 24 2. There will be an Eclipse of the Moon on Thursday, Baltimore...
6 18 7 48 9 18 March 8, in the evening, visible and chiefly visible in the Washington ..
7 47 9 17 United States, as follows:-(See table.) Magnitude at mid-Richmond..
9 15 Idle of the Eclipse, 8.86 digits on the Moon's southern limb. Rochester ....
9 14 I! 3. The Sun will be eclipsed at the time of New Moon on Raleigh......
9 10 the 18th of August, in the morning, (17th, in the evening, Charleston
95 in the Western States,) invisible. This Eclipse will be Cleveland...
5 59 7 29 8 89 visible in the greater part of the Indian Ocean, in the south-Detroit....... 6 63 5 53 7 23
8 53 eastern part of Africa, in Madagascar, and in the southern Milledgeville.. 5 57 Invisible 7 22 8 52 0.76 parts of Australia. It will be central and total on the me- Lexington .... 5 55
1.07 Iridian in longitude 91° east from Greenwich, and latitude Cincinnati .... 5 55
1.1 36° 8' south.
Indianapolis .. 6 54
2.03 14. There will be an Eclipse of the Moon on Sunday, Sep- Nashville... 5 56
7 8 8 38
2.73 tember 2, at the time of Full Moon, (A. M. in the Valley of Chicago..... 5 54
8 34 2.84 the Mississippi, but on the Atlantic declivity P. M.) invig-Mobile... 6 59
7 2 8 32 3.84 ible. It will therefore be visible in the opposite hemi. St. Louis ..... 5 55
6 57 8 27 4.13 Usphere. Magnitude, 7.09 digits on the Moon's northern New Orleans. 5 59
6 56 8 25 4.9 umb.
Austin, Texas. 6 0
6 24 7 54